Grape variety Muscat Hamburg
If you are looking for a table grape variety with good characteristics, we recommend that you pay attention to Hamburg muscat. After reading the article, you will learn about its advantages and features of cultivation.
History of the variety
Muscat Hamburg grape variety bred in England for cultivation in greenhouse conditions. When it was created, it is unknown, however, the first references date back to the 19th century. Today it is actively grown by French, Greek, Argentine, Hungarian and American winemakers.
Description of the Muscat Hamburg grape variety
This is a table variety that has a universal purpose. It is characterized by excellent taste and long shelf life. Demanding on the conditions of growth and care.
Bushes grow medium or high in size, depending on the conditions in which they are cultivated. The leaves are heart shaped. They are large, with teeth on the edges. The bark of a young vine is painted in a pale pink color. Ripe shoots are red-brown.
Did you know? The largest vineyard is considered to be California, broken in Carpenteria (USA). He was planted in 1842. In the most productive years, 9 tons of berries were harvested from it. The Carpenteria vineyard is recorded in the Guinness Book of Records.
Fruits ripen in the middle term - within 145-150 days. Harvest can be harvested from the second half of September to mid-October (depending on the region of cultivation).
Characteristics of berries
The berries are oval. The skin is violet-blue with a blue or gray coating. It is medium-dense, easily separated from the pulp and chewed. The pulp is characterized by sweetness, juiciness, meatiness. When eating, it crunches slightly.
It is characterized by a pleasant nutmeg aroma and taste. On a 10-point tasting scale, her taste characteristics are rated at 9 points.
The juice in the berries is colorless. Bones are large, 2-3 pieces in one berry. The weight of one berry is 3-4 g.
Table grape varieties also include such as “Summer Muscat”, “White Miracle”, “Richelieu”, “Phaeton”, “Iranian Shahin”, “Dozen”.
The bunch has the form of a cone. The mass of one piece can reach 160–270 g. The average length of the bunch is 20 cm, the width is 17–18 cm. The berries are placed very densely in it.
Type of flowering
Bisexual types of flowers form on the bushes. Flowering comes late.
With proper care and optimal growing conditions, Hamburg Muscat grapes can show high yields - 100–120 kg / ha. The percentage of shoots that bear fruit is 66–68%.
The frost resistance of the described grapes is weak - lowering the temperature below –18 ° C threatens with complete death of the plant.
Resistance to grape diseases
The variety is characterized by poor disease resistance. It requires mandatory preventive measures against mildew, oidium, gray rot, bacterial cancer.
Transportable grade properties
Bunches well tolerate transportation and long-term storage without loss of excellent taste and attractive appearance.
Did you know? In 1984, the largest grape cluster was harvested in Chile. Her weight is 9.4 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages of the grape varieties Muscat Hamburg
- Among the main advantages of the variety should be mentioned:
- excellent storage and transportability;
- wonderful taste of berries;
- universal application;
- self-pollination ability.
- Unfortunately, the variety has many disadvantages:
- exactingness to weather conditions;
- crop volume and quality are highly dependent on climate;
- suitable for cultivation only in warm climates;
- poor resistance to major diseases;
- low frost resistance;
- frequent peeling of berries.
Features of propagation of the variety and planting of cuttings
Grapes of this variety grow well in loams, sandy loams and sandy soils. It is advisable to place it on the southern and southwestern slopes. If this is not possible, then it is worth choosing a site well lit by the sun.
Grapes can be propagated both by cuttings and seedlings. The best time for planting is autumn: in late October - early November. The harvesting of cuttings occurs in the spring, before flowering. They are then rooted and sent for storage to the cellar during the winter. In the summer they germinate.
When planting cuttings, it is necessary to observe a distance between them of 1.5 m. The row spacing should be 2–2.5 m.
After planting, the cuttings are covered with plastic bottles, watered using 3-4 buckets for each plant, the soil is loosened and a hill of 30 cm high is poured on top to warm the root system.
Muscat Hamburg grapes require regular and quality care. Among the activities that must be carried out necessarily: watering, fertilizing, garter, weeding, loosening and mulching, sanitary and forming crop.
