Grapes Cardinal: description and care, the benefits and harms of the variety
Grapes are one of the most famous and popular plants. The harvest of table grape varieties is 20% of the total world fruit production. Due to the excellent properties and taste, some varieties have reached wide international fame and are grown all over the world. These include the Cardinal variety. How to grow it and what kind of crop is expected, and will be discussed in this article.
Description and characteristics of grapes
This variety was bred in 1939 at the Fresno Field Station in California, USA, by cross-pollination from Flame Tokay and Ribier cultivars. Both parent varieties were distinguished by large berries, good yield and excellent taste.
- type - dining room;
- acidity - medium;
- the color is pink, in some sources it is indicated that the berries may be purple due to the composition of the soil;
- aroma - berry, nutmeg;
- tasting grade assessment - 8.8 points on a 10-point scale;
- productivity - 20–25 kg of berries from the bush;
- ripening time - 110-120 days, early;
- purpose - used both in industrial vineyards and in private farms.
Did you know? Grapes began to be cultivated in Central Asia 9, 000 years ago on the territory of modern Iran.
In the USSR, the variety was introduced in the 50s of the last century and was grown at several experimental stations. The aim of the selection work was to improve frost resistance and the promotion of vineyards in the more northern regions. Therefore, the Cardinal variety, bred in Anapa, is more frost-resistant than the original. Visually determine the origin of the seedling by the way it looks, of course, is impossible. So it is better to buy varietal seedlings in nurseries.
Did you know? The oldest fruiting vine grows in Slovenia in the city of Maribor. It was planted around 1500, which means it is almost 500 years old. And she still bears fruit.
Usage and Purpose
Grapes Cardinal can be used both in its natural form and for the preparation of jam, wine and raisins. Its vines can be productive for 50 years after planting. Red table wine from this grape can be combined with any meat snacks, cheese or vegetables.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of the Cardinal variety:
- frost resistance;
- drought tolerance;
- early ripening;
- high productivity;
- excellent taste;
- good transportability.
- However, this grape has some disadvantages:
- characterized by an average growth rate;
- not resistant to disease and in rainy weather it is susceptible to gray rot, powdery mildew, bacterial cancer (Agrobacterium tumefacience);
- original (non-Anapa) Cardinal does not tolerate lowering temperatures below –21 ° C;
- the variety is prone to shedding color and formed fruits in adverse weather;
- berries do not ripen at the same time;
- in a cool or humid climate, the marketable appearance of grapes is reduced so that only 10-15% of the grapes will look great.
The grapes are painted in a variety of colors: white, pink, red, black, blue, green, purple, golden. Berries of any color and shade are equally useful and are used in various industries: cosmetology, medicine, aromatherapy, etc.
- The best properties of grapes:
- is a dietary product due to low calorie content;
- prevents indigestion and irritation of the stomach;
- reduces renal pressure and normalizes their work due to diuretic properties;
- increases the level of humidity in the lungs, which helps a patient with asthma breathe easily;
- supports good vision;
- delays and prevents the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including brain diseases, due to resveratrol contained in the berries.
Red grapes have outstanding antiviral and antibacterial properties. The antiviral qualities of the variety are effective in the treatment and prevention of the viruses of the common cold, herpes, etc. It is also a source of glucose, organic acids, and polyose; together they have laxative properties and relieve constipation. Grapes - a pantry of minerals, trace elements, vitamins and other biologically active substances. These substances help in the formation and strengthening of hair, bones. If you include grapes in your menu, you can, for example, prevent osteoporosis.
Important ! Grapes and its derivatives (juice, raisins) should not be given to pets, in particular dogs. Such foods are toxic to them and can cause kidney failure. At the slightest suspicion of poisoning a pet with this product, you should immediately contact your veterinarian.
Grapes are useful for both children and adults. It is used in the form of juices, used in anti-aging cosmetics.
The main beneficial properties of grapes:
- Grape juice is a classic remedy for migraine.
- Certain substances in the berries reduce cholesterol and prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
- Grape seed extract is a great way to protect your skin from ultraviolet radiation. The principle of action is the same as that of sunscreens: minimizing skin damage, relieving inflammation. The extract contains vitamin E, which helps retain moisture and acts just like creams to moisturize the skin.
- To improve complexion, you can squeeze the juice from the berries and apply on the face for 10 minutes.
- Resveratrol in berries can help you lose weight. It also relaxes the walls of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. Diabetic patients who consume grapes may experience a 10 percent reduction in sugar levels due to exposure to resveratrol.
Harm and contraindications
- You can not eat grapes or products from it if there are the following diseases:
- allergy to its components;
- acute form of pancreatitis and gastrointestinal tract diseases.
Did you know? Dried grapes (raisins) are an excellent dessert and an addition to baking. The color scheme of raisins depends on the drying process. Dark purple raisins are dried in the sun. Light brown - dehydrated in special industrial drying plants. Golden - dried mechanically, and its color is obtained as a result of treatment with sulfur dioxide. Green - dried in special clay dryers using air.
Grapes prefer sunny areas, but can also grow in conditions of inconstant sunlight. This happens if there is a landing site only from the north or east side. In this case, the illumination varies depending on the time of year and time of day, but sunlight, although not direct, must be. The soil should be sandy to provide quick drainage from the roots during rains. If it is not loose enough, then this should be taken into account when preparing the pit for landing. The Cardinal variety grows well on neutral soil with an acidity of 5–7 pH.
