Lydia grapes can be found in every third plot. The variety has long gained popularity, and there were times when it was grown on an industrial scale for winemaking. Now it is grown only by gardeners in private households. The article will discuss what features the Lydia variety has, how to plant, propagate and grow it.
Lydia was bred in Europe by crossing different varieties. After its discovery, many new plants were brought from America, among them a vine of wild grape Vitis labrusca, which was taken by European breeders. But it turned out that together with the grapes they got problems such as powdery mildew and grape aphids. The wild variety itself did not suffer from these diseases, and the "Europeans" began to get sick en masse.
Breeders planted cultivated varieties on Vitis labrusca and as a result received a new, disease-resistant and unusual taste variety. Until 1999, it was popular and massively grown in Ukraine, Moldova and Russia, mainly for winemaking. However, wines from Lydia are now banned in Europe and in America. The fact is that after fermentation the wine material produces substances that have harmful properties.
Important! Fresh berries are safe and just as healthy as other grapes.
Description of Lydia grape variety
Gardeners love Lydia not only for their unusual taste, but also for decorativeness. Bushes and fruits of the variety harmoniously fit into any landscape.
Brushes in this variety are medium-sized, weighing up to 110 g, have the shape of a cylinder or cone. The berries are round, red-pink with a purple hue. Inside - a thick mucous pulp with strawberry flavor. The peel is dense and difficult to chew. The bushes are medium in height and covered with 3- or 5-lobed leaves. There is an edge on the back of the sheet. At home, Lydia creepers are often used to design arbors, shading balconies and terraces.
The variety has distinctive properties. Calorie Lidia - 100 g contains 75 kcal, so it quickly satisfies hunger. For those who follow the figure, this is not the best option, especially at night. After all, besides calories, it has a lot of carbohydrates, which easily turn into extra pounds.
The first impression when cracking a berry is that it is sweet. But the acidity of Lydia is high - from 5.5 to 9.3 g / l, which depends on the degree of maturity and the number of sunny days during the ripening period.
Did you know? To make one bottle of wine, you need 600 grapes.
Drought and frost resistance
The variety is hygrophilous and tolerates excess moisture better than its lack. Winters without shelter in the southern and middle zone. Shelter will be needed in the north, as grapes will not tolerate long frosts below –25 ° С.
Productivity and fruiting
Lydia's vines are 80% composed of fruiting shoots, and this leads to high productivity - from 1 bush you can collect up to 40 kg of berries. However, it is important not to miss the harvesting period, as overripe berries fall off not only from touch, but also from strong winds. The ripening period of the fruit is 150-160 days. The plant is self-pollinated, so that the crop does not depend on the presence of bees.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The obvious advantages of Lydia grapes include:
- resistance to frost;
- immunity to disease;
- high productivity;
- good portability of transportation;
- original strawberry flavor;
- resistance to waterlogging.
- The disadvantages include:
- not suitable for making wine;
- shedding of berries when overripe;
- needs coinage and stepsoning;
- small berries;
- thick peel.
Fields of application
Today, wine and brandy from this variety are no longer produced, and therefore it is grown only in households. However, despite this, it remains in demand. It is more useful to use it raw.
The benefits and harms of consumption
- In addition, the variety is sweet and fragrant, it has a good effect on the body:
- useful for the cardiovascular system;
- removes toxins and toxins;
- Helps recover from operations
- has a rejuvenating effect;
- good prevention of cancer.
- However, along with useful properties, there are limitations for eating Lydia berries:
- contraindicated in diabetes;
- increases acidity, so you can not eat with ulcers and other problems with the gastrointestinal tract;
- may cause diarrhea;
- contributes to an increase in body weight, which means it is not possible with obesity.
Planting and reproduction
When choosing a place for planting, keep in mind that grapes need a lot of sun and airing. Therefore, it is better to choose the southern sides of the site, except for the southwest. Strong winds are also not suitable for Lydia, as the berries will crumble. You can plant cuttings both in spring and in autumn. The main thing is to have time to prepare the material before flowering or after it.
