Grapes are a berry or fruit.

Many growers argue about how to name grapes: fruit or berries. Today's article is dedicated to finding the answer to a controversial question, as well as a detailed description of the culture and its application.

What is grape: berry or fruit?

To determine this issue, you need to understand the botanical terms. So, according to the science of plants, a berry is, in simple words, a fruit with juicy pulp, thin skin and a few hard seeds inside the pulp. Berries grow on shrubs and herbaceous plants.

Fruit is a fruit that grows on trees and shrubs, also containing one or more seeds, peels, and juicy flesh. If you dig even deeper, it turns out that in many languages ​​the words “fruit” and “fruit” are identical.

Fruit translated into languages:

  • Greek - το φρούτο;
  • Yiddish - sounds like di frukht;
  • Italian - il frutto;
  • Spanish - la fruta;
  • German - die frucht;
  • French - le fruit;
  • Latin - fructus.

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (section of the plant) there is a description of the grape cultivated: "... The fruits of grapes or grapes are spherical or ovoid berries, which refers to the type of fruit ...".

From the foregoing, we can conclude: both names will be correct.

Find out about other table grape varieties:

Description and characteristics of the plant

In southern countries, the length of the vine can exceed 30 m, in cooler conditions the bush grows to 1.5–3 m. The vine forms tenacious shoots, called mustaches, as they grow. With a mustache she clings to a support, in home viticulture it is a trellis. The bark of the plant is yellow-brown in color, may be with a reddish tint, on the old shoots dotted with uneven furrows.

Foliage on strong petioles is dark or light green in color, often pubescent on the underside. The plates may have from 3 to 5 blades, cut with a serrated edge.

Depending on the variety, the crop blooms in May-June; fruiting begins in August, and in later varieties in October.

Flowers are collected in panicled inflorescence, small, green.

Fruits are called berries, which are collected in a loose or dense bunch. The shape of the cluster is conical, cylindrical or mixed.

The color of the berries varies:

  • light green;
  • golden yellow;
  • pink;
  • blue.

The shape of the berries can be:

  • round;
  • oval;
  • elongated oval (fingers).

The grapes are covered with a thin or dense skin, often covered with a waxy coating. The bones inside the berries are covered with a hard shell, seeds can be from 1 to 4, there are seedless varieties.

Did you know? According to the Guinness Book of Records, the oldest vine is in Slovenia, Maribor. Vine is over 400 years old and still bears fruit.

Thanks to archaeological finds, one can trace the history of viticulture. So, in the territory of modern Georgia, dishes with the remains of wine were found, whose approximate age is 8 thousand years. In Armenia, archaeologists have discovered an ancient winery, which is about 7 thousand years old.

The vine and wine are mentioned in the literature of the Ancient World, in particular, at Homer, who lived at the turn of the VIII-VII centuries BC. e. In ancient Egyptian burials dating from the VI-V century BC. e., found pots depicting vines and bunches of grapes. There are finds confirming the developed winemaking among the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, ancient Romans.

Gradually, crop cultivation spread throughout the European part, including its northern regions. Cultivars were brought to South and North America by the colonists, as wild specimens were not considered suitable for winemaking.

Useful properties of grapes

The beneficial properties of grapes are due to the rich chemical composition of the fruit.

Berries contain about 150 elements useful to the body, among them:

  • vitamins - B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, C, E, P;
  • salts of minerals - silicon, sodium, iron, copper;
  • organic acids - malic, oxalic, citric, tartaric;
  • other substances - pectins, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids, essential oils, etc.

  • The use of fruits has the following properties on the body:
  • antiseptic;
  • antioxidant;
  • astringent;
  • hypotensive (lowers blood pressure);
  • diuretic;
  • painkiller;
  • cleansing;
  • firming;
  • sedative;
  • tonic.

Application features

Grapes are a unique culture: it is used in food, in medicine, in cosmetology, in winemaking. The chemical industry uses cake and seeds for the production of alcohol, industrial oils, tar. In agriculture, cake is fed to livestock.

In cooking

Vinegar is produced from grapes, which is appreciated by culinary specialists for their softness. Vinegar is used in marinades, in preservation for the winter and in salad dressings. Tasty and healthy juice is obtained, both freshly squeezed and harvested for the winter.

Important! Children under 6 years old are recommended juices from white varieties: they contain more iron.

Raisins are a popular ingredient in many types of baking, in curd pancakes, muesli. Berries produce aromatic and jam-rich jam or jam, which can also be used in the preparation of desserts.

