Grape variety "Monarch"
Among the large number of table grapes that are popular today, Monarch occupies one of the places of honor, which is largely due not only to its taste, but also to the simplicity of cultivation. To verify this, for starters, you can read a detailed description of this plant.
Hybrid Growing History
The grapes of the variety in question were first discovered back in 1988, when amateur breeder Pavlovsky E. G. received a new plant from the German variety Cardinal. Pollination of the latter took place with the help of pollen from another well-known variety “Talisman” (aka “Kesha”). As a result, the breeder was able to achieve previously set goals and create a new grape variety with good yield and frost resistance.
Important! “Monarch” and “Black Monarch” are different grape varieties. The main distinguishing feature of the fruits of both species is the color of the berries: in the first case they are light, in the second - almost black.
Description of the grape variety "Monarch"
"Monarch" is a tall variety with good vine ripening. The flower of the plant is bisexual, which helps to eliminate the problem of artificial insemination with pollen of another variety. As a result of ripening, it is possible to get delicious fruits with a whole range of benefits.
Characteristics of berries
Clusters of the Monarch variety are large in appearance, but usually do not exceed 1 kg in weight. In shape, they can be conical or cylindrical, placed on a branch with medium density. The berries have a pronounced oval shape, with a slight narrowing in the lower part. Their size does not exceed 3.6 × 2.6 cm and weighs 19 g. The color of the grapes is amber-yellow, with a slight tan on the sunny side.
The taste of Monarch grapes is somewhat reminiscent of muscat varieties, at least it is this aftertaste that remains after eating sweet and dense pulp. 100 g of fruits contain 16–18 g of sugar, with an acidity of 4–5 g per 1 kg. The peel of the berries is relatively thin, due to which it is practically not noticeable with food. The pulp of each berry hides no more than two seeds.
The shoots of the described grapes grow very quickly, and from one middle bush it is possible to collect about 7 kg of delicious fruits that are not prone to cracking.
Important! The optimal load on the vine is no more than 23–35 eyes per 1 bush, which should be considered when pruning.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Any grape variety has its advantages and disadvantages, which you should definitely know about before planting seedlings.
- The list of advantages of the "Monarch" includes the following features:
- excellent external data of clusters, thanks to which it can be grown for the purpose of further sale;
- high palatability with a noticeable aftertaste;
- reduced likelihood of rotting and the absence of grapes, moreover, regardless of weather conditions;
- excellent rooting of cuttings;
- good indicators of frost resistance (up to –25ºС without shelter);
- a high level of resistance to typical grape ailments like mildew or gray fruit rot.
- As for the disadvantages of the Monarch variety, they are much smaller. The main ones include:
- a tendency to shed ovaries massively;
- the need for rationing of shoots during the formation of grapes.
Also, one should not exclude the possibility of the defeat of the vine by powdery mildew, but this probability is easily reduced by timely preventive measures, in particular, spraying plants with the corresponding fungicides (for example, “Topaz”, “Skor” or “Acrobat”).
Planting seedlings of the Monarch cultivar is not much different from planting young plants of other varieties, therefore, first of all, you should pay attention to choosing a quality planting material, choosing a suitable place for it on your site and correctly performing all further planting actions, taking into account all varietal characteristics plants.
Selection and preparation of cuttings
In the vast majority of cases, planting material for propagating grapes has to be bought at the market or in a specialized store, where the gardener requires maximum attention to the selected specimen.
It is important to consider several key points:
- the presence of a strong, well-developed rhizome in the handle;
- whitish color of all living branches of the root system;
- green color on a cut of a shank;
- the presence of at least three buds on the shoot.
The success of further rooting of planting material also depends on its proper preparation. Before transplanting grape stalks to a constant place of growth, they place it in a container with a moistened substrate and wait for the leaves to bloom, after which a plant with strong roots can be easily transplanted to an open area.
Important! To preserve moisture in the handle and further good rooting, its upper part should be treated with paraffin, performing all actions with extreme caution. The end of the handle is sharply dipped in liquid paraffin, and after it is reached, it is also quickly dipped in cold water.
Where to plant Monarch grapes
Grapes "Monarch" refers to light-loving plants, therefore, for its planting, you need to choose a site well lit by sunlight. At the same time, this territory should be protected from cold northern winds, so it is better to pay attention to the place near the southern walls of the house or other buildings on the site. Such structures will serve as good protection from the cold and are perfect for installing supports under the vertical braiding of the vines.