Muscat Hamburg does not need abundant and frequent watering. When enough precipitation occurs, it may well have enough rain moisture. In dry periods, additional watering is required - once every 3-4 weeks. The best way to water the vineyard is to drip.
Water should be warm so as not to provoke the development of fungal infections.
For abundant fruiting, grapes need to be fertilized. Up to five fertilizer applications are required per season. In the first three top dressings, nitrogen must be present, which is necessary for the active growth of green mass. In the next two procedures, this element should no longer be.
Top dressing should contain phosphorus and nitrogen - elements that affect fruiting.
The first top dressing must be done before the vegetation begins, and the air temperature reaches + 16 ° C. At this time, you can feed the soil with a mixture of superphosphate (20 g), potassium salt (5 g), ammonium nitrate (10 g) or complex fertilizer prepared in accordance with the instructions.
The second top dressing is carried out before flowering.
During this period, you can make the following fertilizer options:
- a mixture of superphosphate (20 g) with potassium salt (5 g), ammonium nitrate (10 g) and boric acid (5 g);
- nitrophoska (60–70 g / 10 l of water).
From organics, it is good to use an aqueous solution of mullein (2 kg diluted with 5 l of water, infused for 2-3 days, diluted once more with water, bringing the volume to 12 l) and bird droppings (50 g diluted with 10 l of water, infused for 2-5 days).
The third fertilizer is applied after the flowers have bloomed. In this phase, Kalimagnesia top dressing (10 g) in combination with ammonium nitrate (20 g) diluted in water (10 L) will be useful.
The fourth feeding is done 10–20 days before the ripened berries are planned to be harvested. You will need to dissolve 20 g of superphosphate in a bucket of water and the same amount of potassium fertilizer without chlorine.
There are many options for fertilizing during this period:
- a mixture of potassium salt (10 g) with granular superphosphate (20 g), boric acid (1 g), zinc sulfate (2 g), manganese sulfate (2 g), potassium iodine (1 g);
- rotted manure (2 kg / 1 m²);
- water solution of bird droppings (1 kg / 1 l of water / 1 m²);
- aqueous solution of wood ash (300 g / 10 l of water / 1 m²).
Garter of the vines is necessary to obtain a rich and high-quality crop, normal growth and development of the plant, even distribution of sunlight, facilitating the procedure for caring for the bush, preventing thickened plantings, and developing infections.
Find out how to tie the grapes correctly and on what.
Garter is produced in 2 stages:
- In early spring, before the start of the growing season. It is called dry.
- In the summer, after the growth of young shoots. It is called green.
In spring, the procedure is carried out after trimming, before the appearance of the kidneys. The branches are bent to the lower wire on the trellis and placed in a horizontal position. A green garter is made when young shoots reach a length of 40-50 cm. They are tied up in a vertical position.
It is important to choose the right material for tying. Rigid ropes, metal wires are not allowed. The best material is considered to be soft cotton fabric strips or special ribbons, which are sold in a specialized store.
It is advisable to accompany each watering with mulching. Mulch will save moisture, reduce the number of loosening and prevent weeds from growing in the near-stem circle.
After watering and precipitation, the soil needs to be loosened. This will avoid soil compaction and improve the flow of moisture, air and nutrients to the roots.
Weed should be removed regularly. Timely weeding helps to avoid the development of certain diseases and the spread of harmful insects. In addition, weeds will not take away the necessary sunlight and nutrition from the vine bushes.
Pruning bushes is made for several purposes:
- To improve plant growth.
- To increase productivity.
- To facilitate the care of them.
- To prevent the development of diseases and insect attacks.
Learn how to prune grapes correctly in spring, summer, and fall.
Sanitary scraps produce every spring. All frozen, damaged, diseased shoots are removed.
When forming the Muscat bush of Hamburg, it is recommended to leave Guillot's two shoulders or give it a non-standard shape in the form of a fan. On one bush you need to leave 18–20 shoots (10–14 fruit-bearing), on each shoot - 4–6 ocelli.
