Grape variety Valyok: characteristics, agricultural cultivation
Delicious white nutmeg of very early ripening is in constant demand among lovers of grapes. Among the innovations of amateur selection possessing the above qualities, the Valyok hybrid aroused interest among winegrowers. He appeared not so long ago and is still being checked, but has already taken root in many areas. Find out the origin of the Valyok grape variety, its characteristics and features, pros and cons, planting and care recommendations.
Hybrid Valek bred on the basis of such well-known and popular table varieties as Talisman (Kesha, FV-6-6), Star and Rizamat. This was done by amateur breeder Vishnevetsky N.P. (Kirovograd region, Ukraine). This variety was bred in northern Ukraine, but due to its qualities it has become popular in the temperate regions of Russia. This new hybrid is still being studied, but has already begun to spread actively among lovers of grapes.
This is an early table variety of white grapes, ripening for 105 days from budding. A tall-growing bush with bisexual flowers gives high yields of sweet white grapes with a nutmeg taste, which begins to manifest itself when berries ripen in late July - early August. It has good frost resistance (-24 ° C). Sugar content of berries reaches 17–19%, acidity 5–6 g / dm³. Resistance to diseases is still being tested, but it is already known that it is not particularly affected by fungal diseases.
Did you know? To make one bottle of wine, you need 600 grapes.
The Valek grape variety grows large clusters of conical shape, densely strewn with berries with a delicious yellowish color. The brushes are large, they can gain mass up to 2–2.5 kg, but weigh on average 684 g. The berries are oval, large, with an average weight of 10–11 g. The vine is powerful, with 1-3 fruit brushes, ripens well. On it are green, medium-sized leaves that have an edge on the underside.
Berries of this variety are overwhelmingly consumed fresh. You can cook compotes from them, make jam. Since the berries have a fairly dense texture and a strong skin, they can be pickled and soaked.
Important! Eating grapes is very useful for cores, as it increases the elasticity of blood vessels, reduces the likelihood of blood clots, removes "bad" cholesterol and lowers blood pressure.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of this hybrid include:
- excellent taste;
- early ripening;
- stable and high yields;
- marketable condition;
- good rooting of cuttings;
- resistance to frost and fungal diseases.
- He has a few disadvantages:
- in the grafted form, it loses its taste somewhat;
- the presence of bones;
- it is necessary to thin out the clusters with scissors after flowering;
- affected by wasps.
To enjoy delicious grape berries, you need to choose the right seedling and prepare a place for planting.
How to choose healthy seedlings when buying
Seedlings are best bought in the spring during the period of mass sales. If it is not possible to make a purchase in nurseries, you should contact the sellers with good recommendations.
- It is necessary to buy a root-own sapling, since this variety is most tasty if grown from rooted cuttings.
- Inspect the seedling for damage and damage. It should not have spots, plaque or other signs of damage.
- It is worth dwelling on specimens grown from cuttings about 1 cm thick.
- It is important to pay attention to the development of the roots. This is easy to do if the container in which the planting material is sold is transparent. For opaque containers, the drain hole must be inspected. Well, if the roots are visible in it.
- If the seedling is not sold in containers, then cut off the root tip. It should not be dry.
Where to plant on the site
The place where the seedling will grow should be well lit by the sun. Highlands and small slopes are ideal, especially those directed to the south. If you decide to throw a vigorous variety on an arch or a gazebo, you should prefer the south side of the buildings when there is such an opportunity. 1.5–2 m should be retreated from the walls of buildings.
Important! Grapes are considered an undemanding crop, but they should be discarded from growing it in strongly acidic, saline or swampy areas.
It is good if there are trees that protect the grapes from the winds, but they should not be closer to the seedling closer than 3 m. From trees with a strong root system (oak, walnut, poplar), the indentation will be even more - 5 m. Bushes of overgrown grapes should located at a distance of 2.5–3 m from other bushes and with row spacings of 3-4 m. The optimum occurrence of groundwater is 2.5 m and no closer than 1.5 m. For grapes, chernozems, loams and sandy loams are excellent. It can grow on clay and rocky ground, but it will need to be enriched with organic matter.
How to plant
It is best to plant a seedling in the spring when the weather is warm and the threat of frost has finally passed. A grape pit should be prepared early. It is often prepared since the fall, or at least a couple of weeks before planting. The dimensions of the planting pit for grape seedlings are 0.8 × 0.8 m, and the depth is 0.7 m. The upper layer of soil is excavated in a separate place; it is mixed with humus or rotted manure and put to the bottom of the pit. You can add ash or some mineral fertilizers to this mixture.
