Grape variety "Krasen"
Those who pick up for themselves a vine that would be unpretentious, resistant to frost and the most dangerous diseases, and at the same time give a good harvest of delicious berries, suitable at the same time for fresh consumption, for drying, and for the production of high-quality red wine, it is worth paying attention to a relatively new, but already managed to establish itself well hybrid called "Krasen". About the features of the variety and the rules of its cultivation, this review.
Variety selection history
"Krasen" is a hybrid of Ukrainian selection. The official registration of grapes created by the method of generative hybridization by scientists of the National Institute of grapes and wine "Magarach" (Crimea, Yalta), passed in 2008, patent No. 06285.
When creating a hybrid were used:
- Magarach No. 70-71-52, also known as Antey Magarachsky, is a mid- season table-technical black grape obtained by crossbreeding Magarach Ruby (a hybrid of the Georgian Saperavi and the famous Cabernet Sauvignon) with Magarach No. 85-64-16, in turn, created on the basis of "Save Villara 20-347".
- The supreme seedless “Magarach” is a white table grape obtained by crossing the “Magarachi” nos. 417 and 653 (the first is the result of the crossing of a white “Khalili” and an early red “Muscat de Madeira”, in the genetic formula of the second there is a white Central Asian “Yakdona” and French white "Madeleine Anzhevin").
From its first ancestor, Krasen inherited frost resistance, and from the second - high immunity to diseases. Over the ten years of its existence, the hybrid managed to get quite widespread, first on an industrial scale, and then in small private vineyards and household plots. Did you know? For the first time, an alcoholic drink based on the fermentation of grape juice was obviously made by the peoples of Transcaucasia. This is evidenced by archaeological finds discovered in the territory of modern Georgia and Armenia, and their age, according to scientists, is at least eight thousand years.
Description and characteristics of the grape variety Krasen
According to its external data and technical characteristics, Krasen fully lives up to its name (translated from Ukrainian, it means “handsome”).
Morphological features of grapes are as follows:
|Bush||Tall, powerful. The vine is able to withstand 2 large or 3 medium brushes on the shoot. Active fruiting begins in the second year after planting a seedling.|
|Vine growth per year||Very tall, especially at the tops.|
|The percentage of fruiting kidneys||Almost 100%|
|Fruiting on one-year-old shoots and stepsons||Yes|
|Leaves||Large, up to 10 cm in diameter, dark green in color, consisting of five segments, the dissection is not very strong. On the edges are covered with small cloves.|
|Flowers||Bisexual, however additional pollination is required to obtain a stable crop|
|Bunches||Not very large, from 400 to 600 g. They have a pointed conical shape with a side wing.|
|Berries||Small (no more than 2-3 g), round, saturated black. The skin is thin, easy to bite. The berry is fleshy, juicy and very sweet. The seeds are mostly absent, although some fruits may contain soft and very small rudimentary seeds, which are almost invisible when cracked.|
"Red" refers to mid-season grape varieties. From the beginning of the growing season until the fruits reach technical maturity, usually 130 to 140 days pass.
Important! The ripening time of the grapes directly depends on an indicator called the “sum of active temperatures”, that is, calculated according to a special formula the amount of heat required for the plant to achieve full maturity. "Blossom" requires a sum of active heat of at least 2900–3100 degrees. In the homeland of the vines - in the Crimea and southern regions of Ukraine - the Krazena crop is already harvested at the end of August, but in colder climates this period begins in September or October.
"Chrysanthemum" is usually called a frost-resistant grape variety, but it should be borne in mind that it can be considered such only by Crimean standards. Even in native Ukraine, in its more northern regions, such as, for example, Kharkov or Chernihiv regions, this hybrid should be covered or dug up for the winter.
Lowering the temperature to -26 ° C, even if it is short-term, the vine, which is not specially protected, may not be able to withstand it, especially for young bushes.
