Grape variety “Valentina”: photo and description, agricultural cultivation
White grape varieties are rich in vitamins, micro, macrocells and other substances useful to the body. One of these varieties is Valentina grapes. Every year it gives a big crop, has a pleasant aroma, clusters are large, unpretentious to the conditions of care, so it can be bred at home.
Grapes "Valentine" was bred by scientists-breeders VNIIViV them. Ya. I. Potapenko in the city of Novocherkassk of the Russian Federation by crossing varieties "Summer Muscat", "Arcadia" and "Delight". The catalogs have a selection number IV – 8–7 – ppc.
This grape variety is a table grape, medium ripening - 130-140 days after the start of the growing season. Buds bloom in late April, flowering begins in early June, fruit ripening in early August. Harvest in mid-September. Productivity is high. Begins to bear fruit already next year, increasing productivity by 1.5–2 times. Fertility is 75%. Bushes are winter-hardy, withstand frosts down to –22 ° C. The pulp is tender, fleshy, juicy, melting in the mouth, tastes like a light muscat aroma, which can vary depending on climatic conditions. The amount of sugar in the berry is from 16 to 19%, the acidity is 6 g / l.
Grapes "Valentine" has strong bushes, a growing vine. The brush grows slightly loose, large, cylindrical, long (up to 40 cm), weighing from 1000 to 1500 g. The berries are large, amber-yellow in color with brown dots, up to 20 mm wide, up to 40 mm long, weighing up to 10 g. Form fruit elongated and slightly curved. The skin is thin. The seed is large, light brown, in the berry 1-3 pcs.
Did you know? The total area of all vineyards on the planet is 80 thousand square kilometers.
Besides the fact that Valentina grapes have a wonderful taste and are used fresh, it is also used for making wine and juices.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Grapes "Valentine" has the following advantages:
- Tastes sweet
- hardy during transportation over long distances;
- high yielding;
- resistant to gray rot, mildew, oidium;
- unpretentious to climatic conditions;
- It has a beautiful presentation.
- the skin cracks from exposure to frequent rains;
- Not all buyers like the appearance due to brown dots. Varietal feature of Valentine's grapes is "caulk."
“Valentina” grapes take root well after planting, but for success it is necessary to know the basic rules for choosing seedlings and planting them in the soil.
How to choose quality seedlings when buying
In order to get a high grape crop in the future, you need to be able to choose the right seedlings correctly.
The main criteria for proper selection:
- check the appearance - the roots should be well developed, have a healthy appearance, have a white or milky color on the cut, the number of at least 3-4 thick roots. Healthy undamaged stems when notched look like fresh wood of bright green color, the vine is brown in color with 3-5 buds, they should not peel off or fall off;
- it is necessary to buy seedlings during the period of mass sales and best of all in nurseries or from trusted suppliers;
- when buying a grafted seedling, check the place of growth of the scion with the stock, which should be fused around the entire circumference.
Where to plant on the site
The optimal conditions for planting grapes "Valentine" will be:
- large open sunny space away from large trees and protected from drafts;
- the soil should be light with a lot of black soil;
- the depth of groundwater - at least 3 meters;
- if there are few useful substances in the soil, then you need to fertilize with organic and mineral fertilizers throughout the season.
Important! You can not abundantly water the grapes during the flowering period. From this, flowers can crumble.
How to plant
Important measures in planting seedlings are also such:
- You can plant in both spring and autumn. For spring, the pluses are that the seedling is easier to take root and grow stronger in the cold weather, you can prepare the soil in advance, it is easier to predict the weather conditions. Cons - after the onset of heat, various pathogens appear, frosts can occur, the soil may not be moist enough. For autumn, the pros - a large selection of seedlings, moist soil, the rapid growth of seedlings. Cons - an unexpected sharp cooling, the seedling will not have time to take root.
- The choice of place is that it should be well lit, warmed up by the sun, the soil is best suited for chernozem, sandy loam or loamy.
- Planting scheme - 4 by 6 meters.
- Pit up to 80 cm deep, 40-60 cm in diameter.
- At the bottom of the pit, make a drainage layer of fine stone or gravel, pour 2–3 buckets of chernozem mixed with humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 1: 1, with the addition of fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium chloride or sulfate). In the middle of the hole, make an embankment on which the seedling is placed, spread its roots evenly, add 1-2 buckets of water, and cover it with soil on top. Sapling roots can be dipped in a clay mash. If the seedling is short, then it must be planted vertically, if more than 25 cm, then under a slight slope. The earth around the seedling is rammed.
- The root neck is the place where the root goes into the stem. In open areas where the ground freezes quickly, planting up to a depth of 30-50 cm is used, which will protect the roots of grapes from frost. And for clay soil and places where a lot of snow accumulates in winter, a landing depth of 10–20 cm is suitable.
Video: planting grape seedlings
Features of seasonal care
To increase the harvest, Valentina grapes require constant self-care, which consists of proper watering, fertilizing the soil and bushes, garter shoots, pruning and protection from the cold.
There are several types of watering grapes:
- drip - it consists in the fact that water enters the roots in small portions already warmed up, is distributed evenly and economically, it does not need to be controlled. Thanks to this type of irrigation, the root system develops, the soil does not need to be loosened constantly, moisture does not evaporate, does not become infected with fungal diseases. In this way, you can make fertilizers that fall directly under the roots;
- sprinkling irrigation is an unsafe method, since there may be a risk of mold infection on the leaves;
- underground - consists in the fact that underground pipes are brought to the bushes.
When the berries begin to ripen, the bushes should be watered often, and after watering, the soil should be loosened.