Find out when it is best to plant grapes.
A fertile layer is poured on top to the depth of the roots of the seedling. Before planting, the seedling is recommended to withstand one day in water. In the planting pit, a depression is made, a seedling is placed in it and the roots are straightened to it. Then gently fall asleep in fertile soil and carefully compact it; the root neck should remain above ground level. Next, a pair of buckets of water is poured under the bush. At first, the young seedling should be covered from the hot rays of the sun, and it is recommended to cover the earth from drying with mulch.
The white table grape variety Valyok is considered unpretentious and produces crops in different conditions. To get a good harvest, you need to properly care for him.
Valyok grapes are unpretentious in watering: for the whole year it is enough to water it abundantly 3 times. Watering is done before flowering, and then during the formation of the fruit. If the weather is too dry, you need to carry out watering unscheduled. Watering should be under the root - moisture on the foliage can cause burns from sunlight. At least two buckets of water should be poured under each bush.
Prop and garter shoots
Typically, the garter is carried out twice - in the spring, after removing the shelter for the winter, and in the summer, when shoots grow. After the shoots reach 40-50 cm, the time comes for the green garter, which is necessary to protect against gusts of wind and for better pollination.
Important! In the spring, a garter should be done before the formation of the kidneys, so that during the procedure not to damage them.
For this purpose, use the following materials:
- old nylon tights;
- rags, soft in structure;
- special ribbons that can be purchased at the garden store.
It is necessary to feed the grapes, which coincides with the time of watering.
Read also about how to properly feed grapes in the fall.
Thus, top dressing is applied at least three times during the growing season:
- Immediately after opening the bushes, it is recommended to introduce organic fertilizers . You should adhere to such doses - for 1 m² of planting about 6-8 kg of manure and 90-100 g of ash.
- Before flowering, fertilizing with mineral fertilizers should be made in the following proportion - 3 parts of nitrogen, 2 parts of phosphorus, 1 part of potassium. This mixture in an amount of 30 g is diluted in a bucket of liquid and at least 1-2 buckets are poured under each bush.
- During the initial formation of berries make mineral fertilizers . 60–70 g of superphosphate and 20–25 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in a bucket of water.
These top dressings are quite enough to get a good harvest. For better assimilation of nutrients, grape growers recommend digging a trench along bushes 60–65 cm deep and making them there. This will allow the fertilizer to get as close to the root system as possible.
After irrigation, it is recommended to loosen the soil in order to improve the flow of moisture and air to the crop. During cultivation, weed removal must be carried out so that it does not draw moisture and nutrients from the soil, inhibiting the growth and development of grapes. To eliminate drying out of the soil, it is recommended to mulch around the bush. As mulch, you can use moss, sawdust, peat, sand, humus.
Did you know? In the United States, a study was conducted that showed the positive effect of eating fresh grapes on the retina. The experimental group that consumed a lot of grapes under oxidative stress retained photoreceptors and their activity, the thickness of the retina. The group without grapes on the menu showed a strong retinal thinning, a decrease in photoreceptors by 40%.
This grape variety needs periodic pruning. When planting young seedlings during the year, pruning can be omitted. In adult bushes, it is necessary to remove damaged, dry, diseased shoots and parts. Experts advise breaking off the shoots after the formation of antennae and inflorescences, but before the shoot begins to stiffen. The process of breaking off goes in the direction from bottom to top. The strongest shoots are left for fruiting and further renewal of the plant culture.
You will also be interested to know how to prune grapes correctly in spring.
The leaves that obscure the brushes need to be removed - because in order for the grapes to ripen and be sweet in time, they need enough sunlight. This procedure is carried out 2-3 weeks before the ripening of berries. Near each brush of grapes no more than 5 leaves are removed so as not to harm the plant. In the fall, before shelter for the winter, you also need to trim. If this is not done, then the bush will grow, which will negatively affect the yield of grapes.
The grapes of the Valyok variety are quite frost-resistant and calmly tolerates frosts up to -24 ° C. In areas with mild winters, without severe frosts, you can not hide it. But if winters in the region can take place with severe frosts, it is better to take care of protection from the cold. Shelter is done when the first cold nights with frost come.
Did you know? Grapes can cause allergies, but white grapes are much less likely to cause allergic reactions than black ones.
Bushes to prevent fungal diseases are treated with chemicals (Bordeaux liquid). Hybrid variety Valyok, with proper care, will please lovers of white grapes of nutmeg taste with an excellent harvest. This variety is unpretentious and has a stable and early fruiting.