Grape variety "Codryanka"
“Kodryanka” is a hybrid hybrid form of grapes that immediately won the love of gardeners. Fast adaptability to various soils and climatic conditions, as well as a consistently high fruiting firmly fixed it in the top ten varieties for cultivation. From this article you will learn everything about this variety of grapes: what it looks like, with or without seeds, what to cook, and whether it is possible to make wine from it at home, about the benefits and harms of Kodrianka and agricultural technology for growing crops.
The origin of the variety "Codryanka"
The hybrid owes its birth to the crossing of two popular grape varieties - “Marshall” and “Moldova”. It happened in the 70s of the last century in Moldova, where the variety is still very much appreciated by the locals and is actively grown. At home, “Kodryanka” has another, more commonly used name - “Black Magic”. Today, in addition to Moldova, the variety is very common among gardeners in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
“Kodryanka” is considered one of the most suitable varieties for growing, as it is characterized by early maturity and high productivity. We consider other characteristics of the variety in more detail.
Characteristics of berries and bunches
The berry of the Codryanka fruit variety is dark purple, oblong conical in shape, weighing up to 15 g. The pulp is medium-density, tasty and quite fleshy, with a small amount of seeds. Despite the dense skin, when eating berries, it is almost not felt. The berries themselves are distinguished by an original and harmonious taste, with an unobtrusive light note of sourness. The weight of the clusters can vary from 400 g to 1.5 kg - it all depends on climatic conditions and cultivation agricultural technology. Even in a mature state, they are characterized by a very long stay on the vine, while their presentation and taste are preserved.
The ripening period of Kodryanka is early - it is possible to harvest after 115–130 days. However, the berries are quite edible even before they are fully ripe. The fruiting of the variety may begin as early as the next year after planting - by then it usually grows to an impressive size.
Useful properties of grapes
Variety "Codryanka" is characterized by many useful properties due to the presence in the fruits of a large amount of vitamins. These compounds are of great benefit to the human body, stimulating the work of the cardiovascular system and brain activity. Fruit juice contains vitamins of groups C, B and P, as well as pectin substances.
Kodryanka berries are characterized by a quick set of sugar, even before their ripening. When the clusters ripen, their sugar content usually reaches 18–20%, and acidity - 7–8 g / l. The calorie content of the variety is average - 75 kcal per 100 g. However, it should be remembered that the composition of the grape fruit contains biologically active components that increase appetite, therefore, people who are on a strict diet are not recommended to eat this product.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The list of benefits of the Kodryanka variety is quite impressive:
- presentable presentation that allows you to put grapes on sale;
- excellent taste;
- consistently high productivity;
- good transportation;
- increased frost resistance, allowing the variety to withstand temperatures up to -25 degrees;
- good immunity to diseases and pests;
- early ripeness.
Of the shortcomings, gardeners note only the tendency of Kodryanka to pee, arising from adverse weather conditions or poor-quality care. Under such circumstances, the grapes become very small, resembling peas. However, this problem is easily solved by treating the fruit with various growth stimulants, for example, Gibberellin. This will help form seedless berries and increase their mass.
Important! The use of grapes in food is contraindicated for people suffering from increased acidity of the stomach, diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
The variety is most widely used in winemaking, for which it is especially massively grown in its homeland, in Moldova. After ripening, which occurs, as a rule, by mid-August, part of the crop goes to processing for making wine. To begin with, the best and largest berries are selected, sifting out rotten and dry, and then proceed to crushing. Having crushed the fruits, they create all the conditions for fermentation on the pulp, which will last several days at a temperature of +27 degrees.
The wine obtained from Kodryanka has a pleasant floral aroma, cherry hue and excellent taste. The berries of the variety, in addition to eating fresh, are also excellent for adding to compotes or marinades.
Features of planting crops
Correct and timely planting of crops is the key to its high productivity, and therefore you should prepare for this event in advance so that the grapes adapt well and quickly to the characteristics of the environment.
The most popular in horticulture are considered methods of propagation of grapes using seedlings and layering. There are also two more ways to grow this crop - seeds and grafting. Reproduction by seeds is not as popular as other methods, since it is unsuccessful - grapes grown from seeds will not be able to reproduce all the parental properties. In practice, it is vegetative propagation of grapes that is more beneficial, that is, with all the remaining methods that guarantee the preservation of all the taste qualities of the fruits.
Did you know? Grapes are the absolute leader in the number of varieties - all over the world there are more than 10, 000, which is several times more than any other crop.
