Grape variety “Victoria”: description and care
Early maturity, endurance, high productivity, excellent taste and marketability are the main advantages of table grapes "Victoria", thanks to which the variety is popular even among gardeners in the cold suburbs. What requirements need to be considered for the timely ripening of large and juicy berries - read more about this in the article.
"Victoria" is the work of the staff of the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after Y. I. Potapenko. The variety is based on frost resistance and resistance to adverse external factors, which are the main characteristics of the parental hybrids “Vitis Amurenzis” and “Vitis Vinifera”.
Did you know? Vineyards occupy about 80 thousand m² of dry land of the planet. Of these, about 70% are for winemaking, 27% for harvesting fresh berries, and only 2% for harvesting raisins.
Since the breeders sought to create not only a universal grape that would yield good harvests in the southern and northern regions of the country, as well as favorably differ in taste and cluster size, the “Save Vilar 12-304” variety was involved in crossing.
“Victoria” of the Russian selection is often confused with the Hungarian wine variety “Victoria Gunge”, the Romanian “Victoria” (different white berries) and Ukrainian “Victoria White”.
In some sources, this grape variety is called a clone of the ancient Uehara variety. In fact, this is the original working name of grapes obtained in the process of breeding. He never had clones.
The fact is that the fruits of the bred seedlings resembled the varieties of Japanese selection that appeared at Uehara station.
Detailed description and characterization of the variety
Victoria grape deserves attention due to its undemanding and fruitful characteristics. The variety gives a good harvest even in frosty winters with a temperature of –27 ° C, is insensitive to fungal diseases, and is also great for use in fresh and canned form.
Its berries ripen in 115–125 days, that is, the time for harvesting falls in mid-August.
Pink grape varieties also include such as "Anyuta", "Senator", "Helios", "Rosmus", "Transfiguration", "Victor".
You can learn “Victoria” of the Russian selection by:
- medium-sized bush with slightly dissected slightly pubescent leaves of a dark green color;
- massive pink clusters with an average weight of about 700 g (the color of the fruit may vary depending on the climatic conditions of growing the crop);
- juicy and fleshy pulp of oval-ovoid berries, the surface of which is slightly covered with pollen;
- the specific form of the grape brush, which is characterized by a conical shape and a moderate fit of the fruits (in clusters friability is permissible);
- the delicate aroma of the fruit, as well as their harmonious taste with light notes of muscat (the acidity of the berries does not exceed 6 g / l, and the sugar content is 19%).
Advantages and disadvantages
Judging by the reviews of experienced gardeners, Victoria has a number of advantages, but it requires timely human intervention in the processes of forming a bush and ovary to obtain a quality crop.
Did you know? Ukrainians practically do not eat grapes - this was the conclusion of analysts in the analysis of the annual consumption of table varieties of culture. It turns out that in Ukraine every citizen for a year does not eat even a kilogram of berries, with a recommended norm of 10 kilograms.
You can compare the pros and cons of the variety in the table below:
|Characteristics of the advantages and disadvantages of the Victoria grape variety|
|No. / p||Advantages||disadvantages|
|one.||High degree of ripening vines. The first crop appears a year after planting||The shoots of this grape variety are characterized by active development throughout the season, therefore, in the autumn, mandatory bush pruning is required|
|2.||Precocity. From the appearance of deciduous buds until the fruit ripens, about 4 months pass. Ripe clusters appear in the second decade of August.||Propensity to crop cropping. In order for the berries to grow sweet and large, the gardener is recommended to normalize the amount of yield|
|3.||Frost resistance. The bush winters well even in regions with a harsh climate, withstanding temperatures up to –24 ... 27 ° C||"Victoria" has female-type flowers, and therefore requires the close proximity of a pollinator for successful fruiting|
|four.||Resistance to common grape diseases (mildew, oidium - about 3 points).||In hot summer grapes of this variety may suffer from attacks of sucking parasites|
|5.||Stable high productivity. It often happens that the vine is overloaded with brushes||Sweet fruits often spoil wasps, which creates an urgent need to protect the crop with a special net|
Variety Victoria represents a table group of grapes. It is grown for fresh consumption, canning, as well as the manufacture of wine products.