Regions for cultivation
In addition to the native Crimea, Krasen is successfully grown almost throughout Ukraine, as well as in the southern and central regions of the Russian Federation, in particular, in the Rostov, Voronezh, Kursk, Oryol, Belgorod and other areas, in the Krasnodar Territory.
Did you know? In ancient times, wine was valued literally “worth its weight in gold” and was even one of the most reliable international currencies. By wine, the Romans paid for slaves, and the ancient peoples - for jewelry and other valuable goods. Despite the fact that the frost resistance of this hybrid is not a record, it can still be planted in regions with more severe climatic conditions. For example, positive experience is known for cultivating Krasen in the Urals, in the Altai Territory (Barnaul) and in other regions of Siberia (Omsk, Tyumen, Novosibirsk).
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety "Krasen"
- "Krasen" earned high marks from many professional winegrowers who note the following merits of the variety:
- high frost resistance (in the southern regions the vine can not be covered for the winter);
- good resistance to fungal diseases such as mildew and oidium (3 points on a five-point scale), as well as gray rot;
- significant resistance to grape root aphid (phylloxera);
- good yield indicators (the ability of the variety to bear fruit in stepsons makes it possible in the southern regions to get two crops in one season);
- berries almost do not suffer from wasp damage, therefore, they do not need to use a protective net;
- very high sugar accumulation, balanced taste, high juice content and lack of seeds, which in the complex allows you to use the crop in any way possible;
- unpretentiousness and lack of special difficulties in leaving.
- Among the disadvantages of the variety are:
- low resistance to anthracnose;
- uneven pollination;
- small fruition;
- tendency to pea, especially in rainy weather;
- the danger of overloading the bush with a large number of clusters, in connection with which the grapes need to be rationed (thinning out during the flowering period).
Winemaking and other uses
From “Krasenya” you can prepare a very rich wine with an amazing bouquet and a deep ruby color. Depending on the technology used, it can be dessert, sweet and even dry, reminiscent of a real French Cahors to taste.
In addition to the excellent quality of the wine, Krasen is also interesting for its good yield. Due to the juiciness of berries, with a good extraction of 10 kg of grapes, you can get up to 7.8 kg of wort, which is a very high indicator. Important! To obtain a high-quality drink, the clusters of Krasen are recommended to be kept on the vine for at least two weeks after they reach full maturity. So the berry picks up the maximum amount of sugar and acquires a truly deep taste.
Cultivation and care
According to the reviews of winegrowers, Krasen can be described as an unpretentious variety. However, caring for it requires knowledge of certain subtleties, without which a good harvest cannot be obtained.
Grapes are moisture-loving plants, but it requires a very special watering regime, namely:
- Water the vine in such a way that the water does not fall not only on the leaves, but even on the trunk of the plant. For young bushes, for this purpose, along with planting, a piece of pipe is inserted into the ground into which water is poured, which ensures its direct delivery to the root system. It is recommended that adult plants be watered around the circumference of the bush, first digging out an annular trench with a radius of about 50 cm.
- Watering should be very plentiful. About 40 liters of water are consumed per adult bush, and at least 20 liters on a young seedling.
- Grapes should not be watered often. Saplings aged 2-3 years are watered weekly during the period of active vegetation and approximately twice a month with a gradual reduction in this frequency, starting in August. Adult vines need watering 3-4 times per season: after removing the shelter and tying the stems to the trellis, before flowering, at the beginning of laying fruit brushes and before winter (the last procedure is necessary to prevent freezing of the soil in the cold and should be most plentiful).
Fertilizing the soil under the vine, it is very important not to overdo it. If a seedling is planted with strict observance of technology, the initial composition of the soil mixture does not need enrichment for the first three years.
Then, when the vine ripens and begins to actively bear fruit, during the season it needs to be fed, alternating organic and mineral additives. Organics are best applied during the winter, as well as once during the growing season, for example, before flowering or immediately after it. To do this, you can use peat, compost, bird droppings or mullein.