In order for the vines to mature fully, and the fruits are large and tasty, it is necessary to plant the crop exclusively in the open. “Kodryanka” does not tolerate shade well, therefore, for the cultivation of a variety, it is desirable to select a well-lit and necessarily aired area to reduce the risk of the multiplication of various bacteria. Quick adaptation of grapes allows it to grow on any soil and area, however, to obtain an abundant harvest, it is recommended not to neglect this important condition.
First of all, the place chosen for the culture must be cleaned, especially if it is contaminated with substances toxic to grapes, for example, ash. You should also take care of the neighbors of the grapes - if a tree grows next to it, it will obscure it with its crown, and the seedlings will not receive enough light and will lag significantly behind in development.
The best time for planting is considered to be late autumn, before the onset of cold weather, but it is also possible to land in spring, until the buds open.
Grapes are planted in a permanent place after heating the soil, when its temperature is not less than +10 degrees at a depth of 35 cm. It is best to use seedlings that are at least 2-3 years old.
- A cord or wire is stretched along the selected place, under which pegs are installed. This is necessary primarily to ensure that future bushes have the same distance from each other and one line.
- It is also advisable to loosen the soil so that it better allows air, heat and moisture to pass into the lower layers. Such a procedure will significantly accelerate the growth and fruiting of grapes due to the activation of all important processes occurring in the soil, and the movement of nutrient components.
- It is recommended to dig holes a few weeks before the intended landing so that they have time to ventilate. Their diameter should be at least 80 cm, the depth depends on the region.
- Before planting seedlings, you must make sure of their integrity and suitability. To do this, they are carefully examined for damage and, if they are not found, their roots are soaked in water for 8–9 hours. In order to increase the stability of planting material, it can also be soaked in a 2% solution of “Heteroauxin”.
- After this, the aerial part and the entire root system are cut off from the seedlings, leaving only the heel roots. Their upper part is cut so that the roots fully develop at a depth, and not on the surface of the soil. As for the aerial part, it should be cut short, only 3-4 kidneys. If the seedling is strong, you can leave several shoots, having previously cut them to the same number of buds.
Did you know? Grapes can grow up to 100 years, and over time to give an increasingly abundant and high-quality crop.
Grape planting scheme
The grape planting scheme is the distance between the bushes of a given crop on a site. It is very important to think over this stage in advance, since it is not subject to further changes. When planting, you should focus on two key points - this is the interval between the grape bushes in a row and the distance between these rows. A vigorous variety such as Kodryanka must be planted at a considerable distance - approximately 1.5 m from each other, to prevent the interweaving of vines during growth, otherwise it will negatively affect the development and yield of grapes.
- For planting seedlings at the bottom of the dug holes form a small mound of nutrient substrate.
- Then the seedling is placed on this mound and the roots are carefully spread so that their ends do not bend.
- A peg is installed near the pit and a seedling is tied to it, after which it is covered with soil and plentifully filled with warm water.
- After the earth settles a little, it will be necessary to add a little more substrate to the level of the first kidney.
- If the procedure was performed in the fall, carry out the hilling.
As already mentioned above, grape grafting is a fairly effective method that guarantees a rich harvest and the ability to get several different varieties from one bush. Moreover, it is also an excellent saving of space on the site. In order to protect the grapes from adverse environmental conditions, diseases, pests and other misfortunes, you can plant such a variety on a more persistent "relative" and thus keep the fruits intact.
The length of the cuttings should not exceed 15 cm. After this, the planting material is dipped for 60 seconds in a solution of copper sulphate to disinfect, and then wrapped in a plastic bag and cleaned in a dark, cool room.
We recommend that you learn more about how to plant grapes correctly and when.
The most suitable time for grafting is considered spring, when the air temperature reaches at least +17 degrees. It is advisable that the weather on this day be moderately windy and warm, but in case of strong heat and the scorching sun it is better to postpone the procedure. Grafting is carried out as follows:
- A few days before the operation, remove the cuttings prepared in autumn and moisten their roots in a weak solution of pink manganese.
- The trunk of the grape bush selected for rootstock should be dug by about 20–25 cm, peeled off the bark and pruned already noticeable roots.
- In the center of the trunk, use a knife to make a small vertical hole to a depth corresponding to the depth of the end of the scion, i.e. 4–5 cm.
- Place the scion in the resulting cleavage. If the gap turned out to be too large, on the other side of it you can install another stalk.
- The place of vaccination must be processed, fixing it with twine and sealed with clay.
- Sprinkle a little hole around the trunk with earth, and the part of the scion remaining above its surface with sand.