Important! When rooting grape seedlings, it is forbidden to use fresh or rotted manure. This is due to the presence of harmful insects in it .
Ripe berries can be added to salads, combining them with cheese and fruits, used as:
- basics for sauces;
- desserts (jelly, jam, pastille);
- raw materials for baking grape bread;
- juices, cocktails.
Despite the genetic predisposition of the variety to high fruiting, the quantity and quality of the future harvest largely depends on the choice of planting material, the timing and technique of rooting it.
You can plant grapes in spring, when the soil warms up, and in autumn, until the first frost. With autumn rooting in the spring, the bush will have time to grow stronger and will not suffer from drought. The main thing is to plan a landing at least 2 weeks before the temperature drops.
If you plant a vine in March - April, weak seedlings can die or dry out due to weathering of soil moisture. Moreover, such specimens are characterized by late bearing. Experienced gardeners are advised to plan the procedure for the last weeks of October.
Did you know? Grape berries contain about 150 active substances and more than a dozen vital vitamins with a calorie content of 65 kcal.
The choice of seedlings when buying
"Victoria" of the Russian selection requires special attention when choosing, because similar and similar varieties are on sale.
A genuine quality seedling is different:
- smooth root system without growths, galls and thickenings (the minimum number of root processes must correspond to 3);
- deep brown bark;
- an even powerful vine, the length of which should not be less than 20 cm;
- 6 well-developed dark brown buds.
It is better to make such purchases in garden centers and specialized stores with a good reputation. The product must have a tag with information about the variety and producer of the crop.
Traces of mold, putrefactive infection, mechanical damage, and spotting are unacceptable on planting material. From the proposed assortment, it is worth giving preference to the most powerful and well-developed specimens. Avoiding scions, choose samples with a half-meter root. On self-root bushes must be at least one ten-centimeter shoot.
Site Preparation and Landing Technology
The described variety is characterized by increased requirements for lighting and protection of the site from winds and drafts. The best place for him would be an angle open to sunlight.
Preparatory procedures before the autumn grape planting should be planned for a month, and in the case of spring rooting, it is better to start them in the autumn.
To this end:
- garbage is removed in the selected area;
- dig a hole with a depth and width of 80 cm;
- its bottom is covered with a five-centimeter layer of rubble;
- about 10 cm of fertile soil is poured on top;
- then fill the recess with 2 buckets of compost or chicken droppings;
- re-sprinkle all layers with a fertile substrate (up to 10 cm high);
- mix everything with a shovel;
- they cover the pit with polyethylene, reliably fixing its edges, and leave it to form a specific microclimate.
Important! When rooting grapes, add superphosphate granules to the pit, but it is important to combine all fertilizers as a matter of priority and only then pour the earth .
Planting of grape seedlings is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- For a few hours, dip the seedling in a bowl of water. If desired, you can add a growth stimulator to it - "Kornevin", "Emistim", "EcoSil".
- To prevent the root system from drying out, treat it with a clay mash.
- Open the prepared hole and remove a layer of soil from it, so that the roots are comfortable in the formed recess.
- Water the hole until the ground absorbs moisture.
- Lower the seedling into the pit to the level of the root neck (conditionally it is located just above the roots) and straighten the root processes. They must go deep into the ground - otherwise the plant will not overwinter.
- To exclude the slope of the vine, a wooden stake can be dug into the ground, to which a seedling will later be tied.
- Fill the top with a substrate and carefully tamp.
- Make sure that 2 eyes rise above the ground. If we are talking about a vaccinated bush, the vaccination site should be 3 centimeters above the soil.
- Mulch the trunk circle with sawdust, straw or peat.
