Growing and caring for the Red Delicious apple tree
Variety of apples Red Delicious is familiar not only to gardeners, but also to ordinary consumers - this is a fairly popular variety. The variety has several advantages, so many want to grow it on their site. About what kind of cultivar it is, how to plant the Red Delicious apple tree and how to care for it - read further in the article.
Botanical description of the apple tree
Variety of apples Red Delicious (Red Delicious) was bred in 1880. Country of origin - USA. In the Russian Federation, the variety is zoned in the North Caucasus. This is due to the low frost resistance of these apple trees. It is desirable to plant trees of this variety in the southern regions where severe winter frosts do not occur.
Did you know? Delicious varieties also include Delicious Mary apples, Royal Red Delicious apples and other varieties. At the same time, the varieties Red and Golden Delishes should be distinguished - despite the similarity of names, they are not related.
The Red Delicious apple tree begins to bear fruit 5 years after planting. In the first harvest years, no more than 30 kg of fruits are harvested from one plant. When the apple tree grows and gets stronger, the yield will become much higher. Gardeners collect up to 150 kg of fruit from one adult plant.
The tree grows to 5.5 m. The crown is wide, round, oval in shape or round-pyramidal. Shoots of medium power, grow diagonally from the trunk, the bark on them is brown. Branches of medium leafy. Medium-sized leaf plates, oval and oblong.
Red Delicious apples are bright red; the stalk is also red. The weight of the fetus is on average 200 g, but it can fluctuate between 100-350 g. The shape of the fruit is round-conical. The peel is dense and strong. The pulp is yellow, crispy and juicy. The taste of the fruit is sweet with sourness.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Among the advantages of Red Delicious:
- unpretentiousness to the soil;
- good taste;
- keeping quality;
- high productivity;
- resistance to certain diseases;
- the need for sanitary pruning and crowning.
- The variety also has a number of disadvantages:
- poor frost resistance;
- negative reaction to weather changes;
- susceptibility to a number of diseases.
Variety resistance to diseases
Red Delicious is largely resistant to ailments such as powdery mildew and bacterial burns.
Did you know? Red Delicious is in the top 15 most popular apple varieties in the United States.
Red Delicious apple trees are 20% self-fertile.
To increase productivity, you should plant the following varieties nearby:
- Golden Delicious;
We recommend that you learn about the features of planting and caring for the autumn apple tree of the Zhigulevskoye variety.
Rules and landing technology
When purchasing a seedling, carefully examine it.
A good copy has the following characteristics:
- trunk without growths and damage;
- buds green in the upper part, swollen;
- root processes up to 0.2 m long, white on the cut.
Before planting, treat the seedling with a clay mash. To do this, place its rhizome in a clay solution for 2-3 hours.
Important! In order for the young tree to grow evenly, it is necessary to establish a stake near the trunk when planting. As the seedling grows, you need to tie it to the stake.
Rules for planting a seedling:
- Dig a hole 0.8 m deep and 0.7 m wide.
- Place a 5 cm thick drainage layer on the bottom of the hole. Pebbles or broken bricks can serve as drainage.
- Mix peat, sand and humus in equal proportions. Lay a bucket of such a mixture on top of the drainage and tamp.
- Place the seedling in the pit and spread the roots.
- Fill the hole with soil.
- Water the trunk circle 20-30 liters of water.
- Lay peat mulch around the trunk.
After planting, you need to regularly care for the tree. Caring for the Red Delicious apple tree, as well as for other plants, involves regular watering, feeding, pruning and shelter for the winter.
The apple tree should be watered by pouring water into the trunk circle closer to the base of the tree. For 1 time, you need to make 20-30 liters of water. During the growing season, the tree needs to be moistened 5 times as necessary. In the dry season, the plant should be watered more often.
Rules for trimming and forming crowns
Every year with the advent of spring, trees must be disposed of from damaged, frozen and broken branches. Such pruning is called sanitary. In addition, from the 4th year of life, branches are cut off from the apple tree, which grow inward and thicken the crown - this procedure is also carried out in the spring. During this formation, sanitary pruning does not stop.
Fertilizers and their application rates
Red Delicious apple trees require several top dressings during the growing season.
Experienced gardeners advise fertilizing trees according to the following scheme:
- spring before flowering - 1 tbsp. a spoon of nitroammophoski in the trunk circle;
- during flowering - 300 g of ash in the ground;
- with mass ripening of fruits - a solution of potassium salt and superphosphate (1 tbsp.spoon of drugs per 1 bucket of water).
The variety does not have strong winter hardiness. In late autumn, when frosts are approaching, the trunk circle should be mulled. As a mulch, it is better to use organic materials - sawdust, straw or fallen leaves. The trunk is additionally covered with agrofibre or burlap - such a shelter will help the tree survive the winter.
Video: preparing an apple tree for winter
Diseases and pests of the variety
Scab is dangerous for harvesting Red Delicious apples. Without preventative treatments, the disease can significantly damage the apple trees. Slightly less often, fruits affect glassiness and rot.
To prevent possible diseases in spring, it is necessary to spray the plant with 1% solution of copper sulfate. If the disease still manifests itself, the affected fruits and leaves must be removed. For the treatment of these diseases, copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture is used.
Important! Drugs can be toxic to the human body, so be sure to use protective equipment - rubber gloves and glasses when processing.
Harvesting and storage of crops
The harvest of Red Delicious apples begins to ripen by the second half of September. You can take off the fruits gradually - there will be no problems if the apples hang on the branches for a long time. These fruits can be stored for 5-6 months. It is better to keep them in a cool and well-ventilated room, for example, in a cellar or basement.
If you store the fruits for longer than the specified period, they run the risk of getting bitter spotting. In the southern regions, gardeners should not have problems planting and growing Red Delicious apple trees. With regular care and timely processing, the variety will fully justify itself and will delight the owner with a rich harvest.