Grape variety Laura (Flora)
If you are looking for a grape variety that is to be stored for a long time, then you should learn more about Laura (Flora). This is an excellent result of the work of Ukrainian breeders, known to the world for its delicate nutmeg taste and weather resistance. How to grow Laura on the site, what agricultural requirements should be followed - read on.
Breeding History and Breeding Region
Officially, the variety is called Flora. This hybrid was bred on the basis of various varieties at the Odessa Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after V.E. Tairov. To create it, several muscat grapes were used. Despite the official name, people often find a more simplified version of it - Laura.
Did you know? By the number of nutrients in the composition of grapes can be equated with milk. But berries have a minimal fat content.
Description of grape variety Laura
Laura is on the list of early varieties, the first fruits ripen on the 110-120th day after the appearance of the ovaries.
Characteristics of berries
At first glance, the fruits of the Laura variety are not too noticeable.
On the bushes, conical clusters weighing about 1 kg are formed, which rarely differ in size or weight. With careful observance of agricultural technology, yields up to 2.5–2.7 kg can be achieved, but the quality of pollination is crucial for the crop.
Berries in clusters can be either oval or slightly oblong (up to 3-4 cm long). They have light green peel and fleshy flesh with large seeds.
The nutmeg taste is strong, juicy, sweet (the sugar level in Laura berries exceeds 20%), but the high humidity of the soil and air at prolonged low temperatures can adversely affect the sweetness of the fruits.
Berries in clusters hold well on a strong stalk, so they can be stored for a long time.
Table grape varieties also include Velika, Galbena Nou, Lancelot, Giovanni, Victoria, Tason.
Features of vines growth
Flora is characterized by medium-sized bushes, among the shoots of which more than 80% are fruitful. Their leaves are covered with dark or light green color (depending on the amount of sunlight) with split ends.
One of the main advantages of this variety is productivity.
Important! On average, one seedling per season can produce up to 40 kg of berries, but taste is sometimes affected due to excessive fertility.
Laura is actively used both in industrial production and in the household. Berries are consumed fresh to enjoy the nutmeg taste, and also used to make compotes. In autumn, homemade wine from Flora is also prepared.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Experienced growers include the advantages of Laura:
- soft nutmeg taste;
- strong immunity and resistance to many diseases characteristic of grapes;
- the same size of clusters;
- berries practically do not crack;
- the seedling is easily rooted;
- resistance to frost (up to -20 ° C);
- ability to transport and long-term storage.
- The disadvantages of this variety include:
- the need to normalize the future harvest, otherwise, due to the congestion of the bush, the taste qualities of the fruits suffer;
- the vine can be affected by oidium.
Usually gardeners propagate Flora with cuttings or seedlings. Some of them prefer to use the vaccine, because this method allows you to get the crop faster.
Did you know? In ancient times, grapes were used not only as a dessert, but also as a medicine. With its help, tonsillitis, gastric diseases, diseases of the kidneys, liver and even lungs were treated.
As seedlings, young shoots are used, which are buried in the ground to a depth of 20 cm for future rooting. When the first roots appear, the bush is ready for further transplantation.
Cuttings allow you to get the crop faster, because less time is spent on rooting. Cuttings (part of a young vine) are cut, treated with humate and dipped in warm water for an hour. After that, you can fix it with a slice on the stem.
Planting Laura Grapes
Equally important for the cultivation of the variety is the primary planting procedure.
Variety Flora has its own requirements for location:
- there should not be clay or salts in the soil;
- it is better to avoid places where groundwater passes close to the surface (the best option is a depth of more than 1 m);
- the site should be well lit;
- there should be no drafts.
It is best to place Laura near fences or high walls, so that the bushes have protection from the wind and support for further growth.
Exact landing times vary by region. In the southern climate, shoots are planted both in autumn, in October, and in spring, in March, and in colder areas in spring. The main requirement is long-term warming, during which the temperature must be kept at a level not lower than + 16-17 ° C.
It is most effective to plant bushes of the Laura variety according to the 1.5x1.5 m pattern, so that the plant has enough space for further development. If there is a fence, building, etc. near the grapes, then indent 50 cm.
To give strength to seedlings and accelerate their further development in a new place, add a little potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus to the planting soil.
Features of agricultural technology
However, planting grape bushes is not enough. To obtain a quality crop, you must adhere to the rules of agricultural technology, because the Laura variety has its own characteristics of growing.
Laura is a generous variety, but its fertility also has a downside. Due to the large number of fruits, the plant is overloaded, and it does not have enough strength to fill the berries with taste. The more clusters, the more weakly expressed the sweetness and nutmeg in the grapes. In addition, the fewer berries on the bush, the faster they ripen.
Another minus of overload is the depletion of the plant. After excessive fruiting for the next season, grapes may not have enough strength to form berries.
