Grapes Kishmish 342: description and cultivation of the variety
Among the variety of seedless grape varieties, one of the most favorite among winegrowers is Kishmish GF No. 342. This is a high-yielding hybrid that even novice gardeners can grow. The article tells about the features of cultivation of this sultana grape.
The described hybrid is often called simply Kishmish 342 or Hungarian Kishmish. The variety is considered to be ripe, undemanding in care, and its fruits are appreciated for the excellent taste and aesthetic appearance of golden clusters.
Did you know? Translated from the Persian language "Kish Mish" means - dried grapes.
Description and appearance
Distinctive characteristics of the variety are:
- fruit period - 100-105 days, starting from the ovary and ending with the removal of clusters from the vine;
- when providing competent care, a yield of 25 kg of grapes from 1 bush is ensured;
- since the bushes are very tall and prone to overgrowth, and the hybrid does not like bush thickening, they need proper pruning;
- when pruning fruiting lashes for 6-8 eyes, they mature well; forming bushes, three brushes are left on one lash;
- shoots ripen along the entire length;
- the number of productive shoots reaches up to 85% per 1 bush;
- dense, conical brushes, usually weigh up to 600 g, but with large formation of bushes can reach 1–1.5 kg;
- grapes with a very thin skin, without seeds, roundish and small, up to 18 mm in length and weighing 3-4 g, greenish-white-golden, have a light waxy coating;
- juicy and dense pulp of berries has a pleasant, slightly musky flavor;
- in berries there is a high sugar content (on average 20%) and low acidity (8 g per 1000 ml);
- the hybrid is cold-resistant, in a temperate climate it can withstand frosts with a temperature of -25 ° С ... -27 ° С (but nevertheless sheltering of the vine is required for the winter);
- crop storage periods - up to 1 month.
The berries of the hybrid variety Kishmish 342 can be consumed both fresh and dried, making raisins from them.
Advantages and disadvantages
Hybrid GF 342 has several advantages, but some disadvantages in growing.
- Pluses of the described raisins:
- early ripening of berries;
- high resistance to fungal infections;
- high transportability of bunches;
- cold resistance;
- unpretentiousness in cultivation and care;
- can be used in the manufacture of food for children.
Important! It is unacceptable to be late with the removal of the Hungarian Kishmish harvest from the vines, as this threatens with a loss of valuable taste and severe damage to wasps.
- The variety has some negative qualities:
- loss of presentation when untimely removal of clusters from the bush;
- need shelter in the winter cold;
- with improper formation of vines, the quality of the crop decreases (berries are crushed, in which seeds and their rudiments are formed).
To cultivate Hungarian Kishmish in your garden, you need to choose a suitable place for it, prepare this site in an acceptable manner, and then plant seedlings, observing the correct planting technology.
Site selection and preparation
When choosing a place for planting grape seedlings, adhere to the following rules:
- The plot for rows of vines must be spacious in order to position the vines one from another at a distance of 3 m, and the rows at a distance of 2 m from each other.
- The place should be well lit by the sun.
- The location of the plot is at the eastern or western wall of the house.
- Blowing grape rows with strong winds is unacceptable.
- The area under the bushes is cleared of weed grass, debris and stones.
- The plot before planting vines is pre-fertilized since the fall, introducing a nutritious mixture of fertilizers into the ground (1 m² will require 200 g of superphosphate, 250 g of wood ash and 10 kg of ripened manure).
- They dig up the soil with fertilizers, and its surface is leveled with a rake.
For planting vines of Hungarian Kishmish, a step-by-step planting technology is used:
- A hole is dug 50 cm in depth and width equal to the size of the root lobe.
- A layer of crushed stone, 10-15 cm thick, is poured at the bottom of the holes, and wood chips are laid on it.
- In the center of the holes, mounds of earth mix with organic and complex mineral fertilizers are poured.
- Immerse the roots of the bushes in a clay mash with the addition of rotted mullein (2: 1).
- The seedlings are cut into two or three buds, and the sections are treated with heated paraffin.
- The bushes prepared for planting are lowered into the wells, and their roots are spread on the surface of the mounds of earth mixture poured in the wells.
- In one of the corners of the holes there is a plastic tube for supplying water and fertilizing.
- The holes are filled with the rest of the soil mixture, layer by layer, carefully tamping it.