Recommended Soil and Planting
The soil in the selected area should be fairly light and moderately moist, without the possible formation of stagnation of water. Monarch grapes cannot be propagated in clay and excessively boggy areas, just as it should not be planted on sandy substrates.
The ideal solution would be plots with chernozems and groundwater occurrence no closer than 1.5 meters from the soil surface. With the likelihood of increasing their level without the arrangement of the drainage system, it will not work.
For placing grapes "Monarch" there are several relevant methods. In small household territories, bushes are most often planted next to arbors or along the walls of buildings, organizing them support in the form of horizontal trellises. Between plants should leave at least 1 m of free space. Trellis helps to regulate the height and width of the vineyard, which is very valuable for private areas, as it helps to create shady areas.
Grape Care "Monarch"
"Monarch" is an unpretentious variety in terms of care and generally provides for the implementation of all the same actions as for the cultivation of other varietal variations of this plant: timely implementation of watering, top dressing, pruning, and preventive measures to protect plants from diseases and pests. Consider each of these actions more closely.
Did you know? The largest officially registered bunch of grapes grew in Chile in 1984 and weighed almost 9.5 kg.
In addition to sanitary pruning, which is usually done in early spring and involves the removal of frozen or dried shoots and leaves, Monarch grapes also need later pruning: during the flowering of bushes and the appearance of peas of fruits on them. Rationing of grapes at this time will help to avoid a massive discharge of ovaries, which is typical for this variety.
Feeding grapes and watering
When growing Monarch grapes, there is no need for frequent watering, because the vine requires regular moistening mainly during the drought period. However, if you notice cracking on the surface of the substrate or the leaves of the grapes begin to fade, then it is advisable to conduct an extraordinary watering. In other cases, the liquid is applied to the soil in only two cases: before the flowering of the vine and during the formation of ovaries on the bushes. In the future, determine the most suitable moment for irrigation will help the state of the upper soil layer.
Read how to water grapes properly.
Top dressing can be done twice a season: after winter awakening and at the time of flower formation, using organic compounds rich in nitrogen for the first time, and complex mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium in the second. Sometimes gardeners do not fertilize vineyards at all, claiming that they already grow and develop well.
Video: Topping grapes
Protection against diseases and pests
Despite the fact that the "Monarch" is highly resistant to typical grape diseases (especially mildew and gray rot), oidium damage should not be excluded, therefore, to prevent infection or spread the disease, preventive treatment of the bushes will have to be performed.
To prevent the occurrence of gray rot and oidium, spraying with baking soda will help.
In addition, timely prevention helps prevent such infectious diseases as chlorosis and phylloxera, and also protects the plant from powdery mildew. To spray the bushes, you can use one percent bordeaux liquid or special fungicidal preparations, for example, “Strobi” (the rules for preparing the working solution can be read in the instructions for use).
As for pests, here it is worth fearing wasps eating berries and leaving bare brushes on the shoots. To preserve the harvest, you can treat the bushes with a solution of soda, vinegar or chemical insecticides, but it is better to use mechanical protection by putting on a separate mesh bag for each bunch. Despite the complexity of this process, the end result is worth the effort, because the grapes will be protected not only from wasps, but also from other insects or birds.
Shelter of grapes for the winter
Winter shelter for grapevines of the Monarch variety is required only if the average temperature in the cold season drops below –25 ° C. In this situation, after the autumn pruning of the vine, it is removed from the trellis and, bundling it, laid on the ground. Sometimes they are additionally covered with a layer of soil, but most often hay, straw or even humus is used as a covering material.
Important! When using polyethylene covering materials, they must have openings for air circulation, otherwise, when the temperature changes, the vine will first sweat and then become covered with ice, which will negatively affect the future harvest.
Harvesting, storage and use of crops
The harvest of Monarch grapes falls on the last decade of August. Upon reaching technical maturity, the clusters are cut with a pruner and horizontally placed in wooden boxes or buckets, making sure that they do not crumple. A small portion of the crop can be left on the bushes for fresh fresh consumption, especially since the described variety has good resistance to shedding ripe berries.
You can store the harvest in the refrigerator, but if there are a lot of fruits, then it is advisable to lower them into the basement, hanging the bunches on twine. To increase their shelf life will help ordinary potatoes, the small tubers of which you just need to fix on the slices of twigs.