Cardinal grape planting technology:
- 2-3 weeks before planting, it is necessary to measure the level of soil acidity. If the indicator is above 7 pH, then chalk or dolomite flour should be added to make it neutral.
- Prepare a landing pit measuring 60 × 60 × 60 cm. The shape of the pit should resemble a truncated inverted cone.
- Lay a drainage layer at the bottom of the pit. It can be pebbles, crushed stone or other material, the task of which is to remove excess moisture from the roots.
- If the soil removed from the pit is loamy, add sand and compost in equal proportions. Mix well and lay on the drain so as to fill the pit by 2/3.
- Pour a bucket of water.
- If desired, the roots of the stem can be treated with a growth stimulator for the roots.
- Install the handle in the pit and add the remaining soil.
- Press the ground firmly around the stem. All roots should be well covered with soil.
- Next to the handle, you can immediately install a peg for a garter (at least 1.2 m high) or put a trellis.
Video: planting grape seedlings
Cultivation and care
The most important period for the grape bush is the first year after planting, for good development you will need:
- loosen the soil near the bush after watering;
- to form a bush, removing stepsons and periodically tying up shoots;
- fight pests.
Important! The distance between the vine and the nearest tree should be at least 5 m. If there is a building nearby, then at least 2 m should be left between the bush and the wall.
Watering and fertilizing
In the first year after planting a vine, watering should be carried out weekly, watering the root zone. The norm for one bush is 10 liters. It will be correct to use drip irrigation in the vineyard - this reduces water consumption and makes irrigation more selective. As the vine grows, it becomes less dependent on watering. Therefore, the weekly hydration schedule can be maintained, but a bush will tolerate less or less water well enough.
Important! Do not feed the grapes at the end of the growing season. This will cause lush growth, due to which the vines will not have time to lignify by winter and may die.
Grapes are cut during sleep, usually at the end of winter. Pruning the old vine promotes the growth of the new, which is good for fruiting. A grape bush may have 1 horizontal trunk and several lateral shoots that are tied to a trellis. The Cardinal variety should be formed in the form of a tree with a high shoot in two shoots. Two lateral vines must be attached in two different directions from the trunk, and leave no more than 14 from the fruit shoots. Remove all the rest.
Weeds can be a problem if they grow near vineyards. They leach nutrients and moisture from the soil, and also become a refuge for insects, including grape pests. Weeds must be removed in the first couple of years of bush formation to avoid competition for nutrients.
Did you know? The largest bunch of grapes was grown in Chile. A bunch of Bozzolo varieties weighed 9.4 kg. The record was recorded in the Guinness Book of Records in 1984.
A small amount of grass can be removed manually. If there is a lot of grass, it is worth digging the soil 1 time in 2-3 weeks. This violates the root system of weeds, weakens them and contributes to wilting. For vineyards over large areas, the use of herbicides is convenient. But keep in mind that watering or rain reduces the degree of exposure to such substances.
Grapes are usually propagated using:
Other problems of seed propagation:
- The grape seed is covered with a very hard crust. It will remain inactive until ideal conditions for germination are created. Therefore, the seeds must first be stratified in order to increase the percentage of germination.
- After seed germination, they will need a dive, as well as vegetable seedlings, and then 3 years in order to turn into full-fledged seedlings.
Cutting is the most used method. When pruning a plant, a lot of material is formed that is suitable in quality for propagation. Petiole is a part of a vine with 4 buds. The lower part must be cut at an angle of 45 °. Next, the planting material should be treated with a solution of copper sulfate and dug into the ground, or stored in the cold until planting. Chubuk harvesting occurs during autumn pruning, and landing in the ground - in the spring of next year.
Learn more about how to properly grow grapes from cuttings.
Shelter for the winter
The soil around the trunk must be insulated by earthing up. The process consists of throwing earth to the trunk and roots. The result is a small mound that protects the roots from frost. The vines must be removed from the trellis and cut off the extra shoots. Next, process with copper sulfate and gently bend to the ground. Under the vines, it is necessary to lay a shield made of wood or plywood, and sprinkle top with shoots of soil or other material that should protect the vine from mice and other rodents. In early spring, the vines should be removed from the shelter and again placed on the trellis.
Pest and Disease Control
Mildew is the main fungal disease of the Cardinal variety. It affects plants around which there is insufficient air circulation. The problem is exacerbated by warm and humid days at cool night temperatures. Mildew affects the surface of leaves and berries. At the same time, the leaves turn yellow, dry, curl and fall, and new leaves are distorted. The fruits fall.
- provide free space around the bush not less than 0.6 m;
- use drip basal irrigation so that water does not fall on the bush;
- if signs of mold appear, use fungicides, having previously removed all affected parts of the plant.
Grape flea is the main pest for the Cardinal. These are bugs the size of a flea, black, bronze or blue-black. Their populations appear if hot and dry weather sets in. Fleas create many holes in the foliage.
- removal of fallen leaves, as it is a winter shelter for insects, including fleas;
- if a pest appears, treat the bush with an appropriate insecticide.
Read also how to properly care for grapes in the summer, so that there is a good harvest.
The Cardinal grape variety is perfect for fresh consumption, and for making wine and various food products. And its tall bushes and bright brushes will decorate any area. And with proper care, this variety will regularly bring abundant harvests.