Grape variety "Buffet"
One of the main representatives of delicious grapes with good frost resistance and productivity is the "Buffet" variety. Its berries have the original shape of an elongated barrel, and excellent taste characteristics do not leave anyone indifferent. This article provides a description of the Furshetny grape variety, the features of its planting, cultivation and propagation, as well as possible pests and plant diseases.
Grapes "Buffet" refers to hybrids of table grapes and was obtained as a result of selection. Zagorulko Vitaliy Vladimirovich, a Ukrainian breeder from the city of Zaporozhye, bred this variety. When crossing grapes “Gift Zaporozhye” and “Kuban”, a variety was obtained that has large berries with a very high taste. Grapes "Buffet" began to gain popularity since 2008 and to this day is a promising variety for cultivation.
Did you know? Grape juice has a beneficial effect on skin rejuvenation, therefore it is used in cosmetology in the manufacture of anti-aging and sunscreens.
Description of the grape variety "Buffet"
The berries of this variety differ from other types of grapes in their large size and characteristic shape.
Due to the external characteristics, it is easy to distinguish the “Buffet” grapes from all other varieties:
- The "Buffet" grape bushes are massive, have many branches. The root system is powerful and well developed.
- The leaves of the plant have large sizes and curly edges. Their color is saturated, light green.
- Bunches of plants have a cylindrical-conical shape and are densely covered with berries. The weight of one cluster can vary between 600-1000 g.
- The berries are large, have an oval-oblong shape and are flattened on top and bottom. Their size is 3.5 x 2.5 cm. The weight of one grape can reach 20 g.
- On top of the fruit is covered with a thin, but strong skin with a slight wax coating. The color of ripe grapes is dark blue.
- The pulp of the berries is dense, crisp. It has a rich sweet taste with light fruity notes and exudes a pleasant aroma.
The "Buffet" variety has a number of characteristics that distinguish it from other types of grapes. Due to its properties, it can be grown not only in the middle lane, but even in regions with very cold winters.
Important! To achieve high yields of “Furshetnyy” grapes is possible only with proper care.
Consider the characteristics of this variety in more detail:
- In terms of fruit ripening, the “Buffet” grapes belong to the early-medium grades and ripens in 120–130 days. With proper care and favorable climate conditions, fruits can be harvested in the second half of August. But if the shoots have too many clusters, then the ripening of the crop is delayed until September.
- This variety is characterized by high growth rates - new shoots are constantly forming, which quickly grow.
- The flowering type of the plant is bisexual, which leads to a high percentage of pollinated flowers.
- Crop maturation is high along the entire length of the branches. But if there are too many berries, they ripen later.
- The variety is characterized by an average degree of resistance to disease. With proper care, diseases rarely occur.
- The plant is highly frost resistant and can withstand temperatures up to -23 ° C.
- The yield of the variety can reach 20 kg of berries from one grape bush that has reached 3 years of age.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Grapes "Buffet" has positive and negative qualities. Before you start growing this plant in your area, you need to carefully analyze the pros and cons of this variety. This will help provide the plant with the most proper care.
- The list of positive qualities of the “Buffet” grapes includes:
- high resistance to frost;
- very sweet, fragrant and beautiful berries;
- high annual yield;
- good transportability, excellent preservation of an attractive appearance;
- ripening of grapes along the entire length of the shoot;
- good immunity to diseases.
- The minuses of the “Buffet” grapes include:
- fastidiousness to lighting and soil;
- the tendency of shoots to form an excessive number of clusters;
- increased fruit ripening with a large number of berries on the shoots.
Reproduction of grapes "Buffet"
At home, propagating the “Buffet” grapes is quite simple. Even in the absence of experience, a novice gardener can safely cope with this procedure. The bush has a high ability to root in fertile soil. The simplest and most common way to propagate a plant is cuttings. Cuttings from which a new bush will be grown must be prepared in the fall. To do this, cut off the upper part of the shoot of the bush, which has three buds. The cut should be done with a sharp knife at an angle of 45 °, so that the stalk is better rooted in the ground.
