Grape variety Rofshore
In order to get stable and high yields, it is important to successfully select a grape variety. The article will discuss one of the unpretentious varieties bred by a Russian breeder, called Rochefort.
Description of Rochefort grape variety
To start, let us dwell on the detailed description of the hybrid. It is reckoned to table grades. The hybrid was bred by amateur breeder Yevgeny Pavlovsky from Russia, who crossed two varieties - Talisman and Cardinal.
Did you know? Grape wine is the oldest alcoholic beverage in the world. Winemaking originated in the Neolithic era in the Middle East, and about 6 thousand years ago it began to develop in Transcaucasia and in the territory of modern Iran.
Description of appearance
The plant gives high shoots reaching a height of 1.35 m. Bunches form large, in the form of cones or cylinders. The mass of one cluster is approximately 0.5–1 kg. The grapes are large, oval in shape. Their length is 2.8 cm, width is 2.5 cm. The average weight of one berry is 8–13 g. Depending on how ripe they are, grapes can be dark red in unripe form, dark blue in the period maturity and black - in an overripe state.
Rochefort has the following characteristics:
- it is easy to care for him;
- He has excellent product data;
- the fruits ripen in the early stages - over 105-110 days;
- the plant tolerates cold;
- shoots are growing fast.
Grapes have excellent taste characteristics, have a pleasant musky note. The pulp is fleshy, juicy, with a small amount of seeds - from 1 to 4. The skin is dense, but chewed well. The grape sugar content is 14–18%. Acids in it contain about 4-7%.
Learn how to make pitted grape jam.
The hybrid shows average yield indicators - from 4 to 6 kg from one bush. With excellent agricultural technology and increased attention to the plant from one bush in a favorable year, you can collect up to 10 kg of the crop.
One of the main advantages of the hybrid is its frost resistance. The grapes are able to withstand the lowering of the thermometer to -23 ° C. However, it does not recover well after exposure to through winds, therefore, when choosing a site, it is necessary to give preference to one that is sheltered from drafts from all sides.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of Rochefort grapes are worth mentioning:
- excellent survival of cuttings;
- bisexual flowering, providing good pollination and yields;
- early harvest;
- excellent transportability of bunches;
- attractive appearance of the fruit;
- excellent taste characteristics of berries;
- good resistance to infection with mildew, oidium;
- non-susceptibility to burning.
- The disadvantages include:
- vulnerability to phylloxera;
- average yield.
Planting grapes and necessary preparatory procedures
A huge impact on the growth, development and yield of grapes is provided by the correct planting, as well as the competent selection of the site, planting material and soil.
Important! When planting purchased seedlings, it is necessary to select those that have white undamaged roots and green incisions.
There are 2 ways to plant grapes:
- With the help of seedlings.
- Grafting cuttings.
Planting with your own seedlings
Cuttings for spring planting need to be prepared in the fall. Root them in containers with water. Then they need to be stored in cool conditions. Before planting, the site is carefully checked for the presence of phylloxera.
- 10–14 days before the planned planting, dig a hole with dimensions corresponding to the root system of plants — an average of about 80 cm in depth and width.
- Pour the soil saturated with nutrients, 2 buckets of humus, fertile soil at the bottom of the landing pit.
- On the day of planting, put the bush in the center of the pit so that the root neck is at the level of its edge.
- Cover up with remaining soil.
- Water abundantly.
- Install trellis or support pegs.
- Mulch the near-stem circle with mowed grass, peat, sawdust, moss, etc.
Grafting cuttings to stock
To make a landing using vaccination, you need:
- Cut the old bush, leaving 10 cm from the soil.
- Split the stump into 2 parts.
- Insert the trimmed end of the scion into it.
- Tightly tied.
- To carry out a plentiful coating with moistened clay.
Important! For the scion, it is better to choose varieties that are resistant to phylloxera (Muscat Livadia, Bukovinka, Amateur, Gift of Magarach, etc.).
When to plant: autumn or spring
Grapes can be planted both in autumn and spring. The exact timing of planting will depend on climatic conditions. In autumn, bushes are usually planted in mid-October. After being placed in the ground, they are immediately covered for wintering.
Where to plant
The best place to plant grapes is a well-lit, unshaded place. An excellent location option is the south or southwest side of the building. It is necessary to control that groundwater is not close to the site. They should be located no closer than 2–2.5 m to the surface of the earth.
Read also about why grapes dry and how to deal with it.
The distance between the bushes
When planting, the recommended interval between the bushes - 2 m should be observed. From the construction to the grapes, a minimum distance of 1 m should be maintained.
Loams, sandy loam, clay soil are suitable for growing Rochefort. When cultivated in sandy soil, a decrease in the number of shoots and a slowdown in plant growth is observed.
Features of care for the Rochefort variety
The hybrid will not cause much trouble to the owner. He is able to bear tasty fruits, even if the owner pays him a minimum of time. But, of course, maximum productivity can be achieved only with regular and high-quality care, which consists in the implementation of watering, top dressing, pruning, preventive treatments against diseases and harmful insects.
