Grape variety "Rizamat". Description and photo

Every year, breeders produce dozens of varieties of grapes, but often they become uncompetitive compared to long-loved ones: Rizamat grapes are considered one of these varieties.

Despite the fact that the plant was bred about 50 years ago, it is successfully cultivated by both beginners and professional growers. From this article you will learn in detail the main features of this variety, as well as what it needs for effective fruiting.

Origin of the variety

"Rizamat" is a true legend of Soviet viticulture. This plant was bred by an Uzbek winemaker and master of viticulture Rizamat Musamuhamedov. Over the years of research and painstaking breeding, the grower has created a universal plant, the fruits of which are distinguished by a special aroma and taste. Did you know? According to archaeological finds, grapes on the planet appeared in the Paleogene period (about 60 million years ago). Thus, this plant belongs to one of the oldest organisms on the planet, which appeared long before the appearance of man. The breeder took the local most popular grape varieties “Parkent” and “Kattakurgan” as the basis for obtaining his hybrid. As a result, a variety was created that far exceeded the yield and quality indicators of the fruits of the original plants.

Description of grapes "Rizamat"

"Rizamat" is a branched, vigorous plant, characterized by a special splendor of the bush. The leaves on it are small, mainly of medium size, rounded. The leaf blade is five-lobed, strongly dissected, bare below. This grape belongs to the mid-ripening crops: no more than 145 days pass from the beginning of active vegetation to the technical maturity of the fruit.

This plant is grown mainly in the southern regions or regions with short and warm winters. Such conditions are most optimal for effective fruiting and bush growth, but in the presence of winter shelter, the variety can be successfully cultivated in colder climatic zones with average daily frosts of no more than –15 ...– 18 ° С.

Characteristics of clusters and berries

The main advantage of the described grape is its harvest, including the quality of the fruit. They are distinguished by increased taste characteristics, therefore, they can be successfully used both for home use and for sale in retail chains.

Appearance of grapes

On "Rizamat" large clusters of berries ripen, distinguished by their regular conical shape. The average weight of one bunch is in the range of 600 g, but under optimal conditions, clusters weighing about 1000 g can ripen. The density of berries on the clusters is average, which positively affects the rate of crop ripening in northern and temperate climatic zones.

The berries on the grapes are large, weighing up to 15 g each. They are characterized by regular cylindrical shape and blunt end. The average size of one berry is 45 × 25 mm. Unripe, they are light green in color, in the phase of full ripeness light pink, while the most lit side has a darker and more intense color.

Description of taste

The grape berries are juicy, fleshy, with a crisp, have a rich and harmonious taste. At the same time, the seeds in the fruits are almost not felt - there are about 3-4 seeds in each berry.

Grapes are characterized by a favorable ratio of sweetness and acidity, the sugar content of pulp averages 18–22%, while acidity often does not exceed 6 g / l. The tasting characteristic of berries is 9.1 points. You will be interested to know if grapes can cause allergies and how they manifest.

Yield Description

The variety is characterized by increased productivity. Under optimal conditions, one bush can produce up to 80 kg of berries per season. Moreover, the average yield per hectare reaches 20–25 tons.

Advantages and disadvantages of grapes

  • The main advantages of "Rizamat":
  • high productivity;
  • excellent quality of fruits;
  • can be used in food, as well as for technical processing;
  • It has a natural immunity to black rot.

  • The variety and disadvantages are not without, the main ones are:
  • poor frost resistance;
  • exactingness to a microclimate;
  • sudden changes in moisture cause cracking of the fruit;
  • bushes have an increased susceptibility to mildew and powdery mildew;
  • the vine is not resistant to weeds in the area;
  • clusters are often exposed to wasps.

Care Features

Beginning gardeners to grow this grape is quite difficult. "Rizamat" is considered a whimsical plant that needs daily attention. In addition to spraying, shaping, and sanitary pruning, this plant also requires timely preparation for winter, without which it will gradually freeze in a cold climate.

Read also about the cultivation of such grape varieties as Viking, Baikonur, Original and Valentine.

Bush planting

Before cultivating this variety, it is necessary to take into account the fact that adult bushes are tall and large, so grape plantings should be placed in spacious areas. The variety grows best in a monoculture, in a bush form, therefore, cuttings are planted in rows throughout the plantation area, at a distance of at least 2.5 m between each bush. Such areas should be well-lit: for this the south or south-west side is best suited.

