Grape variety of raisin "Veles"
The Veles grape variety is primarily valued due to the lack of seeds in the berries. What advantages he still possesses, you will learn by reading our material.
Variety selection history
Grapes "Veles" bred not so long ago. For winegrowers, its seedlings became available in 2009. The author of the variety is the national breeder from Ukraine Vitaliy Zagorulko. “Veles” was created by crossing the varieties “Sofia” and “Rusball”. The breeder was able to ensure that the newly created grapes surpassed their parents in terms of ripening speed. A year after its creation, the hybrid received 2 gold medals at an international competition. It is suitable for cultivation in the south of Ukraine, Russia, in Belarus.
Description of the grape variety Veles
We begin our acquaintance with the variety with a detailed description of its appearance, characteristics of the fruit, its application, and an overview of the advantages and disadvantages. The Veles bushes grow very quickly; by winter, the branches have time to mature almost the entire length. Their height reaches 3-5 m. The leaves are saturated green in color, have 5 blades and teeth along the edge. Autumn leaves turn yellow or acquire a golden hue. The flowers are collected in large inflorescences, they are bisexual. It is common for bushes of this variety to form stepsons on fruiting vines. They also bear fruit, but already in the fall. Thus, we can say that the Veles grape has 2 periods of fruiting - at the end of summer and in the middle of autumn.
Did you know? The calorie content of 1 kilo of grapes (approximately 1–1.5 clusters of the Veles variety) is 750–800 kcal, and this provides 25–30% of a person’s daily energy requirement.
Characteristics of berries
The clusters of the variety are formed large, medium density, broadly conical. Their average length is 30 cm, width is 20 cm. The weight of one cluster is from 0.6 to 2 kg. Individual brushes can reach a mass of 3 kilos. In the clusters there are pink berries, each of which weighs 5 g. Their flesh is dense, juicy, tastes good with a nutmeg note, is covered with a medium-thick skin that chews well. In the pulp, seed embryos can be present, which are almost not felt when eating.
Sugar content and acidity
Sugar content of fruits depends on the region and place of growth, climatic conditions and the amount of sunlight consumed. It can range from 18 to 20%. Acidity is low - from 3 ppm to 9 g per 1 liter.
Did you know? After analyzing the DNA of 110 modern grape varieties, scientists came to the conclusion that almost all of their ancient relatives grew up in what is now Georgia. Here, archaeologists found the earliest evidence of a developed winemaking culture and a vessel with the remains of wine, dated 8 thousand BC. e.
Productivity and fruiting
Veles is a very early variety. He begins to bear fruit 95-100 days after the appearance of buds on the shoots. Harvest can be taken from late August to early October. Bushes enter fruiting in the 3rd year of life. The average yield is 4-6 kg per bush.
These factors are influenced by several factors:
- quality of care and, in particular, trim;
- load level per bush;
- compliance with preventive measures against diseases and harmful insects.
Fields of application
Berries of the Veles variety can be used for eating raw, making juice, compote, jam and making raisins.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The variety is characterized by an average level of frost resistance - without harm to development, growth and productivity, it can winter at temperatures up to –21 ° С. Grape bushes can tolerate only short-term droughts without damage. They must be moisturized regularly.
Important! Since the Veles grape has bisexual flowers, pollination occurs on its own. However, if it is additionally pollinated artificially, it is possible to increase productivity by 20–25%.
Disease and pest resistance
Grapes are characterized by medium resistance to mildew and oidium, so preventive treatments are mandatory for it.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the variety include:
- high growth rate;
- early ripening;
- aesthetic appearance of clusters;
- high tasting qualities of fruits;
- bisexual flowers, which ensures good pollination and yields;
- consistently high yield;
- 3rd class of seedlessness;
- excellent transportability of bunches;
- rapid rooting of seedlings;
- universal purpose of berries.
- Among the shortcomings are worth mentioning:
- the tendency of berries to crack in high humidity conditions;
- clusters are poorly separated from the vines.
Features of growing grapes
So that the grapes grow well and delight with annual harvests, it must be correctly planted. This means that you need to choose a good place, prepare the soil, choose the right planting material, and plant at the recommended time according to a certain pattern.