Grapes go well with other fruits, with meat, cheese. Salads with dietary meat and juicy berries are popular. Pastries, desserts and other dishes are also decorated with fruits.

In winemaking

For the production of wines, technical varieties of culture are grown, with an increased amount of sugar and moderate acidity.

Learn more about technical grape varieties:

From the juice by fermentation, white, pink and red wines are obtained, such as:

  • Riesling;
  • Fetyaska;
  • Chardonnay;
  • Cabernet.
Did you know? The Lavaux Terrace vineyards in Switzerland in 2007 were taken under the protection of UNESCO as a historical World Heritage Site.

After distillation and distillation, strong alcohol is produced:

  • cognac;
  • vodka;
  • brandy.

In cosmetology and nutrition

Grapes contain tocopherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidants. Regular eating saturates the cells with vitamins, slowing their aging, moisturizing and evening skin tone. Beneficial substances nourish the hair follicles, strengthening the hair and saturating it with a healthy shine.

Pulp and juice are ingredients of both industrial and home cosmetology. Mixed with different components, they whiten age spots, smooth and tighten aging skin. Masks are used to moisturize and saturate the upper layers of the epidermis with nutrients. Juice wipes the skin prone to acne and acne, a natural antiseptic disinfects the skin and helps eliminate defects.

Grape seeds are used as an abrasive for scrubs. Oil, including essential oil, is also part of skin and hair care products. We recommend reading about the calorie content, benefits and harms of black grapes. A popular area in cosmetology is wine therapy. The method is effective against cellulite, increases the general tone of the body, soothes the nervous system.

Medical dietetics recommends using the product for recovery after serious illness and in the postoperative period. The diet is used in the treatment of anorexia, to restore the patient's normal weight.

Popular are weight loss diets. Active enzymes and organic acids in berries help to normalize metabolism, remove toxins and toxins. Pectins in the composition bind fat cells, remove excess cholesterol, which contributes to weight loss. In addition, grapes dull the feeling of hunger and depression that patients often experience with strict diets.

In medicine

Grape treatment in medicine is called ampelotherapy. Applied in the recovery not only fruits, but also other parts of the plant.

Doctors recommend the use of the product for such health problems:

  • tuberculosis;
  • asthma;
  • pyelonephritis;
  • stones in the urinary organs;
  • impaired metabolism;
  • reduced hemoglobin;
  • anemia;
  • avitaminosis;
  • osteoporosis;
  • liver disease
  • Alzheimer's;
  • insomnia;
  • depressed state.

We recommend finding out whether grapes can be consumed with gout.

Fiber and organic acids normalize digestion, water-salt balance. They help normalize the acidity of gastric juice, which normalizes the condition of the mucosa. They help to eliminate toxins and other decay products from the body, which restores the liver and kidneys.

Antioxidants and flavonoids remove sputum from the lungs and bronchi. Vitamin C strengthens the immune system. B vitamins improve brain activity, strengthen the central nervous system. Regular use of the product improves performance, normalizes sleep.

Minerals and vitamins in the composition are involved in the function of hematopoiesis, increasing the level of hemoglobin. Promote resorption of cholesterol plaques, which increases the elasticity of blood vessels and capillaries. Healthy vessels are actively saturated with oxygen, normalizing the work of the heart muscle.

Important! Sweet grapes are not recommended for diabetics, it increases the level of glucose in the blood.

Basic rules for the selection and storage of grapes

In order for grapes to bring exclusively benefits to the body, you need to be able to choose the right product.

Criterias of choice:

  1. It is advisable to choose local varieties, in this case there is confidence that it was not processed with substances that increase safety during prolonged transport.
  2. Ripeness testing should be carried out on the lower berries of the bunch: they ripen later than the upper ones.
  3. If a large number of berries showered after shaking the bunch, it means that it was stored for a long time.
  4. You need to choose clusters, not twigs or a scattering of fruits. If grapes are sold in bulk, they have already been moved and rejected several times.
  5. Fruits should be dense, without signs of rot and dents.
  6. Wasps climbing over a product are the first sign of quality and lack of chemicals.

    Storage Rules:

    • in the basement or cellar at a temperature from 0 ° C to + 7 ° C, the shelf life will be up to 2-3 months (depending on grade);
    • in the refrigerator on the shelf for fruits and vegetables can be stored for 2-3 weeks;
    • the product will remain in the freezer for up to 8 months.

    We advise you to learn how to make grape jam with seeds. Regarding the correct definition of grapes: fruit or berry, even botanists argue. No matter how we call this fruit, it is definitely necessary to use it. Culture maintains a balance of nutrients in the body and promotes health.

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