How to and when to plant grapes
Growing grapes, gardeners often encounter the harmful effects of external factors on plant health, and therefore resort to grafting bushes. This procedure will not only save the shoots, but will also help to improve the productivity and fertility of the stands. More on vaccination of this culture - later in the article.
Why plant grapes?
Grape vaccination should be used in such cases:
- variety replacement;
- restoration of the bush;
- prevention of susceptibility to the negative impact of the external environment, as well as pests;
- creation of family bushes.
The main advantage of grafting is the reconstruction of a damaged or old plant, which eliminates the uprooting of the bush completely. The remaining land for 3 years will be unsuitable for planting a new bush, as it is depleted and poor in nutrients.
Did you know? In terms of nutrient content, with the exception of fats, grapes are as close to milk as possible
In addition, this procedure allows you to quickly propagate valuable varieties without the high cost of time and resources. Several grape varieties, simultaneously growing on the site, will not only please the eye with the beauty of the plantings, but also save space in the garden.
Grafting cuttings must be selected in October-November, before the onset of frost. For the procedure itself, an important condition is considered to be abundant discharge of the apiary, which occurs at the beginning of the swelling of the kidneys. It is important to take into account the temperature: the optimal indicator for good intergrowth is at +15 ... + 35 ° С.
The basic rules of the procedure
The fusion of the scion (grafted part) and the stock (of the plant to which the vaccination is made) occurs due to the formation of new cells between the fused parts of the vine.
In order for the vaccination to be successful, it is important to adhere to a number of recommendations:
- use stocks resistant to local diseases and frosts;
- pick plants with the same growth rate;
- harvest the scion in the fall and store in a cold place (cellar, refrigerator);
- use a very sharp knife;
- cut the stalk away from you, avoiding the formation of a hollow;
- cut the rootstock vine perpendicular to the direction of growth;
- the length of the cut and the depth of cut on the grafted parts should be the same.
It will also be useful for you to learn how to properly care for grapes in summer and autumn.
Starting the procedure, you should prepare the appropriate inventory, as well as stock and scion. The preparation stage is quite important and the success of subsequent actions depends on it.
For grafting grapes you will need such tools:
- splitting knife;
- knife (garden and grafting).
Important! All cutting items used for grafting must be very sharp so that the cuts are perfectly even.
In addition to cutting equipment, you must have:
- plastic film and twine for tying the vaccination site;
- towel for wiping tools and hands.
For this purpose, adult bushes older than 2 years old are used. Plants should be prepared right before the vaccination - exactly how it depends on the chosen method. More detailed instructions are given below.
Scion cuttings must be harvested in the fall, before the cold. You should choose a healthy prolific plant and cut off a 10-12-centimeter chubuki with 2-3 buds with a sharp knife. The cutting angle should be 45 ° and up to 3 cm long, the underside should be perfectly flat.
The material must be selected even and intact, and extreme sections of the vine cannot be taken.
After cutting, the cuttings must be disinfected with potassium permanganate, immersing them for 30 seconds in the solution. Then dry, wrap in a film and place in a cool place with a temperature not exceeding + 5 ° С.
Before use, it is important to allow the workpieces to acclimatize, for this they should be removed in advance and left at room temperature for a day.
Also learn how to water the grapes correctly and how often.
Ways and step by step instructions
Another important point of a successful vaccination: the correct mechanics of its implementation are different for each existing method.
Into the cleavage
This type of vaccination is used for:
- varietal updates;
- increase plant resistance to external factors.
Vaccination is carried out during the rest period of grapes, which falls on the spring season (second half of March). The main advantages of this method are the simplicity and ease of the event, which does not require any preparation.
- Prepare stock and scion . At the first, cut down the skeletal branches, leaving 10 to 30 cm from the trunk. In the remaining processes, make a longitudinal incision up to 5 cm deep. On the second component, make a wedge-shaped flat section 3-5 cm long, leaving up to 5 kidneys on top. It is important not to touch the cutting site with your hands in order to avoid infection of the plant. Preparation should begin with the stock, blocking the sun with your back in order to protect the cut from drying out.
- To plant a plant . To do this, enter the scion wedge in the stock, leaving a few millimeters of cut on top. The operation takes no more than 30 seconds, since the surfaces can oxidize and dry out, which will negatively affect the outcome.