Grapes can be planted in autumn and spring. The exact timing of planting will depend on climatic conditions. In autumn, berry bushes are planted in mid-October. After being placed in the ground, they are immediately covered for wintering. In spring, grapes are planted when steady warm weather sets in: from late March to mid-April. Those seedlings that have green shoots need to be planted later: in May - June. In the case of a forecast for return frosts, the bushes will also need to be covered.
Preplanting soil preparation
Place for landing you need to choose a well-lit, unshaded. An excellent location option is the south or southwest side of the building. It is necessary that the sun illuminates the vines from morning to 3 pm. The site should be well protected from through winds. It is necessary to control that groundwater is not close to the site. They should be located no closer than 2–2.5 m. Plots that are flooded in spring should also be avoided.
If possible, it is best to place grapes on the slopes. Soil preparation is carried out in the fall. It consists in the thorough cleaning of plant debris, cleansing of stumps, deep digging and leveling. If you plan to take a large plantation for grapes, then the plantation is done. In autumn, you can feed the soil with organic fertilizers.
Important! To buy seedlings is necessary only in well-established nurseries. So you will be sure that they are of high quality and belong to the variety that you need.
Selection and preparation of planting material
There are certain requirements for planting material:
- In grafted seedlings, the graft with stock should be spliced round.
- You need to choose those instances that have a strong and well-developed root system.
- The optimal seedling length is 45 cm for cultivation on dense soils and 65 cm for cultivation on sandy soil and sandy loam.
The day before planting with seedlings, you must perform the following manipulations:
- Shorten the roots of the seedling to 10-15 cm.
- Trim the shoots, leaving only 2 that grow in different directions.
- Shorten these branches, leaving 1-3 eyes on them.
- Soak for 24 hours in water.
- Immediately before planting, hold the roots for several hours in a clay-dung mill or in the preparation "Humat".
The scheme of planting seedlings
The technology of planting seedlings is as follows:
- 10-14 days before the day when it is planned to place seedlings in the ground, you need to dig a hole. Depending on the size of the root system, its depth and width are 50–80 cm.
- If fertilizers were not applied in the fall, then it is necessary to prepare the soil from a mixture of humus, compost, superphosphate and wood ash.
- At the bottom of the pit lay a drainage layer 25 cm high of expanded clay, broken brick, gravel, crushed stone.
- Set the seedling in the center of the pit, spreading the roots.
- Sprinkle with fertilized soil so that the root neck of the seedling rises 1-1.5 cm above the soil.
- Tamp lightly.
- Water using 10 l of water per bush.
- Around the stalk pour a mound from the soil with a height of 15–20 cm.
- Install support stakes or trellis.
Video: planting grape seedlings
Subsequent grape care raisins Veles
This sultry variety is easy to care for. The list of mandatory activities during its cultivation includes:
- top dressing;
- soil care;
- shelter for the winter;
- preventive spraying against diseases and harmful insects.
Learn more about how to water grapes correctly and how often.
Also mandatory procedures include soil care - loosening and weeding. Loosen the earth after each irrigation and rainfall. Loosening is necessary to prevent the formation of a hard crust on the surface of the soil, to improve its air and moisture permeability. On loose soil, mineral substances will be better delivered to the roots. As necessary, weeds should be removed.
This will avoid the development of certain diseases and insect parasites, and also will not allow weeds to take nutrients from the vine bushes. Five times a season you will need to feed the plant. The first 3 bait must certainly contain nitrogen. Subsequent - phosphorus and potassium. For top dressing, ready-made complex mineral fertilizers or organics are used.
Pruning is done by making a fan multi-sleeve form or trellis forming on a high and low stem. When pruning, shoots with 6–8 eyes are cut from shoots. The procedure is performed with a sharp disinfected secateurs. Every spring, sick, damaged and dead shoots are cut off. In autumn, if the bush is being prepared for shelter, then all the shoots are cut, leaving only 3 prolific vines on the left and right sides.