The plant does not like stagnation of moisture, so it is planted only in loose, light and well-fertilized soil. The procedure begins about 2 weeks before the date of planting, at which time you need to prepare the soil well. For this, small depressions are created at the landing site with a length and a width of about 80 × 80 cm. 5 cm of a drainage layer of gravel or broken brick, and then 10 cm of soil are laid at the bottom of the pit. After that, 6 kg of manure is placed in the hole, which is densely covered with soil, after which the manure is thoroughly mixed with soil. Important! Rizamat has a large and branched root system, so it must be planted at a distance of at least 1 m from buildings and no closer than 6 meters from other varieties. Otherwise, inhibition of the growth of future bushes and their productivity cannot be avoided. The prepared site is left alone for 10-14 days, after which they are planted. This is necessary so that the soil and its composition normalize, and manure partially nourishes the soil with substances useful for the culture. For planting on prepared sites, small indentations of 40 × 40 cm are made, in which cuttings are placed. After planting, the roots are tightly wrapped in soil, and then the plantings are abundantly shed with water.

Perform the procedure in mid-autumn or spring. Spring planting is considered more preferable, since it can be used to achieve more active rooting by the sprout. Suitable planting material is young shoot fragments with a diameter of 0.5–1 cm and a length of about 40 cm, with 2-3 viable buds.

Watering and feeding

This grape loves moisture - its absence during the formation of fruits leads to low productivity, as well as a decrease in the size of berries. However, stagnation of moisture is not desirable for “Rizamat”, as this leads to cracking of berries even before ripening. Accordingly, water the soil abundantly, but with prolonged intervals.

On one bush, depending on age, you need to spend at least 5-15 liters of water. In spring and summer, the procedure is carried out once every 2 weeks, starting from the second half of August, watering is stopped, after which the grapes can be gradually prepared for winter. Freshly planted cuttings are watered 1 time per week, but by the middle of summer, the watering rate is reduced to 2 procedures per month, and then the grapes are transferred to an adult regimen.

Timely fertilizer "Rizamata" helps to avoid low yields, as well as prepare the plant for future wintering. The first feeding is carried out in early spring, after the onset of a full thaw. For this, 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of potassium nitrate are dissolved in 10 l of settled water. During the flowering period, top dressing is repeated, which increases the amount of ovary on the bush. Freshly planted cuttings during this period do not fertilize, since manure in the soil will be quite enough for normal plant growth. Read also how to make wine from white grapes. In mid-summer, grapes are fertilized with a phosphate-potassium mixture. For this, 20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium nitrate are dissolved in 10 l of water. At the end of September, the bush is fertilized with a mullein solution (1:10) - this helps to prepare the plant for a long winter and improve its resistance to low temperatures.

Trimming and shaping a bush

Pruning and shaping of the bush is carried out exclusively in the fall, in spring the procedure is detrimental to the grapes and leads to the loss of a third of the crop. Dry, excess and old shoots are subject to removal. This is important for bush productivity, as clusters develop only in young parts of the bush. Pruning is carried out so that 3-4 main branches remain on the bush, including several young ones.

For the prevention of fungal infections and the appearance of incompetent kidneys at the Rizamat, it is recommended to remove stepsons. Such pruning is carried out as early as possible while they are in a grassy form. To accelerate the ripening time of the clusters, it is also recommended to remove the foliage, shading berries.

How to prepare a plant for the winter

Since "Rizamat" is not frost-resistant, the bush must be prepared for winter. Carry out this procedure after harvest, during the onset of leaf fall. On the bush, old and unnecessary shoots are removed, as well as foliage, if necessary, the vine is shortened. Important! In winter, grapes need to be additionally sprinkled with snow, which will help increase the thermal insulation properties of the shelter. If the plant is attached to a support, it is eliminated. After this, the branches of the bush are tied together with a rope, pressed to the soil, and then covered with polyethylene, burlap or special agrofibre. You can replace them with hay, straw, or wood shavings (the thickness of such a shelter should be at least 10 cm).

Rizamat grape diseases and protection against them

"Rizamat" is not resistant to specific diseases, so this grape is often sick, especially if grown on a site with grape plantations in a monoculture. Most often, the variety is affected by fungal infections, which lead to damage not only to the plant itself, but also to the crop.

The main diseases of Rizamat grapes and their symptoms are shown in the table:

DiseaseMain signs
Downy mildewpale yellow spots appear on the leaves with white inclusions similar to cotton wool
Powdery mildewgray coating on leaves and bunches
Alternariosisspots on the foliage light brown
Gray rotlight gray coating on all parts of the bush
White rotwhitish bloom on clusters and stalks

To cure grapes from infection is quite difficult, but possible. For this, complex fungicides are used. Best of all, the Kuproksat drug is struggling with the problem, it is used twice with an interval of 14–20 days. For preventive purposes, this tool is used 2 times before flowering and 1 time during the formation of berries.

