Growing radishes in a greenhouse in winter
Growing radishes in a greenhouse is not particularly difficult, but in order to obtain a quality crop, it is worth studying the information on suitable varieties and the features of their cultivation. On how to grow radishes in a greenhouse, read below.
The origin and description of the culture
In Russia, radish appeared in the XVIII century. The vegetable was introduced by Peter I. He was so fond of the inhabitants of the country that breeders began to develop new varieties adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of the northern regions. The largest contribution to the development of new varieties was made by the Grachev family: at the world exhibition of 1878, held in Paris, their greenhouse variety received 1st place.
Did you know? The closest biological relatives of radish are not only radish and turnip, but also cabbage, as well as mustard.
If the plans include growing radishes in the winter, it is better to give preference to a polycarbonate greenhouse. This material has sufficient strength and is able to retain heat. For seasonal greenhouses, sheets of polycarbonate with a thickness of 5-10 mm are suitable, for year-round - 15 mm.
Basic requirements for the greenhouse:
- the presence of an elementary ventilation system;
- the ability to control temperature and humidity;
- Sufficient area for planting care;
- the ability to supply water;
- durability and strength of the materials used;
- the possibility of organizing additional lighting.
The best varieties of radishes for the greenhouse
For cultivation in greenhouse conditions, it is better to select early varieties of radishes - they are more resistant to temperature extremes and less demanding to care for.
The best varieties for the greenhouse:
- Ultra-early red - ripens in 20 days, not only root crops, but also leaves can be used in food.
- First - born - ripens in 18 days, is characterized by high productivity and resistance of fruits to cracking.
- Children's - ripens in 16 days, its fruits are juicier and have a sweet taste, with almost no spiciness.
- Alex - it takes 16-18 days to ripen, the variety is not prone to darting and lignification of the fetus.
Features of growing radishes in a greenhouse
Before planting radishes in a greenhouse, you need to not only choose the suitable variety, but also properly prepare it for sowing. The preparation of seeds for this procedure will vary depending on their type.
Dates of planting radishes in a greenhouse
When to plant radishes in a greenhouse depends on the availability of heating: if there is one, then you can sow seeds at any time of the year. If there is no possibility to heat the room, then planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse is carried out in March, when the temperature in it fluctuates during the day +15 ... + 18 ° С, and at night it reaches + 10 ° С. Radishes are sown in hotbeds of high-quality thick film at the end of March.
Seed selection and preparation
Today there are 4 types of radish seeds:
Seeds are processed by growth stimulants before sale and are in a protective shell. They do not need additional processing. Soaking such seeds will lead to the destruction of the protective layer, so they are sown dry.
This type of seed is also sown dry. They have already been treated with insecticides and fungicides, which makes them resistant to diseases and pests. Important! Hybrids do not retain their quality indicators in the second generation, therefore, self-collected seed for secondary sowing is not used.
This type of seed is in a shell of peat-mineral substance, providing additional protection and nutrition. Also, these seeds do not require additional processing before sowing.
They can be assembled on their own or bought in stores. Such seeds do not undergo additional processing during production, and therefore require preparation.
Preparation of soil for planting
Soil for planting is prepared ahead of time. In the autumn after harvesting, the upper 20 cm of soil is removed and replaced with a nutrient substrate, consisting of:
- garden soil.
- 50 g of superphosphate;
- 10 g of potassium salt.
Fertilizers introduced into the soil at the time of autumn-spring preparation are sufficient for the entire growing season of radishes. If you plan to grow the crop continuously, then before planting the next batch, it is better to fertilize the soil with a solution of manure (1:10) and treat it with Fitosporin (protection from pests, improving the quality of the soil).
Before planting seeds on the site make furrows at a distance of 7 cm from each other with a depth of 2 cm. Seed is placed at a distance of 3 cm from each other and cover with a layer of soil. Top spraying planting from the sprayer.
Features of radish care in greenhouses
After emergence, it is important to take care of the lighting. Radishes do not need too long daylight hours, 12 hours is enough. Abundant lighting is more important: if the room is quite light, then after 12 hours the radish must be pritenit.
Important! Strong shading for several days provokes the departure of radishes in the arrow.
Radishes need high soil moisture, otherwise the fruits will be bitter, and cavities will form quickly inside, which will significantly reduce the quality of the products. On average, irrigation is carried out every 3-4 days as the soil dries up. It is impossible to suppose the presence of root crops in dry land even for a couple of hours: their taste spoils it. However, there should also not be an excess of moisture, otherwise the root crops will begin to rot. Soil moisture should be maintained within 50-60%, air - 60-70%.
Before seedlings appear, the temperature in the greenhouse must be maintained within the range of +20 ... + 25 ° С. Then it is sharply reduced to + 6 ° C. From the moment of cotyledon sheet unfolding and until the appearance of the first present, the temperature is raised to +8 ... + 10 ° С. From the moment the first true leaf appears, a constant temperature indicator is set - +12 ... + 16 ° C. The temperature of the soil should not be lower than + 14 ° C, otherwise the root crops will freeze. Did you know? Radishes can be consumed not only raw. In France, a gourmet soup is cooked with this vegetable and various side dishes for meat dishes are made from it.
Disease and Pest Prevention
As a prophylaxis of the appearance of diseases and pests, natural compounds and biological products are used that improve the condition of the soil and at the same time enrich it with microelements. Just one treatment for the entire growing season. An ash solution cooled to + 15 ° C is perfect in this regard. It is used instead of watering a week after emergence. Ash can be used in dry form, spraying it on the ground part of plants and in aisles.
After each watering, the soil in the row-spacings is neatly loosened to a depth of 10 cm. It will be rational to mulch the row-spacing with compost - this will create obstacles to pests and help maintain moisture in the soil. Immediately after watering, you need to arrange ventilation for 15-25 minutes.
Harvesting and storage methods
Harvesting with the harvest is not worth it. After the ripening period specified by the manufacturer, you must first tear out one root crop and see if it has reached maturity. If the fruit is not yet ripe enough, you should wait another 3-4 days. Radish usually ripens together, so it is harvested all at once.
Important! Storage rates for radishes are approximate and more dependent on variety.
Useful tips gardeners
Some tips to help grow radishes in a greenhouse:
- The phase of technical ripeness of the fruit lasts 1.5–2 weeks, after which the plant throws a peduncle. Root crops must be harvested before the arrow appears.
- The seed of varietal radish retains the ability to germinate for 4–5 years.
- The formation of root crops is delayed when growing on heavy soils. To remedy the situation, cover the soil with a mixture of peat and sand (20 kg per m²).
- Radish when grown indoors is a good preceding, intermediate and crop crop.
- The culture bears fruit well on the soil, which a year before its sowing was abundantly fertilized with manure.