Gymnocalycium: a description of a houseplant and home care
Cacti attract the attention of many gardeners. They are valued for their unusual appearance and unpretentiousness in care. How hymnocalicium is bred - a plant from the Cactus family - will be discussed in this review.
Cactus hymnocalicium is considered to be of the same genus of succulent plants. His homeland is South America. In the wild, a flower grows in groups or alone. It is quite common in mountainous areas, it can grow at an altitude of 1000 m above sea level.
Representatives of the genus form a fleshy flattened stalk in the form of a ball 4–15 cm across and 2–8 cm high. It has about 20 ribs, many humps and closely spaced, branched spines 1.5–3.5 cm long The stem is painted green with a touch of gray or brown. Varieties with red and yellow stems are also bred. Such succulents are usually grafted on green cacti, forming a mix.
Did you know? The fact that cacti protect the body from radiation coming from a computer monitor is a myth. There is not a single scientific study that would confirm such a unique effect of the plant.
Starting from the age of 2-3, the succulent plant produces bare buds and white, gray, yellow, red flowers, shaped like funnels. In diameter, depending on the species and variety, they reach 3–10 cm. Usually, flowers are located at the apex. Flowering lasts a long time - from April to November. Flowers bloom slowly - in the blossomed state can stay up to 10 days. After flowering, oval-shaped fruits of gray-green color with a diameter of 2 cm and a length of 4 cm appear. According to data from various sources, the number of species of hymnocalycium is from 50 to 80. Among flower growers, you can find simpler names for this plant - “holocaechen”, “naked a cup".
In room conditions, the following varieties are grown:
- small color;
- Baldianum (Balda);
Conditions of detention
Since the hymnocalycium is a native of warm countries, at home it is necessary to create a certain microclimate for it: a warm room, where there is a lot of sunlight. Recommended temperature of the plant is + 20 ° C – 24 ° C. Since October, to comfortably transfer the plant to a dormant state, the temperature is gradually reduced to + 15 ° C – 18 ° C. Succulents can actively grow at +5. Moisture prefers low humidity - up to 50%.
Important! The soil purchased in the store does not require pre-treatment before planting. It is necessary to disinfect the cooked one yourself - calcine in the oven or pour with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Despite the fact that he needs good lighting, growing on a windowsill will require shading from direct sunlight. In winter, additional lighting is needed. Best of all, the flower will feel in a light, loose soil substrate, unsaturated with organic elements. It can be a mixture of clay soil, sand, peat, charcoal, expanded clay. The optimum level of acidity is 5–6 pH. Suitable purchased substrate designed for cacti.
Gimnokalitsium - unpretentious plant. But stable growth, flowering and maximum decorativeness can be achieved by adhering to care recommendations. As a rule, among the tips on how to care for the hymnocalycium are stable procedures: watering, top dressing, transplantation.
For the cultivation of succulents, a well-lit window sill is suitable. It is advisable in the future not to move the flower to another place. In the summer, it can be transferred to fresh air - a balcony or a loggia. The choice of pot will depend on the variety grown. Most representatives of the genus of hymnocalyciums require a shallow flower pot - a little larger in size than the root system.
Watering and fertilizer
There are no special watering requirements for a cactus. It is watered in the same way as most indoor crops - as the top soil layer dries up. To moisten the soil, they use at least 2 days old, filtered or rain water at room temperature. You can’t water it with hard cold water from the tap, this can provoke the development of fungal diseases.
In winter, watering is limited to a minimum. The reduction is carried out gradually. Starting in March, they are also gradually returning to the normal irrigation regime. Spraying and water procedures, even on hot days, are not required for the cactus.
Important! It is necessary to ensure that the watering of the succulent is moderate. With excessive overmoistening, the root can rot and separate from the stem at the hymnocalycium.
For good growth and development of the hymnocalycium, fertilizer is required. The flower is fed from May to August. The frequency of top dressing is 1 time in 14-21 days. Ready-made fertilizers designed specifically for cactus plants are purchased for this procedure. Application is made in accordance with the standards specified in the attached instructions. In the dormant period - from October to March - any feeding is prohibited. This will negatively affect the development of the plant and its ability to accumulate nutrients during the dormant period.
