Grape variety "Livadia black"
The Livadia variety has gained wide popularity due to the harmonious combination of sugar content and acidity, which makes it possible to produce light dessert wines from berries. To get a crop that will have perfect taste characteristics, it is necessary to create the right conditions for its cultivation. The basics of cultivation and the features of the "Livadia black" grapes will be discussed below.
The author of the variety is Pavel Yakovlevich Golodriga. Initially, the variety was cultivated only in the Crimea. For several years of work to improve the technical characteristics of the variety was zoned in the northern regions of the Russian Federation and Ukraine, where it has been successfully cultivated to this day. Varieties Magarach No. 124-66-26 and Megru Vagaas were taken as parent plants.
Description of grape variety "Livadia black"
"Livadia" grapes refers to varieties with medium ripening. Berries are sung for 130-140 days from the appearance of the kidneys. By the time of harvest, grapes reach a sugar content of 26% with an acid content of 7–8%. Berries are 90% juice. The taste of the fruit is balanced, with a distinct musky-chocolate finish.
Important! Taste indices decrease if the fruits hang on branches for a long time after ripening.
The variety shows high productivity - from 1 hectare you can collect 150 centners of grapes. Plants tolerate frosts to -25 ° C. They have good immunity to diseases of fungal origin. Bacterial infections are poorly tolerated.
Vigorous bushes reach their peak in the 4th year after planting. Unlike other grape varieties, they can withstand a load of 60–80 eyes. Among the total number of young shoots, 80% are fruitful. Leaves are five-lobed green. The surface of the sheet is leathery, dense. The edges are serrated. The central vein is clearly distinguished.
The bulk of the crop is used for the production of dessert red wine with chocolate and nutmeg aftertaste, less often for fresh consumption. Berries are great for making juice. An extract from a vine, berries is used in cosmetology for the production of anti-aging creams and antiseptic agents for problematic skin.
Did you know? Thanks to fructose and sucrose, the use of grapes improves the efficiency of brain centers.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Advantages of the “Livadia” grape:
- high productivity;
- good winter hardiness;
- increased resistance to false and powdery mildew, gray rot;
- attractive presentation;
- good keeping quality;
- nutmeg chocolate aftertaste.
Among the shortcomings, low resistance to bacterial diseases can be distinguished, which is easily eliminated by preventive measures.
Features of cultivating the variety "Livadia Black"
For planting this variety, they select a well-lit place, protected from draft, preferably in the south or south-west of the plantation. A good landing option is next to the fence or outbuildings. In such cases, the distance to the bushes should vary between 2–2.5 m.
Read also about how to make wine from black grapes at home.
Soil preparation measures:
- digging to a depth of 30 cm;
- watering with 3% solution of copper sulfate - 10 l / m² each;
- after a week, digging to a depth of 20 cm;
- application of 10 kg of sand, cow manure, 500 g of superphosphate for each m²;
- digging to a depth of 20 cm.
It is better to plant seedlings in spring. 3 weeks before planting, the soil is loosened to a depth of 20 cm. Then there is another preventive treatment with copper sulfate. After a week, you can begin to prepare landing pits. They are located at a distance of 3 m from each other. The pit size is 80 × 80 × 80 cm. The topsoil is mixed with 400 g of wood ash, 20 g of nitroammophos are added. Expanded clay or crushed brick drainage is laid at the bottom of the pits. Then lay the fertile soil layer, filling the pit by 2/3. In the central part of the hole, a support is driven in and 20 liters of water are poured.
Ripening dates, described by producers in 130–140 days, are relevant only when cultivating crops in the southern regions. In practice, they are different. In temperate and northern climates, the ripening time will depend on the number of sunny days. In the presence of rainy weather, the fruits do not have time to reach physical maturity until the beginning of October.
Important! In the first year after spring planting, fertilizers can be applied no earlier than 5-6 months.
In such situations, the fruits are removed from the bushes after they reach technical maturity. Harvest used for fresh consumption or seaming juices. Wine from unripened grapes cannot be made.
Variety Care Rules
Livadia grapes demanding soil nutrition. With a lack of minerals and organics, the quality and quantity of fruits decreases markedly. The main care for this variety comes down to regular feeding, pruning and moisture control. Watering is rare, as the culture does not tolerate high humidity. It is best to combine hydration and dressing.
- Throughout the growing season, from planting until August, inclusive, watering is carried out once a month.
- Autumn water-charging irrigation (if the weather is dry, sunny) + fertilizing with potassium salt and dolomite flour - for each bush 40 l of water + 10 l of water in which 10 g of potassium salt and 30 g of dolomite flour are dissolved. In the case when water-loading irrigation is not required, fertilizers are embedded in the soil in a dry form in the same proportion.
- Spring water-charging irrigation (carried out under the condition that irrigation was not carried out in autumn or the winter was not snowy) + fertilizing with manure - 20 l of water + 10 l of liquid mullein on each bush.
- 2 weeks before flowering, 10 l of pure water and 10 l of liquid mullein are applied to each plant.
- Immediately after flowering, 10 l of pure water per plant + 10 l of solution with 50 g of superphosphate.
- During the fruit pouring period - 20 l of water for each bush + foliar top dressing with parsley infusion (1 kg of parsley goes for 10 l of boiling water).
After each moistening of the soil, after 14 hours it is necessary to dig up it to a depth of 15 cm near the bushes and 20 cm between the rows. The surface of the soil must be mulched with peat or compost. From the second year of plant life, forming pruning can be performed on the site. Each young shoot should have an average of 1–1.9 clusters, so they are shortened to 2-3 eyes.
Diseases and pests
“Livadia” grapes are often the victim of a pest attack:
You can remove insects with insecticides. The main thing is to choose a universal drug that has an active effect on all types of insect pests. One of the most effective drugs is Fozalon. After processing, insects and larvae die within 48 hours. The product has a long duration even at low temperatures. The flow rate of the solution is 2 l / ha. Among diseases, plants are afraid of bacterial infections.
Find out why the grapes on the bush wither.
The most common bacterial infections that the Livadia grape variety can catch are:
- Bacterial cancer - the causative agent of the disease can develop on any type of soil, there is no effective treatment for it. Infected plants must be removed from the site and burned, and nothing can be planted in their place for 3 years.
- Apoplexy - there is no effective treatment for the disease. The only way out is timely prevention.
- White rot - the disease progresses rapidly and spreads to all parts of the plant. When the first signs appear, the affected parts of the plants must be removed and burned. Then carry out an emergency treatment with Fundazol according to the instructions.
Did you know? Drinking dosed wine reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease by 70%.
The Livadia grape variety is actively used in the production of wines. The variety perfectly adapts to any climate conditions and is relatively not demanding in care.