Did you know? Grape berries contain a lot of glucose, so their regular use in food improves the brain.
Step-by-step instructions for the reproduction of grapes "Buffet":
- Dry the cuttings at room temperature.
- Lower the cut point into the container with the solution of the root growth stimulator (“Kornevin”). Put it in a well-lit place.
- After awakening the kidneys, the stalk is ready for transplantation into the soil. Root formation is optional.
- Prepare a container with fertile soil. Dig a hole in it so deep that the two lower buds of the stem are completely immersed in the soil.
- Lower the cuttings into the ground and fill the hole with earth. Tightly compact the soil around the seedling.
- Pour an earthen hill around the stalk so that it covers the stalk. Cover the seedling with a plastic cup or jar.
- Keep the stalk in a well-lit warm place until the first green leaves appear. After that, the shelter can be removed.
- You can plant a seedling in open ground only after the first brush appears on it. If a seedling is transplanted earlier, it may not survive during night frosts.
Video: propagation of grapes by cuttings
Grapes "Buffet" has certain requirements for the site for planting. Its bushes are characterized by large size and rapid growth, so the plant needs a lot of space. It is equally important to choose high-quality seedlings for planting and properly plant them in a suitable soil composition. Consider all the nuances of proper planting in more detail.
When to plant grapes
Grapes "Buffet" is characterized by rather long planting dates. Due to its high frost resistance, young seedlings can survive long cold winters and sudden spring frosts.
Important! With the wrong choice of place, grape bushes will grow poorly, undergo various diseases and will not give a good harvest.
Bushes of this variety can be planted at such intervals:
- in spring (from early March to mid-May) - the sooner the seedlings are planted on the site, the better they will take root in the soil. They are not afraid of night spring frosts, but if you delay the planting of seedlings at the end of spring, they will grow poorly and may not at all take root on the site;
- in the fall (from the second half of October until the beginning of November) - provided that the land on the site is not saturated with moisture. During the autumn planting of grape bushes, their growing season increases. But at the same time, seedlings must provide shelter for the winter so that they do not suffer from frost.
Choosing a site for landing
In order to get a plentiful and tasty crop, the selection of the “Furshetny” grape planting area must be carried out according to certain rules.
The main requirements for the site for growing this variety are:
- the place should be as open as possible for sunlight - in partial shade the bush does not receive enough light and begins to grow worse, and the crop matures very slowly;
- Furshetny grape bushes need the most fertile soil, which can give them strength for active growth. The ideal soil option is loamy or sandy chernozem. It is impossible to plant a plant in saline soil;
- the groundwater level in the vineyard should not be too high. This will lead to flooding of the roots of the bushes and can cause them to rot. If the soil is too saturated with moisture in the area, it is necessary to drain it;
- grape roots develop well only in loose and light soil, through which air and water pass well. If the soil on the plot with the future vineyard is dense, it must always be artificially loosened;
- so that the branches of the plant do not break, grapes should be planted in a place well protected from the wind.
Important! The soil on the plot with the future vineyard must be thoroughly cleaned of debris, stones and weeds. Then the site is deeply dug, and the soil surface is loosened.
Selection of seedlings
The secret to successful Furshetny grape growing is not only the proper care of the plant, but also the acquisition of high-quality and healthy seedlings.
Let's look at some tips on how to choose the “Reception” variety seedlings:
- You need to buy the product only at specialized fairs, exhibitions or in stores. In such places you can find healthy seedlings that have a certificate of quality and are properly stored before sale;
- the roots of a young plant should be moistened and closed from outside air, usually they are packed in a small bag with moist soil. You cannot buy seedlings with open, dried roots, because if the root system dries, the seedling will not take root even in the most fertile soil;
- if the purchase of young plants is made in the fall, it is better to choose seedlings without leaves. Foliage contributes to the rapid loss of moisture and nutrients, as a result of which the young plant becomes weak and reacts worse to planting in open ground;
- You need to buy grape seedlings only “in season” so as not to acquire a vine, the artificial maturation of which is provoked by various chemical means. Such a bush may have a beautiful appearance, but does not take root well in the soil, as it is weak;
- it is recommended to buy seedlings without visible damage, deformation and signs of pest damage;
- branches of a young plant always maintain elasticity and flexibility. They crack slightly when bent, but do not break;
- the trunk surface of a quality seedling always has a healthy (not over-dried) appearance.