- After planting, the bushes are poured with warm water, pouring up to 5 buckets under each.
- The ground under the bushes is mulched with compost from ripened leaves or a layer of ripened manure.
- Near each vine, a vertical support is installed, or seedlings are tied to trellises to avoid further injury as they grow.
Cultivation and care
For the successful cultivation of the GF №342 grape hybrid, planted vines need to be watered, fed, formative pruning, weed control and the conservation of each bush in winter cold.
Watering and feeding
Particular attention is paid to the cultivation of raisins in the summer.
Bushes are irrigated according to the following rules:
- At high temperatures, moisturizing is necessary once every 3-4 days.
- The required amount of moisture depends on the type of soil on the site: on sandstone, the need for irrigation will be 25-30% more than on chernozem lands.
- During irrigation, at least 1 bucket of water (10-15 l) is poured under each bush.
- Before harvesting, irrigation is carried out no more than 1 time in 7 days.
- In addition to the correct irrigation schedule, the gutter hybrid needs timely replenishment with high-quality fertilizers.
Did you know? The oldest fruiting vineyard is 400 years old. It grows in a small place in Slovenia, and there is enough wine from its berries to fill them with a hundred bottles.
Additional nutrition of the vine in the form of top dressing is carried out according to the following technology:
- The first year of life, the culture should not be fed, because the bushes have enough nutrients introduced before planting the vine.
- In subsequent years, in spring and until mid-summer, the culture is fertilized three times per season: nitrogen-containing fertilizing - in the spring, before flowering; in summer - potassium-phosphorus top dressing; in the fall - with organic fertilizer.
Trimming and shaping a bush
For the correct and timely formation of the vine Kishmish 342 in spring, the following trimming of lashes is carried out:
- medium - by 6 kidneys;
- long - for 10 kidneys.
Removing weed grass growing under grape bushes, as well as in aisles, is a must. It is necessary because weeds are able to draw moisture and nutrients from the soil necessary for the vine. Weeding is carried out using hoes, not too deepening their blades in the soil, so as not to harm the root system of shrubs.
Important! Weeding will be an additional benefit for grapes, as this will give the soil the opportunity to breathe better.
Shelter for the winter
Although the Kishmish 342 grape variety is considered cold-resistant, it needs shelter for the winter.
His vines are sheltered for the winter according to the following rules:
- If the seedlings were planted in the fall, when sheltering for the winter they need to be watered.
- On top of each plant is covered with a 5-liter plastic container with a cut bottom, and sawdust is poured into the neck. After that, lightly screw the caps onto the necks, and cover each container with earth.
- The procedure for sheltering the vine is carried out on a dry sunny day when the air temperature drops to + 4 ° C.
- Next year, the young bushes are cut in autumn, and then they are covered with spruce or pine lapnik, lining it around the bushes. The vines are placed on the spruce branches, covered with spruce branches, and on top with a covering material (roofing material), leaving the edges on the edges.
Pest and Disease Control
Although hybrid grape No. 342 has high resistance to certain diseases, experienced gardeners still prefer to treat it with fungicidal preparations, which gives plants almost 100 percent protection. Also, after the formation of the bushes, it is advisable to inspect the vine to identify possible pathogenic lesions. To reduce this risk, each bush needs to be thinned out in a timely manner.
Important! When applying fungicides for the processing of vines, it is necessary to use special protective equipment - work clothing, glasses, gloves and a respirator.
In addition to diseases, the culture is attacked by the following pests:
- Wasps . To protect the crop, each bunch is placed in a mesh bag, or wrapped in canvas or gauze.
- Spider mite . Having discovered parasites, it is necessary to carry out chemical treatment of the bush with Actellik, Omayt, Fufanon, BI-58 and other means.
- Trackworm tracks It is advisable to prevent the occurrence of parasites, after carrying out preventive measures - treat the bushes with Confidor, Decis, Fufanon preparations.
- May beetle larvae . Soil treatment to a depth of 6-7 m is necessary with insecticidal agents - Diazin, Thunder-2, Bazudin.
If you decide to engage in the cultivation of raisins with pleasant taste, then Hungarian Kishmish 342 is one of the most suitable varieties for this. It is unpretentious in cultivation, early ripe, and is well preserved with timely care. Get a sweet, plentiful harvest of golden-green berries will work even with a beginner winegrower.