Read more about proper pruning of grapes in spring.
How to tie and pinch grapes
Young shoots are tied 3-4 times per season - starting in early spring (during sap flow) and ending before budding. The garter allows you to direct the growth of the vine in the right direction so that it develops correctly, protect it from fungal infections, improve the yield and quality of fruits, and facilitate harvesting.
The first ("dry") spring tying is done immediately after trimming. The shoots are tied to the lower tier trellis. Untouched knots will soon give green shoots, and they will also need to be tied up when they reach a height of 30 cm. The “green” garter is carried out vertically or at an angle. Next time, the shoots are tied up when they reach the upper tier of the trellis.
Harvesting birds and insects
Veles grapes are rarely affected by wasps and birds. However, if you notice that this is still happening, then in order to preserve the crop, it is urgent to take measures - purchase special protective nets in a specialized store and put them on every bunch. The option of sheltering landings with thin nylon nets intended for fishing is also possible. Nets are hung on both sides of the trellis, protecting the vines 1–1.5 m.
You will be interested to know how to properly care for grapes in the summer.
A huge danger to grapes is phylloxera or aphids. This pest is controlled by 4–5-fold sprayings with the insecticides Actellik and Fozalon. However, if the aphid has hit the root system, then it will not be possible to get rid of it. As a preventive measure, soil is cultivated before planting, weeds and plant debris are removed in a timely manner.
Preparing the culture for winter
In southern regions where mild winters are possible, grape growing without shelter is possible. Where frosts are observed, reaching –20 ° C, the vines must be covered. A month before preparing for winter, grapes begin to be watered intensively. So the plant will be easier to transfer the cold. After the first frosts, before severe frosts are predicted, it is necessary to shelter. For this purpose, use wood shields, soil, slate, spruce spruce branches.
Methods of propagation of grapes
This grape variety can be propagated in two ways:
- Grafted or root-growing seedlings.
Learn more about how to properly grow grapes from cuttings.
Vaccination is carried out as follows:
- Cut the old bush, leaving 10 cm from the soil.
- Thoroughly clean it.
- Split the stump into 2 parts.
- Insert the wedged end of the scion into it.
- Tightly tied.
- Carry out a plentiful coating with moistened clay.
Video: propagation of grapes
Diseases, methods of control and prevention
The most dangerous for grapes are mildew and oidium diseases.
Since the resistance of the Veles variety to these ailments is average, it is important to carry out preventive spraying:
- For the first time, when the shoots reach a height of 10 cm. A mixture is prepared from Bordeaux liquid, copper chloroxide and colloidal sulfur.
- The second time - before flowering. It will be necessary to prepare the preparation "Strobi" or another systemic fungicide in accordance with the instructions.
- The third time - after flowering. Spraying is carried out in the same mixture as in the first treatment.
We recommend that you learn about spraying grapes with baking soda.
Also, grapes can be sick with anthracnose, chlorosis, bacteriosis and rubella:
- Anthracnose appears as brown spots on leaves with a dark rim. In the future, other organs also suffer. Prevention consists in 2-fold spraying with a 1% Bordeaux liquid or a solution of copper oxychloride. The interval between treatments is 14 days. Anthracnose is treated by spraying with 3% Bordeaux fluid.
- A sign of chlorosis is lightening of the leaves. You can prevent it by properly planting bushes, pouring a layer of drainage into the planting pits, regularly mulching the soil, thinning out the plantings and enriching the soil with microelements.
- With bacteriosis, dark depressed spots appear on leaves, berries and stems, shoots dry out. In order to prevent it, it is necessary to withstand cuttings before planting in warm water, timely treatment from pests, pruning with a disinfected tool only, and not over-moistening the soil.
- Rubella appears as red spots on the foliage. To prevent it, potassium-containing fertilizers are regularly added, treated (up to 5 times) with a 1% solution of potassium nitrate.
So, “Veles” is one of the best gut hybrids today. With the right choice of site for planting and with quality care, it will consistently bring a high and tasty crop that can be used both for personal purposes and for sale. It is suitable for cultivation on any plot in a temperate and warm climate.