Did you know? Red wine undergoes fermentation, during which it incorporates the color of grape skins. White wine does not go through the fermentation process.
A pit for planting is prepared in advance. If you plan to plant in the spring, you can dig it in the fall. If you decide to dig in the spring - it should stand for several weeks. A hole is dug 90 cm in diameter and 90 cm in depth.
Grafting cuttings on stocks
In spring, the blanks are pulled out, the lower parts are cut. The upper ones are sealed with paraffin to preserve moisture. From the old bush leave a stump of 5-8 cm, removing everything else. The stump is split and a stalk is inserted into the slot. At the same time, the latter seems to be clamped in a vice. This place is wrapped with cloth and covered with clay. The earth around is watered, dug up and mulched. Learn how to plant grapes correctly and when.
Aftercare for Lydia grapes
This variety does not have special care requirements, for which gardeners love it.
Rules for watering and feeding grapes
So that the berries are juicy and sweet, it is important to arrange the plant with proper watering. At the beginning of flowering, it is necessary to water the bushes abundantly to give an additional stimulus for the growth of buds. Further watering will be required during the setting of berries - without water they will be acidic and small. At the ripening stage, watering should be stopped.
The best top dressing for grapes will be wood ash, which is introduced in the spring for digging. During the season, you can spend another 2-3 fertilizing with complex fertilizers with a high content of iron and phosphorus.
Loosening and katarovka
In the spring, when the buds just begin to wake up, they conduct the first digging of the upper soil layer to a depth of 25 cm and make fertilizer. The second time the earth is dug up 10 cm already before flowering. In summer, the earth is loosened several times with a chopper, and if there are a lot of weeds, they dig it up. In autumn, before covering the bushes, the procedure is repeated. This will destroy part of the insects and larvae, as well as facilitate the shelter.
Experienced growers know that this plant needs a specific procedure. Katarovka - cutting out old surface roots. These roots pick up moisture from the topsoil and nutrients. They do not withstand even light frosts. They carry out catharization twice a year - in spring and autumn. At the first digging in the spring, the upper roots are cut with a sharp secateurs. Sections are treated with vitriol or boric acid. The resulting pits are sprinkled with earth.
Video: Katarovka grapes
Pruning and shaping a grape bush
To give the vine a neat appearance and get larger clusters, pruning should be done every year. Important! There is a different opinion among gardeners when it is better to prune. It will be right this way: if the bush overwinter without shelter, pruning is carried out in the spring, and if with a shelter - in the fall. The basic rules of this procedure:
- trim with a sharp secateurs only;
- the cut should be 3 cm above the eye and in the direction from it;
- pruning is carried out on one side;
- do not regret shoots that are thicker than 1.2 cm and thinner than 0.5 cm;
- 10-15 eyes are left on the shoot;
- all sick and frozen shoots are cut out.
Preparing the vine for wintering
Preparing for the winter includes:
- antifungal treatment;
Diseases and pests of grapes
Most Lydia suffers from grape aphids. The variety has persistent immunity to fungal diseases and it rarely gets sick. Insecticides are used against grape aphids, observing the instructions. To prevent aphid damage, it is necessary to dig up the soil for the winter, to prevent the soil from drying out and to feed it in time so that the plant is strong.
When to harvest and how to store the crop?
Disputes often arise among gardeners: when to harvest? Tentatively, Lydia begin to collect in mid-September. But cleaning times vary by region. It’s better to focus not on dates, but on how the berries look:
- evenly painted;
- the stem of the bunch has become lignified;
- when ripe, grapes exude a pleasant aroma;
- the berry tastes sweet, without sourness.
Read more about the timing and basic rules for grape harvesting.
It should be remembered that harvesting is possible only in dry, sunny weather. Do it in the afternoon when the berries are dried out from dew. If there are rotten berries on the clusters, they are thrown away. Bunches are cut with a sharp secateurs. Stack grapes in boxes at an angle, in one layer. Store in a cool, dry place with adequate ventilation. The temperature should be constant, without fluctuations - up to + 15 ° С. Bunches are periodically inspected for rot.