It is necessary to transplant a flower in the spring. Young plants are subject to annual transplantation into more spacious containers. Mature cacti are transplanted as needed. To transplant the plant, prepare a larger container and substrate. Succulents are abundantly watered so that an earthen lump easily leaves the pot. Then they remove it, clean the roots and examine them for affected areas.
If necessary, the roots are trimmed and treated with charcoal. A layer of drainage is poured onto the bottom of the new pot. Then a layer of soil is poured. Succulents are set in the center of the pot, evenly spreading the roots. Sprinkled with earth. After planting in a pot carry out abundant watering.
Did you know? Gymnocalycium is advised to grow people who find it difficult to restrain anger and irritation. It is believed that succulent absorbs negative emotions.
To get beautiful colorful mixes, chlorophyll-free succulents can be grafted. For stock, the trihedral hylocereus is most often taken, as well as eriocereus or trichocereus. For ordinary forms, vaccination will be required only in case of a serious illness or condition of the plant on the verge of death.
Vaccination technology is as follows:
- Use a sharp, sanitized knife to cut the scion and stock.
- Join slices.
- Put on an elastic band or dressing.
- To sustain a week.
- Remove the bandage.
Video: technology for performing vaccinations of the hymnocalicium
Gymnocalycium propagates in 2 ways:
- Side layering.
Planting seeds is difficult and time-consuming. Not all flower growers are successful in this procedure. But plants grown from seeds are distinguished by endurance and rapid growth. This procedure can be done at any time of the year. Buy a substrate intended for cacti. It is moistened and then seeds are placed to a shallow depth.
Important! Work with chemicals at home should be done in a well-ventilated area with protected hands and face. During treatments it is forbidden to drink, eat and smoke.
After the formation of side layers, they are carefully separated. Then for 24 hours they are taken to a room with low humidity for drying. Now the cuttings are planted in a moist substrate for rooting, and after the appearance of the roots - in a small container. Since rooting in succulents is usually fast, planting immediately in a pot is possible. If the layering has roots, then reproduction is best done simultaneously with the transplantation of the mother plant.
Video: propagation of the hymnocalicium by side layers
Pest and Disease Control
If the flower is not properly looked after, it may be susceptible to attack by various diseases or harmful insects. Of the diseases most often called stem and root rot. The first is manifested by the formation of softened brown spots on the lower part of the stem. They need to be removed and treated with the Carbendazim preparation. The other, root, can be suspected if the flower stopped growing and did not release buds, or noticed during transplantation.
Sick roots need to be trimmed, healthy ones should be washed with hot water, the places of cuts should be treated with activated charcoal, fungicide, allowed for indoor plants. Then the roots are dried during the day and transplanted into a new pot with new soil.
Of the parasites on the succulents can settle:
- spider mite;
- scale shield.
The mealybug leaves a characteristic symptom - white loose discharge, similar to cotton wool. They fight it with soap wipes, sprinkles with a solution of green soap, infusions of tobacco, garlic, a decoction of cyclamen, tincture of calendula, alcohol, drugs "Aktara", "Biotlin", "Calypso", "Confidor", "Fitoverm".
The presence of a web on spines and stems, as well as small red dots, will tell you that the plant was chosen by a tick. This parasite loves heat and dryness. To get rid of it, you need to wipe the plant with a soapy solution. In case of severe infection, treatments with Fitoverm, Bi-58, Karate, Iskra-M, Actellik are needed.
The shield is easy to spot. This is a small insect covered with a hard shell. It feeds on the flower juices. The first symptoms of the appearance of the scale are sticky fluid on the trunk. Destroy it mechanically - scraping with a brush. Acetic wipes are also effective, rubbing with tincture of garlic, red pepper. In case of severe infection, they resort to chemical treatment using Fitoverm, Actellik, Metafos.
Find out how and how to feed indoor plants at home.
In addition to diseases and pests, when growing plants, there are other problems:
- Stunting. Reasons: insufficient watering in the summer and excessive - in the winter. The recommended mode of moisturizing should be established.
- The bottom of the stalk wrinkled. It is observed with waterlogging. Watering needs to be reduced.
- Hard spots on the stem. There may be several reasons: pest damage, exposure to cold temperatures, mechanical damage. It is necessary to establish the cause and eliminate it.
- Stretching the stem. Occurs at high temperatures in winter and lack of lighting in summer. To fix the problem, you need to move the flower pot to a suitable place with the recommended parameters.