How to plant
Before the direct planting of young seedlings of this variety, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work on the site. It is recommended to do this at least a couple of months before planting seedlings.
Consider the step-by-step instructions for planting “Buffet” grapes:
- A month before planting seedlings, dig holes in a prepared section of a hole with a size of at least 80 cm in width, length and depth. The distance between adjacent pits in one row and between rows should be at least 3 m.
- If groundwater is located close to the surface on the site, then lay out drainage from broken bricks at the bottom of the dug holes.
- Pour a mixture of fertile soil and complex mineral fertilizer onto the drainage layer.
- Insert a strong vertical support into the pit, which will direct the growth of the seedling in height and hold its weight.
- Place the seedling roots deep inside the pit so that they are not exposed to low temperature on the soil surface. Spread them carefully around the trunk.
- Sprinkle the roots of the seedling with earth so that an earthen hill is formed around the trunk. Its height should be 2-3 cm higher than the uppermost bud on the seedling.
- Water each bush liberally.
Video: planting grapes
Some novice farmers forget to provide the “Buffet” grapes with proper care after planting.
But do not forget about the obligatory regular procedures, which must be carried out after the seedling has taken root in the ground:
- pruning of damaged shoots - carried out before the onset of warm weather. In the spring, the plant begins a period of active growth, and the juice flowing from the damaged areas of the stems enters the buds. This slows down shoot growth;
- katarovka - pruning roots that are too close to the surface of the earth. They interfere with the rapid and productive growth of the bush, therefore, must be removed;
- cleaning the trunk from last year's bark - is done carefully by hand so as not to damage the trunk wood. This procedure is needed so that the trunk is covered with a new bark.
Important! For active growth, the grape bush needs timely and plentiful watering, fertilizing and pruning.
Watering grape bushes
Not only the quantity and quality of fruits, but also the likelihood of diseases, directly depends on watering the plant, therefore, when growing this variety, special attention should be paid to proper watering.
Key recommendations for this procedure:
- fast-growing bush "Furshetny" grapes require a lot of water, so watering should be plentiful;
- in conditions of not too hot summer, the plant is watered about 3 times for the entire season;
- in dry weather, grape bushes need to be watered more often;
- during flowering, it is impossible to water the bush, so as not to provoke the discharge of inflorescences;
- watering is done at the root, pouring water as close to the trunk as possible so that it gets to the roots faster;
- about 20-30 l of water is consumed per bush;
- it is impossible to water the grapes too abundantly and turn the soil into liquid mud;
- so that the water quickly reaches the roots and moistens the soil for a long time, it is recommended to periodically loosen the top layer of earth around the plant and remove all weeds;
- one month before the expected harvest, watering the plants is stopped.
Description of fertilizing
During the period of active growth of shoots and fruit ripening, the grape bush needs a large amount of useful substances that it scoops from the soil, so when growing the Furshetny grapes we must not forget about regular fertilizing of the plant with fertilizers.
Learn more about spraying grapes with baking soda.
They are introduced according to the following rules:
- Mineral fertilizers - are applied in the spring before the appearance of the first young leaves. They stimulate the active growth of green mass by the bush and contribute to the formation of large berries. Most often, ammonium sulfate and superphosphate are used, mixing them in a ratio of 2: 1. On one grape bush you can spend no more than 300 g of such a mixture.
- Organic fertilizers - are applied in the fall in order to make the soil as fertile as possible. Most often, manure is used, which is laid around grape bushes.
- Mineral-organic fertilizers - are applied in the spring in the absence of autumn organic fertilizing. Designed for comprehensive enrichment of the soil and accelerate the growth of grapes. You can prepare such top dressing yourself by mixing ammonium sulfate with superphosphate and manure in a ratio of 1: 2: 7. The consumption of such fertilizer is 1 kg per bush.
