Grape variety Galbena nou (Zolotinka)
The grape has a thousand-year history and was one of the first plants cultivated by people. Over the years, many different varieties have been bred, differing in their external and taste characteristics, planting and care features. Today we’ll talk about a variety called Galbena know, find out how it differs from the rest and how to care for it.
History of the variety
The goal of Soviet breeders of the 60–80s. of the last century was to bring out the "ideal grape", which could adapt to different climatic conditions and at the same time have bright taste characteristics. To do this, we took the Frumoasa albe variety, which gave the newly created Galbene nou its musky taste, and Russian Korinka - seedless grapes with early ripening.
Thus, the new variety has incorporated the best qualities of its ancestors. It is also called Zolotinka, and from Moldavian the variety is translated as “yellow new”. The birth of a new variety occurred in the Novocherkassk Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking. Potapenko J.I. (Novocherkassk, Rostov Region, Russia).
The variety quickly gained popularity due to its characteristics and fell in love with gardeners of the middle climatic zone of the former USSR. Now the variety is still grown in the CIS countries.
Did you know? The most expensive grape in the world is the Roman ruby variety , which is grown in Japan. It has a unique taste. The last record for its sale was broken in 2016, when one bunch of grapes was sold for almost 11 thousand US dollars.
Description of the Galbena Nou grape variety
Galbena know belongs to table grape varieties and is eaten in different variations, and is also suitable for raisins. The main qualities that distinguish the variety from the rest of the table varieties are fast ripening (100-115 days), nutmeg taste, unpretentious care and plentiful dense clusters with large sweet seeds without seeds.
Characterization and description of the fruit
The Galbena Nou bush begins to bear fruit for season 2–3 after planting. Large conical-shaped brushes with yellow-white, green-white, and amber-white berries grow on the vine, which are characterized as large and very large.
They have a regular round shape without defects and reach a weight of 7-8 g each. Behind a thin peel (which is also a characteristic feature of the variety) hides an elastic, fleshy and incredibly juicy pulp of muscatel taste. Such fruits are rarely used for the preparation of wines, because their properties indicate the use, first of all, fresh.
Grapes contain fiber, fructose, vitamins A, B, C, as well as minerals necessary for humans: iron, selenium, phosphorus, calcium. In addition, grape fruits serve as a prophylactic against many diseases, such as asthma, constipation, migraine, heart disease, and many others.
Read more about the benefits and harms of white grapes.
The Galbena Know grape bush reaches for the sun and grows rapidly. It can reach up to 3 m in height. The basis is strong brown trunks and a massive root. Branches with fruitful clusters are densely arranged, abundantly covering the bush along the entire length. Each bunch reaches a weight of 500–600 g and totals 35–45 large grapes. Bisexual flowers.
The leaves of the bush are large five-fingered, with slight pubescence on the veins. Leaf color is saturated lime or light green, with yellow hues and a pronounced border. Thanks to the flexible branches, the bush can carry even the strongest winds.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Among the main advantages of Galbena know grapes, for which gardeners love it, they distinguish:
- early ripening (late July-early August);
- a high percentage of survival of cuttings;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- resistance to climatic conditions (can winter at temperatures up to -25 ° C);
- cluster ripening along the entire length of the vine;
- large, sweet and juicy seedless fruits.
- Among the disadvantages of the variety are the following:
- friability or moderate friability of bunches;
- grapes are unsuitable for making wine (due to the large amount of sugar);
- during the ripening period, birds and wasps can attack the bushes;
- not suitable for mass planting.
Features of planting seedlings of Galbena know grapes
The saplings of the Galbena Nou grape bush take root quickly and in most cases can easily tolerate winter (for this they need to be covered, which we will discuss below). Cuttings are planted in autumn or spring, depending on the climatic zone. For spring planting, it is important that the earth has time to warm up.
Before starting planting, it is necessary to prepare a pit with a diameter of 50 cm. To feed the root, fertilizers are poured into the bottom of the pit: it can be mulch, humus or production additives. After placing the seedling in a pit, it is recommended to fill it with soil halfway, then ram it (so that it does not let cold air in), pour water and again fill it up to the top so that the top eye is covered by 2 cm of soil.
Important! In warm regions, planting is done in the fall (end of October-November), so that the sprout has time to take root in the warm autumn ground before the onset of frost. In the northern regions, this procedure is carried out in the spring, so as not to destroy the plant during the cold autumn and severe winter.
In order for the bush to correspond to varietal characteristics, it should be provided with full care associated with the shrub part and soil.
A prerequisite is periodic loosening of the earth and the removal of weeds - this will help the soil absorb more air and its beneficial components, which beneficially affect the growth and well-being of the plant.
To maintain the health of the bush, one should not forget about watering. The grape needs water, so you should plan the irrigation regime and its volume, depending on the size of the shrub. Despite the fact that Galbena know is resistant to frost, experienced gardeners still advise warming it with coniferous branches for the winter.
In the case of autumn planting of cuttings, they also need to be tightly wrapped in branches, but so that they allow the seedlings to “breathe”. For insulation, you can use special fabric shelters that allow air to pass through.
Nuances of pruning grapes
The Galbena Know grape shrub abundantly bears fruit and can be subjected to increased stress, so it is recommended to prune it annually. In addition, the bush grows very quickly both in height and in width, therefore, pruning is also carried out for aesthetic purposes, and so as not to interfere with neighboring plants. Important! Due to the dense growth of branches, there may be a lack of air and light. This threatens with rotting, the appearance of pests and diseases of grapes. To prevent this, you need to monitor the sufficient ventilation of the shrub and periodically remove excess shoots, cut off the lateral growing branches or use a trellis. The standard pruning rule is to remove 6–10 upper kidneys. However, given the fact that Galbena know bears fruit along the entire length of the vine, pruning only the tops of 2–4 buds will be appropriate. The procedure is carried out annually in the fall, at the end of the season.
The bush propagates by cuttings or grafting. For breeding use fruitful shoots after pruning. It is easy for them to take root in warm autumn or spring soil.
Cuttings can also be used for grafting. Galbena know can serve as a vaccine for almost any grape variety.
Disease Prevention and Pest Control
The Galbena nou variety is resistant to rot and most pests that other grape varieties are susceptible to. However, some negative factors still affect him.
Consider them in more detail in the form of a table:
|Bacterial||Oidium||Too thick branching, lack of air and space, small distances between the bushes, insufficient watering||Timely pruning, planting in a bright and well-ventilated place, weed removal, periodic mulching and fertilizer replenishment, to prevent drying out and waterlogging of the soil||Spraying with sulfuric solution and fungicides|
|Biological||Wasps||High sugar in fruits||Location of baits on the territory (jars of jam, beer, sweet syrup and fungicides), fabric protection of bunches, mesh protection of the bush|
|Mechanical||Birds||Increased fruit sugar, fruit size and lack of seeds||Mesh protection of the bush, the placement of bright baits that distract from the vineyard|
The Galbena Know grape variety is deservedly popular among gardeners due to its unpretentiousness, early ripening and sweet fruits. In order for the bush to form correctly, grow up healthy and delight you with its productivity, you must adhere to simple rules for caring for it.