- Harness and tie . The place of vaccination is tied with a film, electrical tape, rubber, polyvinyl chloride oil is ideal. To cover the open places with a garden var, which will protect the cuttings from drying out and precipitation.
This differs from the previous method in that the split is not done over the entire width of the cut, but only from one edge.
- Cut the stalk with 2-3 kidneys, sharpen the end in the form of a pyramid, leaving a bark on one side of the scion.
- Insert it into the half-split so that the wood layers of the grafted parts coincide.
- Wrap the place of vaccination with twine and spud with earth.
It is carried out in the summer when 10-15 internodes will grow on the scion. This moment falls on June.
- obtaining cuttings for further cultivation;
- grafting a bush with another variety.
The execution technique is as follows:
- Rootstock free from stepsons and leaves.
- With a scion, cut a place with a kidney and tissue on the sides of it, about 2 cm long.
- Make a similar cut on the stock, put a scion on it.
- Bandage the joint without covering the kidney.
End to end
The mechanics are as follows:
- Trim the trunk of the bush for 2-3 internodes, clear of the ground.
- Pick up the scion of the same diameter as the stock.
- Trim the scion 2 cm above and below the eye.
- Prepare a thin peg from wood and fasten them with stock and scion. Insert the peg to the same depth
- Wrap the joint with cotton wool moistened with potassium permanganate, and cover the bush with earth.
The optimal deadline for the procedure is in the spring, or rather, in May.
Thanks to this method, 2 varieties can be planted simultaneously on 1 bush.
The procedure is as follows:
- Dig a bush 10 cm deep and clear the trunk of soil and old bark.
- On top of the root, select the internodes and cut off the aerial part of the plant.
- In the prepared stock, make several slots up to 5 cm deep, having previously pulled the trunk with twine.
- Insert the scion with the points in the recesses so that the wood layers coincide.
- To cover up places of inoculations with plasticine and to fill up with the earth.
This method is quite easy and fast, and survival rate is high.
Technique of execution:
- Remove the prefabricated scion from the storage place and allow it to acclimatize.
- Peel the cuttings half a centimeter from the bark.
- Choose a drill with a diameter equal to the size of the scion, disinfect with a solution of potassium permanganate.
- In the rootstock trunk, make a hole 5 mm deep and place the prepared graft in it.
Further grape care
Proper follow-up care is another component of successful plant grafting.
To keep the grapes healthy, the following is recommended:
- Carry out airing of the seedling, in other words, loosening the soil around it.
- After a month, cut off the upper young roots, having previously cleared them from the ground. This procedure is designed to eliminate the risk of a single germination. After trimming, pour the earth back.
- Secure the long shoots to the supports so as not to disturb the place of adhesion.
- Fertilize only poor soil, but not more than 3 times.
- Watering is done once a week until the beginning of the second half of the summer, and then stop.
Common Beginner Mistakes
In this case, experience and a responsible approach to business are important, although no one is safe from mistakes.
Note a number of common mistakes encountered by amateur gardeners:
- Incompatibility of cuttings . For grafting, it is important to choose a material with the same strength, growth activity and maturity.
- Deep cleavage . With a deep immersion of the cuttings in the scion, a lot of space is formed for moisture to enter, which has a detrimental effect on the growth process.
- Unsuitable tool . The use of blunt knives leads to the formation of roughness on the cut, which does not allow parts to grow together.
- Violation of storage conditions . Dry cuttings do not take root, and in order to avoid this, the slice must be dipped in paraffin or wrapped with a film before sending the material for storage.
Follow the guidelines above and upgrade your garden.
Network user reviews
First of all, I advise you to purchase new cuttings and plant "black in green." Of the existing ones - to lay a new vineyard or at least make seedlings for the fall - there you will figure out what to do with them. Green growth from those that have blossomed in the water is extremely difficult (I’m not writing - it’s impossible, suddenly you are a vaccination master) to vaccinate: it is very thin and fragile. And the time for vaccination (in green shoots) is allowed up to the end of June maximum. If it is not possible to purchase new ones, then get the last crop from old bushes, figure out how to re-grow, and in the autumn cut several well-ripened buds from your seedlings that are now green.
On the gazebo, instill Arched and Galbena. They are the most frost-resistant. Compose the rest according to the ripening period and type of flower. Igor V. Zaika //forum.vinograd.info/showpost.php?s=7cf8b6f02ddbbcb74c7206604fd09ff8&p=2418&postcount=4