Read more about how to treat white plaque and gray rot on grapes.

Harvesting, storage and use of crops

Technical maturity of the fruits occurs in the first half of September, but the first ripe clusters can be observed at the end of August. However, in some regions, the fruits of the variety may ripen until the first half of December. The fruits are harvested carefully, trying not to damage the clusters and berries, which reduces their keeping quality at times.

The collected berries are stored in the refrigerator, at a temperature of about + 1 ° C and a humidity of at least 90%. Under such conditions, the berries are able to persist for 2–4 weeks. The culture is distinguished by an increased commercial quality of the fruits, it is used for fresh consumption, as well as food processing, including raisins.

Important! Ripe fruits of Rizamat grapes should not be overexposed to plants, as this negatively affects the taste of the crop. Clusters from the vine should be removed no later than a week after full ripening.

Doubles and “descendants of Rizamat”

Today, the so-called "descendants of Rizamat" are widely spread among winegrowers. Despite existing claims, these plants are a separate variety. Such grape varieties do not have the true “Rizamat” in their pedigree, but at the same time they differ in morphologically similar features as well as characteristics.

Rizamat Steady

"Rizamat Sustainable" is considered the most accurate copy of its Asian counterpart, but this plant is more adapted to temperate and server-side climate zones. This grape, even in the northern climate, is able to ripen by the end of summer, as well as delight the grower with aroma and rich taste.

This grape can be identified thanks to the following features:

Ripening time130-135 days
Bunch weight0.8–1 kg
Berry weightabout 18 g
Berry peelpink, green pink
Sugar content of berries19%
Acidity level7 g / l
Frost resistance–23 ° С
Features of infectionresistant to mildew, oidium

Famous three

The so-called "famous three" includes highly productive varieties developed by amateur breeder Viktor Kraynov. These include hybrids "Transfiguration", "Anniversary of Novocherkassk" and "Victor", almost completely repeating the Asian "Rizamat".

Despite the fact that these plants were not bred in laboratory conditions, the breeder managed to get decent varieties for home and industrial cultivation.

Features of the Transfiguration grape:

Ripening time110–115 days
Bunch weight0.8–1.7 kg
Berry weightabout 19 g
Berry peelwhite pink, green pink, yellow pink
Sugar content of berries16%
Acidity level6 g / l
Frost resistance–21 ° С
Features of infectionthe variety has medium disease resistance

Characteristics of the variety "Anniversary of Novocherkassk":

Ripening time110-120 days
Bunch weight0.8–1.5 kg
Berry weightabout 16 g
Berry peelpinkish yellow, greenish pink
Sugar content of berries19%
Acidity level5-6 g / l
Frost resistance–23 ° С
Features of infectionthe variety has medium disease resistance

You can distinguish grapes “Victor” due to the following features:

Ripening time105-110 days
Bunch weight1 kg
Berry weightabout 10–20 g
Berry peelpink, green pink
Sugar content of berries17%
Acidity level6 g / l
Frost resistance–23 ° С
Features of infectionthe variety is practically not damaged by specific infections

Did you know? Wild Vitis sylvestris is considered the ancestor of all existing cultivars. To this day, the plant is found in the floodplain forests of China, located at an altitude of 300-1200 m above sea level.

Rizamat early (Glory to Moldova)

This variety is an early hybrid of grapes, which in a temperate climate is able to bear fruit already in late summer. In addition, the fruits of this variety are characterized by increased transportability, which makes it a universal production variety in the southern and temperate regions.

Distinctive features of grapes “Glory of Moldova”:

Ripening time120–125 days
Bunch weight0.7–1 kg
Berry weightabout 10 g
Berry peeldark pink, dark red
Sugar content of berriesbefore 18%
Acidity level5-6 g / l
Frost resistance–21 ° С
Features of infectionthe variety is practically not damaged by specific infections

Descendant of Rizamat (Juliana)

“Juliana” is known for its super early ripening: this plant gives its first fruits at the end of July. Unlike Rizamat, this grape is characterized by high moisture and frost resistance, as well as a more saturated taste. Thanks to this, the plant can please the graceful and unique southern taste of the fruit, even in remote northern regions.

Ripening time90-105 days
Bunch weight0.7–1 kg
Berry weight15–20 g
Berry peelgreen pink
Sugar content of berriesabout 19%
Acidity level7 g / l
Frost resistance–25 ° C
Features of infectionincreased resistance to odium and mildew

Grapes "Rizamat" is a true legend of modern viticulture. Despite its considerable age, this grape managed not only to become an example of a productive plant, but also became one of the most common varieties. This plant cannot boast of keeping quality and high transportability of the crop, however it gives juicy, fleshy and saturated berries with a complex taste and harmonious aftertaste.