For these reasons, it is important to normalize in a timely manner.
The optimal number of clusters depends on the size of the bush itself. Usually it is 25-30 pieces on an adult (over 5 years old) plant. For young specimens, this number drops to 4–5 clusters.
Did you know? Most grapes in the world are grown in Spain, France, Italy.
Sometimes, taking care of the vineyard, gardeners abuse regulation, leaving 15-18 clusters on the bush. This situation also does not benefit the plant, since there is the likelihood of repeated fruiting of the bush closer to autumn. And this is fraught with freezing of the vine and the death of the plant.
Another secret of how to grow an excellent grape crop of Laura is the garter of bushes to supports.
The installation itself proceeds in several steps:
- Pillars are dug at a distance of 3-4 m and at a depth of not less than half a meter.
- Between the supports they pull a wire or a strong rope in three rows: at a height of 40, 80 and 130 cm from the ground.
- Old vines are placed on the bottom row, carefully securing them horizontally or at an angle of 45 degrees.
- Young shoots tie each separately, providing ventilation inside the bush.
Did you know? Today in the world there are more than 8 thousand grape varieties.
Grapes are a juicy berry, so you can’t do without regular watering. This is especially true in the hot summer time, when it is worth increasing both the frequency and volume of irrigation. On cool days, the number of treatments can be reduced.
On average, up to 6 buckets of water go out per adult bush, and 3 will be enough for a young one.
Grape roots have their own special system, so drainage pits must be specially organized for their effective hydration. These are small channels dug at a distance of half a meter from the bush outlet.
To keep moisture better, in the off-season the soil around the bush is mulched with compost. In the summer, the mulch is removed, otherwise there is a risk that the roots will mate.
Laura also loves top dressing, as well as watering. They should be regular, but in small quantities. For grapes, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, nitrogen are important, so choose fertilizers with these trace elements in the composition.
Feeding is best done through drainage pits, burying them to a depth of 30–40 cm. Using this procedure, useful substances nourish the main roots, and not just the superficial ones.
If the bush is too large, and the root dressings do not cope with its nutrition, then you can try to fertilize by spraying the leaves.
Important! In this case, you can simultaneously feed and prevent disease. For example, boric acid (5 g of the drug per 10 l of water for one bush) can be diluted with nitrogen-based fertilizers and applied to the leaves.
Grape pruning recommendations
Variety Laura has its own characteristics in pruning bushes.
Young specimens (up to 2-3 years) do not carry out the procedure. But older bushes are pruned at the end of each fruiting season. This removes old, damaged or too large shoots.
Through pruning, experienced gardeners form a bush. Initially, 3-4 main shoots are selected, which eventually become the basis of the plant, and the rest are removed.
However, pruning should be carried out carefully and not to abuse the procedure, otherwise representatives of this variety can stop their development for a long time.
If in your region in the cold season the temperature drops below -15 ° C, then in winter the bushes of the Laura variety should definitely be covered. A “veil” can be arranged for their hay, straw or fallen leaves. Important: Avoid air-tight materials.
Opening grape bushes
The opening of the bushes after winter occurs when the temperature is kept at a level no lower than + 8–10 ° С. Depending on the region, this period falls on April or early May.
Did you know? It takes approximately 600 grapes to make 1 bottle of wine.
Before you open the grapes, prepare:
- 2 weeks before complete unraveling, remove the cover from the bush, clean it and ventilate.
- In the warm time of the day, keep the grapes open for several hours, and then wrap the plant overnight.
- Every day, increase the period the bush stays in the open air until the weather allows it to open completely.
Diseases and Pests
Variety Laura does not suffer from gray rot, rarely affected by mildew.
The main enemy of this grape among diseases is oidium (powdery mildew).
For the prevention or treatment of this ailment, you can use various means:
- sulfur - it can be taken both liquid (for spraying), and in the form of a powder (for sprinkling leaves);
- concentrated potassium permanganate solution (for spraying);
- mullein infusion;
- purchased drugs ("Caratan", "Rubigan").
When the Laura grapes ripen, the sugar content of its berries attracts insects and even birds. Polymer nets will help protect the bunches of grapes from such pests. To pull them on each bunch, it will take a lot of time and patience, but as a result you will get beautiful, ripe and untouched berries.
Important! Sometimes the vine in winter suffers from the attack of mice. If you want to avoid such troubles, then before sheltering the bushes for a period of cold weather lay small pieces of burnt felt or wool among the shoots - their smell repels rodents.
If you need a productive, but undemanding grape variety for home growing, then Flora is the best option. It is grown by both experienced and novice gardeners, because caring for it does not require special efforts or knowledge. It is enough to observe the minimum requirements for agricultural technology and to normalize the fruits so as not to harm the bushes.