Care rules and agricultural technology
Grapes "Codryanka" are quite unpretentious in care and will not require significant expenditures of time and effort, however, you still have to provide the variety with the conditions necessary for its growth. The grape care procedures are standard and do not differ from the procedures of other crops - these are regular watering and feeding, bush formation and pruning, as well as shelter for the winter. We consider each item in more detail.
Watering and feeding
Vine bushes of this variety are characterized by very good growth and abundant fruiting, and therefore young plants need regular and plentiful watering - at least 20 liters of water per bush. Adult bushes need even more water - 50 liters. For a good moisture retention in the soil, grape bushes are recommended to be mulched.
The variety is perfectly dispensed with fertilizers and throughout the growing season there is no acute need for them. This is due to a sufficient amount of all the nutrients necessary for the grape, which, after mulching, it will be extracted from the soil. The only time that top dressing does not harm, but rather will benefit the plant, is during a planned spring digging of the site. Then you can make both mineral and organic fertilizers.
Read more about proper grape watering in summer.
It is very important to correctly and evenly distribute them around the entire bush. Such complex fertilizers as Aquarin, Novofert and Kemira have proven themselves well. Of the means available to the gardener, you can also use compost or bird droppings containing a large number of elements necessary for grapes.
Shaping and trimming
For the vine to develop correctly and harmoniously, it will need pruning. However, this is not necessary for the first two or three years, and therefore this procedure begins to be carried out after the fruiting begins, that is, most often in the fall. During this period, young unripe shoots are removed from the bush, thus forming a bush according to the necessary scheme. If you leave them in large quantities, this can provoke the varietal variety. In the spring, the bush is inspected for dead parts and removed. Sprouted shoots must be tied up so that the vine grows in the right position.
- correctly and timely forms a bush;
- allows you to save it from underdeveloped and excess parts;
- contributes to increased productivity;
- significantly improves the taste of berries;
- accelerates the ripening process.
Считается, что сорт морозоустойчив и может выдерживать температуры до -25 градусов, а потому не нуждается в укрытии на зиму. Однако молодые растения всё же следует окучивать и укрывать, иначе кусты погибнут. Проводить данную процедуру следует в конце осени, перед самым наступлением холодов, особенно в случае резкого понижения температуры ниже -20 градусов.
Diseases and Pests
Благодаря устойчивости, унаследованной от «родителей», «Кодрянка» почти никогда не подвергается болезням и нашествию вредителей. Однако садоводы настаивают на профилактической обработке винограда, чтобы предотвратить поражение опасными и смертоносными для культуры недугами. Наиболее часто виноградари сталкиваются с такими грибковыми заболеваниями растения, как бактериальный рак, серая гниль, оидиум и милдью. Самым вредоносным недугом считается бактериальный рак, лечение которого невозможно, и поражённые кусты в обязательном порядке ликвидируются.
Узнайте, от каких болезней винограда помогает опрыскивание пищевой содой.
Поскольку сорт достаточно вынослив, то для его опрыскивания подойдут стандартные препараты. Садоводы рекомендуют использовать такие фунгициды, как «Ридомил», «Микосан» и «Фитоспорин». Процедура проводится дважды — перед цветением винограда и после формирования завязей. Сохранность винограда от напастей также можно обеспечить и профилактическими мерами, которые включают в себя:
- регулярное прореживание кустов;
- очистку участка от органических остатков, поскольку это идеальная среда для развития бактерий;
- удаление с кустов отмершей коры, в которой могут обитать вредоносные микроорганизмы;
- обрезку больных и не функционирующих побегов;
- сезонную перекопку почвы;
- для сохранения плодов от повреждения осами эффективны механические удаления осиных гнёзд, укрытие гроздей специальными мешочками и приманки.
Белая разновидность «Кодрянки»
Помимо чёрной, существует также и белая разновидность «Кодрянки», происхождение и создателя которой так и не удалось выяснить. В некоторых городах ей дали своё отдельное название, к примеру, в Волгограде сорт носит прозвище «Золушка». Белая «Кодрянка» значительно отличается от оригинальной чёрной, по характеристикам и по внешнему виду скорее напоминает сорт «Бируинца», однако не менее успешно продаётся и ценится за свои индивидуальные особенности.
- ранний срок созревания — 135–145 дней, что подразумевает спелость плодов уже к концу августа;
- вес гроздей аналогичен чёрной «Кодрянке» — 600–800 г. Большего показателя пока что зафиксировано не было;
- плоды имеют овальную форму и намного крупнее, вес их достигает до 12 г;
- обладает очень низкой устойчивостью и легко подвержен заболеваниям, а потому требует тщательного ухода;
- не переносит морозов и резких перепадов температур.