Gardener review

I am sending to the contest “My personal record” photos of my favorite table variety Rizamat (Kattakurgan x Parkent-tsky), whom I have been in love with since 1982. This variety is bred in the Samarkand branch of the SViV Scientific and Production Association named after Shreider. The variety is bisexual, clusters large and very large weighing 550 -3000 g. Berries are very large - 8-15 g, cylindrical, sometimes oval. There are cases when two clusters grow on one shoot, and one of them with long berries, and the other with round ones. Sugar content - up to 25%, acidity - 5 g / l Ripens in late August - early September. Requires large formiro ok, covering loves waters. Since 1982, I have been growing five bushes of Rizamat, planted 3 m later, with a 2.5 m tall arbor. In 2000, I planted 18 more grape bushes with complex resistance of the varieties Arcadia, Laura Codrianka, Rapture ideal, Pleven (Augustin) / y, Elegant superearly (FV 3-15) They all began to bear fruit. During this time, they never appeared on either mildew or oidium, although Rizamat grows along with Arcadia and Laura. New varieties are good, have their own advantages, but they can not be compared with Rizamat. Rizamat must be seen in September, when the arch area of ​​160 square meters. m clusters of unsurpassed beauty hang with pink berries with an intensely colored barrel. In 2006, in July, there was a case when one of the grapes touched the berries of my granddaughter Grisha. So with his blessing in September, this bunch weighed 2 kg 340 g (photo 4). Самая большая гроздь Ризамата была урожая 2003 г. Весила она 3 кг 120 г. На фотографии я ее держу рукой (фото 2). Правда, снимок не совсем удачный. Это было впервые за 20 лет. Тогда я собрал рекордный урожай с этого куста - 77 кг 800 г (фото 1). Так что этот куст не только рекордист по самой большой грозди, но и по урожаю. А это для виноградаря самое важное, и ради такого результата над Ризаматом можно потрудиться больше, чем над другими сортами с комплексной устойчивостью. Действительно, Ризамат сильно поражается грибными болезнями. В зависимости от погоды за период вегетации его нужно обработать 5-7 раз. Правда, в последние годы бороться с этими болезнями стало легче, благодаря появлению новых фунгицидов. Своевременная обработка позволяет сократить количество обработок за сезон и получить хороший урожай (фотоЗ). Бывает, что в сентябре пройдут дожди и ягоды начинают трескаться, - сразу же на грозди нападают полчища ос. Приходится вырезать треснувшие ягоды, что бы предотвратить загнивание всей грозди, а для ос вешать ловушки. Многие виноградари старшего поколения скажут, что правильно поступили, выкорчевав Ризамат и заменив его комплексноус-тойчивыми сортами. Но ведь все хорошие сорта лишь условно устойчивы. Их тоже нужно обрабатывать от милдью и оидиума, их ягоды тоже трескаются после дождя (не говорю, что все, но факт есть факт). Если вы хотите получить хороший урожай, то и устойчивые сорта сами, без вашего труда, ничего не дадут. А вывод один: над любым сортом нужно потрудиться. Такая уж у виноградарей фанатичная любовь к чудо-ягоде. Я считаю, что напрасно многие разочаровались в Ризамате. Меня этот сорт устраивает. Каждую весну, открывая кусты, я с ними разговариваю, интересуюсь, как перезимовали, не холодно ли было (ведь Ризамату не хватает укрытия лишь пленкой), не голодали ли зимой и какие виды на урожай нового года. И если все в порядке, то это и есть ответ на мои вопросы. Значит, кусты живы, а раз они живы, то и мне нужно жить и трудиться ради них. Я - за Ризамат. Каждый год он дарит мне вкусные, сочные, сладкие, тающие во рту ягоды и урожай с пяти кустов в среднем 250 кг. На рынке этот сорт не уступает ни по цене, ни по красоте гроздей, ни по вкусовым качествам Лоре, Аркадии, Талисману и многим другим. И напрасно иногда в печати проскальзывает незаслуженный упрек старым сортам. Но если бы не было этих сортов «вчерашнего дня», возможно, не было бы и сегодняшних. Я - за Ризамат. Хотелось бы услышать и тех виноградарей, которые ценят этот сорт. А они, я думаю, есть. Сам я пенсионер, мне 70 лет. На своем участке в 3, 5 сотки мы с женой выращиваем, кроме 23 кустов винограда, все необходимое: различные овощи, три яблони ежегодно обеспечивают нас яблоками на всю зиму, есть крыжовник, черная смородина. Konsta //

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