You will also be interested to know why the grapes on the bush wither.
Watering and mulching
Particular attention should be paid to grapes in such phases of development:
- crop formation.
It is during these periods that the bushes are especially in need of moisture and fertilizing. Watering is carried out 1 time in 3-4 weeks. Additional watering will be required in the dry season. Water for humidification is taken warm. After each watering, you will need to mulch the trunk circle. Mandatory procedures also include soil care - loosening and weeding. Loosen the earth after each irrigation and rainfall.
Grape top dressing
Grape bushes can be fed up to 5 times per season. The first 3 bait must certainly contain nitrogen. Subsequent - phosphorus and potassium.
Important! Fertilizers should be applied only at the recommended periods and clearly observing the dosage. The uncontrolled introduction of bait weakens the vine bushes, making them vulnerable to damage from diseases and harmful insects.
You can create your own fertilizer application schedule, or you can use the following table:
|Application Time||Fertilizer Options|
|Before the growing season (at air temperature + 16 ° С)||1. Superphosphate (20 g) + potassium salt (5 g) + ammonium nitrate (10 g). Consumption - 10 l / 1 bush.|
2. Complex fertilizer.
|Before flowering||1. Superphosphate (20 g) + potassium salt (5 g) + ammonium nitrate (10 g) + boric acid (5 g). Consumption - 10 l / 1 bush.|
2. Nitrofoska (60–70 g / 10 l).
3. Mullein (2 kg / 5 l): insist 2-3 days, dilute with water to 12 l.
4. Bird droppings (50 g / 10 l), insist 2-5 days.
|After flowering||Kalimagnesia (10 g) + ammonium nitrate (20 g) + water (10 l).|
|10–20 days before harvest||Superphosphate (20 g) + potassium fertilizer without chlorine (20 g) + 10 l of water.|
|Fall||1. Potassium salt (10 g) + superphosphate in granules (20 g) + boric acid (1 g) + zinc sulfate (2 g) + manganese sulfate (2 g) + potassium iodine (1 g).|
2. Overripe manure (2 kg / 1 m²).
3. Liquid bird droppings (1 kg / 1 liter of water / 1 m²).
4. Wood ash (300 g 10 l of water / 1 m²).
Pruning is done to stimulate the growth of new shoots and increase the yield of the bush. Every year in the spring, grape shoots are trimmed, leaving 6-8 eyes each. In the spring, sanitary pruning is carried out - old, dead, sick, damaged shoots are removed. Autumn pruning is done after fruiting. On the left and on the right, 3 already-prolific vines are left, the remaining shoots are cut off.
Shelter of vines for the winter
There are several ways to cover grapes:
- ground - the vines are laid in grooves and covered with a layer of soil (15–20 cm);
- wooden shields, which are installed on both sides of the beds and closed with a "house";
- slate - the vines are twisted, laid in bags, then in dug ditches, and then covered;
- coniferous branches .
Which way to choose depends on the climatic conditions and possibilities of the grower. Before sheltering the vines, it is advisable to whitewash them to protect them from mold and spotty necrosis. Important! Before preparing the grapes for winter, a month before shelter, grapes must be watered abundantly - 20 liters for each bush.
It should be understood that the method of shelter must be thought out before placing grape seedlings in the ground, since the planting technology will depend on it.
How to deal with typical varieties of diseases and pests
Since the Rochefort hybrid is resistant to mildew and oidium infection, there is no need for preventive treatments against these ailments. But here from diseases caused by fungi, and from parasites spraying will be needed.
- In the spring, when the shoots reach a height of 10 cm, Bordeaux liquid, copper chloride and colloidal sulfur.
- Before flowering - "Strobe" or other systemic fungicide.
- After flowering - the mixture used during the first treatment.
With errors in care, the plant can be sick and affected by phylloxera, grape mites, nematodes, and small rodents. If the plant is chosen by a tick, then it is necessary to treat with acaricides as soon as possible, for example, Actellic, Tiovit Jet. It will take 2-3 sprays at weekly intervals. Rodents are expelled by laying baits next to grape bushes ("Storm", "Tricot", "Blockade").
Did you know? The remains of grapevine were found by archaeologists in Iran. It is believed that it was manufactured in 5400-5000 years. BC e. And the oldest winery known today is excavated in Armenia. It dates from 4100-4000 years. BC e.
With phylloxera and nematode they struggle with 4–5-fold sprayings with insecticides “Actellik”, “Fozalon”. However, if the aphid has hit the root system, then it will not be possible to get rid of it. If yellow, brown, light spots are noticed on the leaves, then this is a signal to the owner of the site to beware and look for what the grapes got infected with. This may indicate fungal diseases that must be treated with fungicides (Ridomil Gold, Strobi, Polykhom, Topaz).