An adult vine is watered several times a year with an average of 6–7 buckets of water:
- before the buds bloom;
- after flowering of grapes;
- when the berries are the size of a pea;
- late fall.
During spring planting, young seedlings should be watered with 2–4 buckets of warm, settled water. Then, until July, pour 4 buckets of water every 2 weeks. The regime and type of irrigation can be adjusted depending on the amount of rainfall and the type of soil.
Did you know? If parsley is sown under grapes, it will protect it from garden pests and help increase yield.
Seedlings and adult bushes can be fed in parallel with watering. The most important grapes for Valentina are organic and mineral fertilizers. Organic ones include humus, compost, bird droppings, manure, due to which the earth becomes permeable, microorganisms develop in it.
To mineral belong:
- nitrogen - necessary before flowering, during the growth of shoots and leaves;
- phosphorus - required during flowering;
- potassium - needed to prepare the bushes for winter, used in late summer - early fall;
- copper - provides resistance to climatic conditions of shoots, fertilize in the fall before the first frost;
- boron and zinc - are responsible for increasing the sugar content of berries and increasing yield.
One-component fertilizers can be used, or complex (consisting of several trace elements) can be used.
Important! It is not recommended to fill the film coating with earth.
Prop and garter shoots
Since Valentina grapes belong to climbing plants, you can hold it vertically with a reliable support, which is still needed so that the vine does not lie on the ground and does not rot the clusters, so that the plants and clusters are well lit.
There are such types of supports:
- straight columnar - wire or cables are stretched in several rows between vertically placed posts;
- semiarca - a decorative canopy is made to protect from the sun.
In this case, a straight columnar support is used. Garter is necessary for the proper formation of the vine and the effective ripening of berries. The first tying, or "dry", is carried out before the buds open. It lies in the fact that the shoots are tied horizontally to the wire from below. To do this, you can use old ribbons, bandages, cut-off fabrics, etc. The next, or “green”, tying occurs when the overgrown shoots reach a length of 35–40 cm. They are fixed in an upright position on the wire above. And this happens several times as the shoots grow.
High-quality soil care ensures the development of the root system of Valentina grapes and, accordingly, increases its productivity. In the spring after the first garter, the soil around the bushes and between them is dug to a depth of 20–25 cm with a radius of 50–70 cm. In the summer period, after each watering (after 2–3 days), they are loosened to a depth of 15–20 cm. In autumn, they are dug to a depth of 20– 25 cm. Before the onset of cold weather, the soil around the plants is mulched with straw, humus, compost, sawdust, peat for weed control, soil erosion, providing moisture for a long time.
Did you know? White grape varieties have a high concentration of organic acids, which contribute to the rejuvenation of the body.
For this grape variety, short and medium pruning is suitable:
- The short one is that 2–4 eyes are left on the shoot. Such shoots are called substitution knots. Their role is that they form a bush and rejuvenate the plant. Moreover, if on the knot of substitution the first eye is directed inward from the base, then three more kidneys are left on it. After that, the shoot grown from the first eye breaks off, and a new shoot grows from the upper eye, which forms a bush. Thanks to this method, no more than 40 eyes remain on the branches.
- The average is that on each branch leave 5-8 eyes, and on all shooters of the bush - 40-50 eyes. This helps maintain frost-resistant bends.
It is better to prune Valentina grapes in the autumn season.
Grapes "Valentine" shelter for the winter. And before you do this, you need to prepare the bushes:
- Treat them with a 3% solution of iron or copper sulfate.
- Dig the soil around the plants.
- If necessary, water and fertilize the bushes.
- Do not tightly tie the pruned vine and gently bend it 10–20 cm from the ground.
After the first cold weather begins, you can cover the plants.
You will be interested to know if grapes can cause allergies and how they manifest.
There are several types of shelters:
- Earthy - lies in the fact that the vine is covered with earth 30–40 cm thick, which can still be insulated on top with slate, roofing material, boards.
- Slate - sprinkle the vine with hay, sawdust or wrap with burlap, install pieces of slate on top in the form of a house, securing them with stones or bricks.
- Shelter with wooden boards - use boxes or cooked wooden boards. The vine is sprinkled with sawdust, hay or wrapped in burlap, covered with boxes or shields insulated with roofing material.
- Film - metal arcs are installed on the shoots, they are covered with a plastic film, leaving small gaps.
Propagation by cuttings
“Valentina” grapes are perfectly propagated by cuttings, which is a simple process and consists of the following actions:
- Cuttings are prepared during pruning in the fall from the strongest shoots without signs of stiffness.
- On the handle, there should be from 2 well-developed kidneys.
- The cuttings are wrapped with a cloth dampened with water and stored in a refrigerator or cellar for storage.
- Periodically wet the fabric.
- At the beginning of January, healthy cuttings are selected, dried and processed in diluted potassium permanganate for 10–12 hours, after which they are placed in clean warm water for 1–2 days.
- After the cuttings are checked: cut below 0.5 cm, if the cut is light green, then the cuttings are healthy.
- The selected cuttings are soaked for 20-24 hours in a fertilizer that stimulates the growth of the root system (“Heteroauxin”, “Humate”, bee honey).
- The bottom of the cuttings is wrapped with a damp cloth and plastic film to retain moisture.
- They put on the windowsill the lower part to the batteries, the top to the light, periodically checking to see if they have dried out.
- After the appearance of the leaves, the condition of the roots is checked and planted in the prepared place.
Video: propagation of grapes by cuttings
Since Valentina grapes are a very tasty variety, unpretentious to the conditions for caring for it, and yield a high yield, it can be grown at home even by unprofessional gardeners, following all the tips outlined in the article.