How and how to process potatoes
Potatoes are one of the main crops grown in our latitudes. A large and high-quality crop largely depends on preventive measures taken by farmers or summer residents.
Features of processing potatoes
Potatoes are invaded by pests and diseases throughout the growing period. The danger of spoiling the crop or seed material during storage during the winter does not go away. Therefore, the treatment begins with the preparation of the site, cleaning of weeds and seeds, and ends with the moment of laying in the cellar for the winter.
Did you know? Potatoes are not deprived of the attention of the Guinness Book of Records. A Lebanese farmer set a record by growing a vegetable weighing more than 11 kg.
Before landing against diseases and pests
During pre-sowing treatment, the site must be thoroughly cleaned of plant residues. In parts of plants that remain in the soil for the winter, spores of diseases and pest larvae winter well. Therefore, using a walk-behind tractor, the soil is deeply dug to saturate with oxygen, to loosen and clean.
To protect seeds from diseases and pests, tubers are pickled in various solutions. Seeds, among other things, harden, because the temperature drop in the spring can provoke a disease of young plantings.
Earlier, treatment during flowering threatened the health of the consumer of vegetables, but now, thanks to science, there are drugs of biological origin that are absolutely safe for people, animals and insects. With the prevalence of pests or the appearance of the disease, treatment is certainly necessary, since the destruction of ground green will inhibit the development of tubers. In addition, damaged parts of the plant are exposed to infections and fungi.
To increase yield
To increase the yield, seeds are treated with growth stimulants. Such prevention, in addition to activating the growth and development of culture, additionally protects against pests and diseases. Prevention allows you to accelerate the germination of plants, survive temperature extremes during return frosts. Application of the procedure allows to increase the yield by 20–50%.
Important! Additionally, plants are treated with boric acid throughout the season, which protects plantings from late blight and nourishes future tubers.
In the fall, after harvesting, the process of landscaping the seed material is carried out. The procedure allows you to:
- accelerate the process of vegetation;
- harden from disease;
- protect from rodents during storage.
Before storage for the winter
After digging, the tubers should lie in the furrows to dry. After 3-4 hours, the crop can be transferred to the cellar for storage. If the harvest was carried out after heavy rainfall on moist soil, it is advisable to first wash the potatoes, and then dry and put them in storage. After the washing procedure, it will be easier to detect potatoes spoiled by the cultivator or a shovel and eaten by the pest.
We recommend that you learn how to store potatoes in the cellar and on the balcony.
After drying, potatoes are additionally processed by two methods, depending on the purpose of the tubers:
- scalding with boiling water - for potatoes intended for food, germination is reduced;
- spraying - with copper sulfate, after processing it is impossible to eat.
Means for processing and disinfecting potatoes
Today there is a large selection of various means to protect the vegetable crop from insects or various diseases. There are aggressive drugs that can not be used during the formation of tubers. There are biological agents and folk methods that help during the flowering or fruiting of plants.
Did you know? During the Gold Rush in Alaska at the end of the 19th century, prospectors used potatoes as a cure for scurvy. This put the vegetable in a number of expensive products.
The following are the means used to process both seed and potato bushes. Preparations and their action:
- Taboo. Used for seed and soil dressing. For the solution, 10 ml of the suspension is diluted in 1.4 l of water (for seeds), 4 ml / 10 l of water to disinfect the soil on the bed.
- Potassium permanganate. Soaking tubers before planting, for a solution of 1 g / 8 l of water, soak for 40 minutes.
- Copper sulfate. For 10 l of water, 10 g of copper sulfate is enough, the seeds are disinfected in the solution.
- Actara. The drug from the Colorado potato beetle, aphids, wireworms. For spraying 2 g / 10 l of water, the treatment is carried out before flowering, repeat after flowering.
- Fitoverm is a biological product . It can be used during flowering in the presence of aphids, flies, Colorado potato beetle. Proportions of 10 ml / 10 l of water, spraying on a leaf and soil.
- Prestige. Spraying is carried out before planting in the soil, 100 ml of the drug is consumed per 1 liter of water. After spraying the tubers need to be dried.
- Boric acid. Apply when signs of scab on the greens appear. 6 g of the product are diluted in 10 liters of water, 10 m² are sprayed.
- Bactofit is a biological fungicide. They are used to treat tubers, spraying bushes from late blight, fusarium and rot. It can be used throughout the growing season. The solution is prepared in a proportion of 20 ml / 10 l of water, sprayed on a sheet.
Find out which crops to plant after potatoes.
Alternative methods are mainly infusions or decoctions of plants that destroy fungal spores or repel insects. The most effective of them include the following:
- wood ash - used in dry form (dusting) and in aqueous solution (100 g / 8 l of water). The tool, in addition to disinfecting, treating and repelling insects, is used as a source of potassium;
- garlic infusion - from late blight and pests. Pour 200 ml of water into foliage or teeth of 150 g, leave for 24 hours, then bring the volume up to 10 l, spray the affected bushes;
- marigold infusion - from the Colorado potato beetle, flies, aphids, weevils, wireworms: 500 g of the crushed plant is poured with 10 l of water, insisted for 2 days, sprayed on the leaf and soil;
- whey - from late blight. Diluted with water 1: 1, you can spray at any time as needed.
When using chemicals, it is imperative to comply with the norm and the treatment scheme of garden crops. Other rules:
- Before working with chemicals, wear protective equipment: gloves, glasses and a mask.
- Work is carried out in dry and calm weather.
- During contact with chemistry, do not eat, smoke.
- At the end of the work, you should take a shower.
- All containers containing chemicals must be disposed of.
Some growers make mistakes when preparing tubers for planting and preventing adult plants. Some tips from experienced farmers:
- When processing tubers, two preparations of the same effect should not be combined.
- From the Colorado potato beetle, it is advisable to carry out the treatment throughout the season, starting with tubers.
- From pests, you can plant repellent plants in the aisles.
- For treatments for diseases, it is recommended to use drugs with a wide spectrum of action.
- Between manipulations with chemicals, you can use a vegetable infusion or serum to feed and recover from an aggressive remedy.
It does not matter what means are used to prevent potato seeds or shrubs from diseases and insects. The significance is that after applying chemical, biological or folk remedies, the farmer collects a large and tasty crop.