Cultivation and care
For the proper development of seedlings of the variety in question, timely watering, top dressing, pruning, as well as tillage and protection from the cold are necessary. The specificity of Victoria is a more thorough care of the young plant for the first 4 years.
Watering and fertilizer
For the ripening of juicy grape brushes, the bush should be regularly watered, avoiding waterlogging and drying out of the soil. Excessive moisture is a favorable environment for the development of pathogens of fungal diseases and putrefactive infections, therefore, in the process of hydration, it is important to consider the location of groundwater in the area.
Bushes at the beginning of the vegetative period and seedlings in the first years after rooting require special attention. It is important to intensify watering during flowering crops and suspend after the formation of the ovary. At this stage of the development of the culture, it is necessary to monitor the state of the soil, because its drying will provoke the shedding of unripened fruits.
The number of irrigations depends on weather conditions and climatic features of the region. So that the plant does not suffer from excess moisture, experienced gardeners advise to make a sewage hole on the edge of the trunk circle.
Important! The grape needs 3-4 feeding: in early spring, 2 weeks before flowering, before the ripeness of the fruit and after they are removed from the vine.
Stable fruiting of Victoria requires periodic acidification of the acid substrate with lime, cement dust, dolomite flour or old plaster. Along with this, regular top dressing with organic and mineral fertilizers is relevant.
- in the spring, add nitrogenous components (urea, ammonium nitrate, chicken manure infusion in a proportion of 1:50);
- during budding during watering, add superphosphates to the water;
- at the end of summer, to strengthen the vine and its preparation for wintering, it is recommended to add potassium, copper;
- during the laying of a new crop, zinc and boric acid will be appropriate.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Due to the intensive accumulation of biomass, it is necessary to form vine bushes every spring. Begin the procedure on two-year-old seedlings before the juice circulation begins. More often, gardeners use fan technology, which provides for 2-3 sprouts in the bush, followed by removal of their tops at the level of 8 ocelli.
Learn how to prune grapes correctly in spring.
Taking into account the fact that Victoria, like other early ripe varieties, gives an intensive growth, in the autumn it is necessary to trim the entire summer growth. During this period, it is not advisable to engage in the formation of a bush, because after intensive pruning, the bush may not overwinter. Left lashes can also cause frostbite and death.
In order to prevent the germination of weeds and retain moisture in the soil, be sure to mulch the trunks after weeding and loosening. The best material for such purposes is sawdust, straw or peat. Coniferous waste and foliage are not recommended for grapes, as they contribute to the oxidation of the soil.
Experienced gardeners advise pouring a layer of about 5–9 cm. Pour material as necessary. It is important to take watering responsibly, because excess moisture is difficult to notice under the mulch, as a result of which a favorable pathogenic environment will form there.
Important! In large vineyards between the bushes, a distance of 1.5 to 2 m is recommended .
In November, before the onset of frost, a small trench should be made near the shrub so that the vine is located in it. Leafless branches are laid carefully so as not to break, after which they are sprinkled with soil on top and covered with roofing material or slate, plastic wrap.
Closer to the onset of heat, all structures are removed to prevent overheating of the culture.
Despite the frost resistance of Victoria, the shelter is of particular importance for the successful wintering of the plant. In spring, with a sharp drop in temperature, grapes are covered with dry branches or hay. Alternatively, smoke it with smoke.
Disease and pest resistance
Resistance of the Victoria grape variety to pathogenic environment and pests is estimated by experts as average.
- Mildew (downy mildew) - spreads over the entire biomass, including inflorescences and fruits. It manifests itself as a yellowish oily spot, which eventually turns gray and becomes covered with a whitish fluff. Subsequently, the foliage curls and crumbles, the shoots dry out. At temperatures below + 8 ° C and above + 30 ° C, pathogens are not viable. For the treatment of culture, spraying with a solution of copper sulfate (5%), followed by treatment of the stems with Bordeaux liquid, is recommended. The procedures are preferably carried out in wet and warm weather. For prevention, the bushes are first sprayed when the vine reaches 20 cm, then after flowering. Alternatively, Ordan, Mancozeb, Ridomil, and copper chloride oxide (0.4%) may come to the rescue. To prevent the development of the disease, it is recommended in the spring to make high-quality pruning, and in summer not to overmoisten the soil. Also, do not use too much nitrogen-containing fertilizer.