Since Muscat Hamburg is a very thermophilic plant, for the winter it is necessary to build a shelter for it. How exactly it will be produced must be considered even at the landing stage. Shelter grapes in several ways:
- The vines are removed from the trellis, laid in pre-prepared ditches and sprinkled with a layer of earth 15–20 cm high.
- On both sides of the beds they install wooden shields and stack them in the form of a house.
- The vines are placed in bags in a twisted state, and then in the ditches, which are covered with slate sheets on top.
- The vines are removed from the trellis, laid in ditches and covered with coniferous spruce branches.
Before laying the vines for wintering, they need to be whitened. This will protect the plant from the development of mold and spotty necrosis.
Important! Preparation of grapes for winter begins a month before it is covered. It consists in water-loading irrigation in a volume of 20 liters of water for each plant.
Prevention of diseases and pests
The variety is poorly resistant to major diseases and harmful insects that infect grapes.
- gray rot;
- bacterial cancer.
In order to prevent the first 3 diseases, in early spring, preventive spraying is carried out with copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, Ridomil, Strobi preparations.
It will take 3 treatments:
- When the shoots reach a height of 10 cm with a mixture of Bordeaux liquid, copper chloroxide and colloidal sulfur.
- Prior to the release of flowers by means of the Strobi or other systemic fungicide.
- After the plant has flowered, the mixture used during the first spraying.
Only proper agricultural practices and planting will help protect against bacterial cancer. This disease does not respond to treatment.
Of the pests, the danger is:
- bunch leaflet.
Against phylloxera, 4–5-fold sprayings with the insecticides Actellik and Fozalon are used. In order to prevent leaflets from being used in the vineyard, they use spraying with Zolon, Dunedin, Aktara, Alatar, and Iskra.
Harvesting and storage of crops
In addition, the grape crop must be successfully grown, it should also be removed on time. Tightening or rushing to harvest threatens the deterioration of the taste of berries. In addition, you should focus on what purpose the crop is going to. If it is planned to be processed, then cleaning should begin in a state of technical ripeness.
If the grapes are consumed fresh or dried, then you should wait until it contains the largest amount of sugar, that is, the moment of biological maturity.
The following signs indicate the maturity of the grapes:
- The color of the berries is close to the declared varietal characteristics.
- Berries without much effort are separated from the stem.
- The berries are sweet, without strong acid.
- Seeds are brown, easily separated from the pulp.
- Muscat aroma is well picked up.
Harvesting is planned for dry weather in the daytime. Ideal conditions - air temperature + 16 ... + 20 ° С. Morning and evening gathering are not suitable due to the presence of dew.
Bunches are cut manually with a knife, secateurs or scissors. It is important not to pull the brush so as not to damage the vine. Then the bunches are placed in buckets, baskets, boxes and transported to the storage place.
Important! In order not to damage the raid on the berries, which is of great importance for their preservation, it is necessary to cut the grapes in gloves, trying not to touch the fruits with your fingers.
Storage is carried out in a cellar or basement, in which air circulates well and the temperature is maintained at a level of + 1 ... + 8 ° C, humidity 80%. Bunches can be stored horizontally, folded in plastic or wooden crates, on shelves, and also in limbo — on wire, rope.
Grapes can also be stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. Before laying it is strictly forbidden to wash, as this significantly reduces the duration of its shelf life.
With proper storage, grapes are suitable for use within 2-3 months. To preserve berries for a longer period - up to 1 year, they can be frozen. The Muscat berries of Hamburg have a universal purpose. They are consumed fresh, from which they make wine, juices, liquors, marinades.
To summarize the above, we note that the Hamburg grape varieties of Muscat are suitable for cultivation in regions with a warm climate. For its successful cultivation, it is necessary to equip a good irrigation system, properly prepare the soil and conduct quality care.
Once upon a time, planted this variety. For another summer, he discovered powdery mildew (oidium), removed the variety. But when, this year at a tasting in Voronezh, he tasted wine, he immediately took cuttings of this variety. Now they are rooting. The wine is unusual, and strong, tasty, unconventional nutmeg. I advise you to start, but keep the sprayer ready ... Akovantsev Mikhail //vinograd777.ru/forum/showpost.php?s=7bae45ae31906ab5d53c956ffc545b06&p=972&postcount=3