Like any grape variety, the Fourchette needs regular pruning. It is most preferable to carry it out in the spring, before the first foliage appears on the shoots, so that the juice from the cuts does not interfere with the swelling and development of the kidneys. Spring-free fanless molding of the grape bush is carried out so that about 30 shoots remain on it. Pruning is recommended for 5-8 kidneys. To prevent overloading the plant with fruits, no more than 50 eyes should be left on one bush. All slices on the vine must be done with a sharp knife, under a slight slope.
Important! In adverse growing conditions, the plant is often affected by various pests and diseases requiring compulsory treatment.
Do I need shelter for the winter
Buffet grapes are highly resistant to low temperatures. Adult plants do not need shelter in winter if the air temperature does not fall below -22 ° C. But in regions with a cold harsh climate, it is recommended to cover the bush for the winter to protect it from freezing. Winter shelter will not be superfluous for young plants that have not reached the age of 3 years.
The rules for sheltering grapes for the winter are simple:
- The branches of the vine are bent to the ground and fixed in this position with the help of hooks driven into the ground.
- The bush is covered with black film or burlap, on which a little ground is poured for better fixation of the shelter.
- It is necessary to cover the plant for the winter in the second half of autumn, after the onset of steady cold weather.
- On sunny and warm days, the shelter must be raised briefly so that the bush is not beautiful.
Did you know? The composition of grape juice includes the substance acetone, which is used in cosmetology in the manufacture of nail polish removers.
How to protect grapes from diseases and pests
This variety may be resistant to disease, but only with proper care.
Consider the main difficulties that may arise when growing grapes "Buffet" at home:
- Mildew. Это грибковое заболевание поражает листья виноградного куста и чаще всего возникает в условиях прохладного и влажного климата. Грибок провоцирует порчу листьев и вызывает гибель побегов. Для лечения применяются специальные препараты («Делан», «Топаз»). Для профилактики заболевания виноградный куст дважды подвергают опрыскиванию «Поликарбоцином» или хлорокисью меди (40 г вещества на 10 л воды). Первую обработку проводят перед цветением, а вторую — после него.
- Оидиум. Возбудителем данного заболевания является вредоносный грибок, который провоцирует полное высыхание виноградного куста и загнивание его плодов. Инфекция хорошо распространяется в сильную жару. Чтобы вылечить заболевание, а также для профилактики появления грибка, растение нужно опрыскивать водным раствором коллоидной серы или другими специализированными препаратами («Коллис», «Таноз»).
- Листовёртки. Гусеницы этого насекомого наносят вред виноградным ягодам, в результате чего весь урожай осыпается или загнивает. Вредители хорошо размножаются в зелёной траве, растущей возле виноградных кустов, поэтому для профилактики нужно удалять все сорняки вокруг винограда. Гусеницы просыпаются с установлением тёплой погоды, поэтому профилактическую обработку лучше проводить ранней весной, до момента распускания почек. Так же, как и при уничтожении вылупившихся гусениц, виноградные кусты опрыскивают раствором инсектицидов («Кельтан», «Фозалон»).
- Цикадки. Данное насекомое поражает виноградные листья и плоды, в результате чего листья засыхают, а ягоды начинают подгнивать. Вредители размножаются в сорняках, растущих возле виноградных кустов, но даже прополка почвы не всегда даёт гарантию отсутствия этих насекомых. Для профилактики нужно периодически осматривать и встряхивать листья винограда, выявляя насекомых на ранней стадии. Впервые эту процедуру проводят после окончания цветения. При наличии вредителей куст обрабатывают растворами специальных препаратов (например, «Фастак»).
Виноград «Фуршетный» может порадовать садовода обильным урожаем удивительно вкусных ягод. Но для этого нужно приложить некоторые усилия и обеспечить растению необходимый уход. Следуя всем описанным выше рекомендациям, можно успешно выращивать виноград «Фуршетный» на своём участке.