Such fertilizers as Florovit, Mortar, Master, Novofert, Kemira-Lux or Aquarin are suitable as mineral fertilizers for grapes. Dilute and use them in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. You can prepare the mineral nutrient mixture for the vines yourself.
Based on the bush, you need to take:
- superphosphate - 40 g;
- ammonium nitrate - 45 g or urea (urea) - 40 g;
- potassium sulfate - 30 g.
We recommend reading why the grapes rot and how to save the plant.
Such complex top dressing is applied under the bush in dry form in the spring. Then the vine can be fed with minerals two more times - before flowering and at the stage of laying fruit brushes, but this time the nitrogen component (ammonium nitrate or urea) must be excluded from the fertilizer, otherwise the formation of berries will slow down, and the bush will direct the main forces to a set of green mass - the growth of new shoots and leaves.
One of the main secrets of getting a good harvest of Krasen is the proper formation of the vine. This variety bears fruit well with short and compact pruning. At the same time, if you let the vine grow several meters to the sides, the grapes begin to show the so-called polarity: young shoots develop very actively, and the branches inside the bush become weak.
As a result, clusters are formed small, sugar accumulation decreases, taste and technical characteristics also lag behind declared ones. The best option for pruning "Krasenya" is up to 6-10 kidneys. Since fruit clusters are often formed on stepsons, it is from them that small horizontal arms form.
Pruning of the vine is recommended in three stages:
- In the spring, just before waking up. It is best to choose for this purpose a sunny day with a temperature several degrees above zero. The main task is the removal of frozen and dead shoots, or the sanitary cleaning of the bush.
- In the summer, during the laying of fruit brushes. At this stage, the bush needs to be freed from excess leaves that obscure the clusters, as well as rationing the brushes, leaving no more than 2-3 pieces on each fruiting shoot, depending on size and density.
- In autumn, just before shelter for the winter. At this time, the main work is carried out to form a bush, as well as the removal of diseased shoots and fallen leaves.
Diseases and Pests
Due to its high resistance to diseases and pests, Krasen has long been chosen by fans of organic farming. The variety is the best suited for growing without the use of toxic chemicals hazardous to health and the environment.
Important! Scientists estimate that a single treatment of the site with a Decis type contact-intestinal insecticide reduces the population of natural aphid enemies and other garden pests such as ladybugs and lacewings by 6–7 times, while reusing the drug can completely destroy these beneficial insects . For preventive purposes, experts recommend twice (before the formation of buds and shortly before flowering) to process the vine against fungal infections, insects and ticks, and for these purposes it is better to use modern biological insecticidal and fungicidal preparations that do not pose any threat to the environment.
Among such funds, for example, the following brands can be named:
|Drug name||Against what is effective|
|Trichodermin||Scab, late blight, fusarium, alternariosis, rhizoctoniosis, anthracosis, mildew, oidium, rot (white and gray).|
|"Fitosporin", "Fitodoctor"||Blight, root rot, bacterial cancer, powdery mildew.|
|Fitoverm, Aktafit, Akarin, Agrovertin||Grape leaf moth, spider mite.|
|Pentafag-S||Bacterial diseases of grapes.|
|Planriz||Rot (root and root), late blight, fusarium.|
|"Haupsin"||Mildew, oidium, gray rot, black spotting, leaflet, grape itch, spider mite, phylloxera.|
|"Boverin"||Cockchafer, wireworm, bear, scoops, mowers, bronze, marble chafer.|
|Lepidocide||Scoop, bunch of leaf moths, codling moth, moth.|
Krasen is a very good choice for both beginner gardeners and professional growers. This hybrid, with proper care, gives an excellent harvest of seedless black grapes with a pleasant taste and high percentage of sugar accumulation, which allows the berries to be used fresh, to prepare various preparations, including raisins, preserves and juices, as well as for home winemaking.