- Oidium (powdery mildew) - spreads to all green parts of the bush, is especially common on fruits. Manifested by an ash-gray coating. In advanced cases, the plant stops growing, turns brown and gradually begins to fade. Thick shoots become susceptible to frost. Favorable conditions for the development of oidium are damp and lack of rain (rainwater washes away fungal spores). In the fight against the disease, solutions of Bordeaux mixture, as well as potassium permanganate (0.05%), soda ash (0.5%), Fundazole (0.2%), Topaz, Tilt-250 are effective. For prevention, the first treatment is desirable in the spring, when leafy buds begin to open. Subsequent processing is shown before and after flowering. Colloidal sulfur (1%) can be used in these processing phases. If the situation does not improve, re-treatments are shown every 2 weeks.
- Gray rot - spreads mainly on annual wood, as well as green sprouts, foliage, inflorescences, berries. If no action is taken, the grape brushes will rot on the vine. Manifested by plaque and brown spotting. In advanced cases, it threatens the death of the kidneys and the wilting of the stems. Preventive measures consist of regular spraying of the vineyard with Bordeaux liquid at two-week intervals. The treatment is carried out with the fungicides Ronilan (0.1%), Rovral (0.75%).
- Bacterial cancer - dangerous for old branches, root neck, underground stem, places of vaccination. Manifested by bloating, light growths that turn brown over time. As a result, the bush stops developing and withers. Before starting treatment, it is important to cut off all neoplasms and burn. Then, the treatment of wounds with a solution of copper sulfate (5%) or copper naphthenate (5%) is shown. The probability of a complete cure for the disease is low, so experienced gardeners advise initially to carefully examine young seedlings for galls and growths. If they are found, planting material must be replaced.
- Chlorosis - occurs in conditions of excess or lack of moisture, poor-quality substrate, lack of nutrients. It manifests itself as premature yellowing of the foliage, a lag in the growth of the bush. For prevention, it is recommended to treat the vine with a solution of copper sulfate every fall. Лечение осуществляется фунгицидными препаратами.
Important! Обработку любыми препаратами следует прекратить примерно за месяц до предполагаемого сбора урожая.
Неправильный уход за культурой создаёт благоприятные условия для появления вредоносных насекомых.
Для винограда опасны:
- листовёртка — борьба эффективна при использовании инсектицидов «Токутион», «Цимбуш», «Сумицидин», «Экамет», «Цидиал», «Фозалон», «Севин», «Паратион»;
- филлоксера — обеззараживание кустов проводят инсектицидами «ДИ-68», «Рогор», «Рогор новый», «Данадим», «Фуфанон», «БИ-58 новый»;
- клещи — для борьбы рекомендованы препараты «Кельтан», «Фозалон»;
- медведки — рекомендовано полить почву раствором карбофоса или бензофосфата;
- майские жуки — борьба осуществляется методом механического сбора личинок, а также взрослых особей и дальнейшего их уничтожения;
- осы .
Для устойчивого сорта «Виктория» наибольшую угрозу несут осы, которые слетаются на сочные сладкие ягоды в период их созревания. И если с сосущими паразитами легко справиться благодаря инсектицидам («Актара», «Актеллик»), то в этом случае подобные способы неэффективны.
- уничтожения их гнёзд;
- опрыскивания кустарника хлорофосом;
- своевременной защитой куста специальной сеткой (это нужно сделать до начала созревания ягод).
Виноград «Виктория» обладает множеством достоинств, но, как и другие сорта, требует элементарного ухода. Нарушения агротехники выращивания могут быть чреватыми развитием болезней и гибелью куста.