Grape variety Galahad. Description and photo
Grapes are to the taste of both adults and children. Such popularity is explained by the fact that today you can meet grape bushes near the house of any amateur gardener. In this article you will get acquainted with a very popular grape variety - Galahad.
History of the variety
Galahad is a hybrid grape variety that was developed thanks to the stubborn efforts of breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after Y. I. Potapenko. Scientists formulated a task, the result of which was to become a new grape variety, characterized by high taste, productivity (productivity) and unpretentiousness in the care and conditions, since the northern Russian regions were to be the place of its cultivation. Did you know? About 80 thousand km ² of the entire globe are occupied by vineyards. 71% of the total harvest collected for the year is used for winemaking, 27% are sold fresh, and only 2% of the crop becomes raw material for dried fruits. The selection process took place in two stages. At first, two species were crossed for the cultivation of the Institute’s scientists: the ordinary Delight with the Talisman (Kesha). Then, a new culture was crossed with Muscat Delight.
Description of Galahad grape variety
Galahad is a fast-growing early ripe table grape hybrid variety. The berries of this culture can be harvested already in 95-100 days, after the appearance of buds on the shoots (late July - early August). A year after planting, the plant begins to bear fruit. The seedlings themselves grow too fast, and in one year they can form 2 powerful two-meter shoots with a massive stem. The leaves of Galahad are painted in dark green color, the shape of the leaves is dissected, cut by pronounced veins, painted in a golden yellow hue.
Did you know? On average, 1 resident of Ukraine consumes 1 kg of grapes per year, while doctors recommend eating 8-10 kg of this fruit.
The size of the leaves is medium and large. They are a bit like currant foliage. This variety does not need a pollinator, because thanks to selection works its flowers are bisexual, that is, pistils and stamens are formed on them. The pollination process is successfully carried out, even in rainy weather conditions.
Advantages of grapes and disadvantages
- The high demand for Galahad is due to a number of undeniable advantages, among which are the following:
- the speed of crop growth and the ability to bear fruit already in the second year after planting, without harm to the plant itself.
- relatively short ripening time.
- high yield.
- a large number of shoots that bear fruit (60–75%).
- the hybrid is not afraid of frost and is able to withstand the temperature drop to –25ºС.
- the grapes are well transported and do not deteriorate during transport, they have a long shelf life (but, temperature conditions must be observed).
- Harvesting is recommended immediately after full ripening, but if you do not have time, do not be afraid that the berries will crack in the sun.
- A special plus of this variety is that it does not attract wasps.
- unpretentiousness when landing and leaving.
- resistant immunity to attacks of diseases and pests.
- The few disadvantages of the variety include the following:
- grapes can darken under the influence of direct sunlight, so you should preserve them during ripening from bright light.
- untimely collection of ripe Galahad leads to shedding of berries.
- The taste of Galahad was liked not only by people, but also by birds with insects, which often attack vineyards, which spoil the presentation of berries.
Did you know? From grape enzymes make cosmetics that are used in the fight against aging.
Galahad - the owner of excellent taste and high productivity. Consider a detailed description of the fruits, clusters and taste of culture.
Of the 10 points that members of the special tasting commission in the field of viticulture give for taste, this variety received 8.9, which is a very respectful result. Such a high score is due to the moderate sweet taste of the berries of the culture, with appropriate sourish chords. Due to the meatiness of the pulp, as well as the thin skin, the taste of grapes only wins.
Learn how to make wine from white grapes.
The sugar content of grapes ranges from 18–21 g / cm³, and the acidity does not exceed 5-6 g / dm³, which is an almost ideal sweetness-acidity ratio.
60–75% of the shoots of the vine are covered with an impressive size of bunches (a very worthy indicator in the vine industry), weighing from 600 to 1200 g. The bunches acquire a cylindrical shape, they may differ in slight friability. Elongated ovoid berries grow in weight from 10 to 15 g. They report their ripeness in amber-yellow color, although in shady conditions they can be milky-white.
Important! The yield coefficient of the variety is 1.3–1.5.
Features of growing grape varieties Galahad
Growing a hybrid is not particularly different from growing other grape varieties. Read more about this process.
Choosing a place to land
Correctly chosen seat is one of the main guarantees of good “health” and productivity of Galahad. So, the variety does not tolerate neighborhood with trees, in the shadow of which it will constantly be: he prefers well-lit areas. It takes root in sunny areas without problems, grows quickly and will delight you with a high yield of sweet berries.
When choosing a seat, focus on those areas that are protected from drafts and cold wind gusts that can harm the culture. A wall or a fence can protect the bushes from the wind, which will not obscure the landing. In addition, such a fence, heating up during the day, will give heat to the bushes at night.
Important! A hybrid variety prefers loose and fertile soils. It feels good on peatlands or loams. The main thing is that the soil is not acidic and salty.
The best option is a hilly summer cottage on the south side. The increase is important so that water does not stagnate on the seat, which can cause plant diseases of rotting roots. If groundwater is laid 2-3 meters from the top layer of the earth, it is worth taking good care of soil drainage (lay the bottom of the hole with expanded clay or gravel).
Selection of seedlings
The choice of seedlings is to examine the root system: you should choose only those whose roots are healthy, elastic, developed and not damaged. Even the smallest root processes should look fresh, not be sagging or dented. Do not buy a seedling on which mold is found. Experienced gardeners recommend shortening the tips of the roots just before planting using a pruner.
Read more about planting grapes in a greenhouse.
The main signs of healthy seedlings:
- light brown color of shoots. If you notice damage to the main shoot, the formation of spots on it, or its withering, discard such a seedling;
- the optimal age of the seedlings for planting is 1 year;
- lateral shoots of planting material should have a green color with fresh foliage.
You can land Galahad in spring or autumn. Planting time depends on the climatic conditions of the region. In northern places, it is best to plant this hybrid form in the spring (late April - early May), so that the plant is well rooted and prepared enough for the onset of winter cold. In the south, you can resort to autumn planting (late September - early October). The planting process, carried out at different times of the year, has no special differences.
- Preparing the landing hole. This must be done 2-3 weeks before landing. Due to the fact that the root system of this variety is different in thickness and development, the parameters of the pit should be from 75 cm to 1 m in depth (for the entire length of the roots), and 75 cm in diameter. If you plan a large landing, then you can dig not holes, but trenches of appropriate sizes.
- Observing the distance between the holes . The grapes grow quite quickly, and grows well, so between each seedling you need to leave 2 m of free space. The row spacing is 2.5-3 m. You should also think about the place for support that the seedlings will need from the first day. And when the bushes begin to bear fruit and bend under the weight of heavy clusters, they will especially need support.
- Drainage of the soil - placing claydite particles, pebbles, shards of clay at the bottom of the hole. The optimal drainage layer is 10 cm.
- The room is at the bottom of the support pit, twice as high as the seedling.
- Preparation of the seedling itself, which consists in placing its roots in a vessel with water (room temperature) for a day . It is good to put potassium permanganate in water, which will serve as a disinfectant. Immediately before planting, you should once again inspect the roots and remove those that have dried or blackened. After the pruning procedure, the roots should be greased with a nutritious mixture prepared with manure and powder clay. It is advisable to add potassium humate to the mixture.
- Putting a seedling in a hole and straightening the roots . Carrying out this stage, monitor the location of the sprout buds: they should be directed to the north side.
- Falling asleep holes . Here you need to alternate soil mixtures: the first layer is soil (12–15 cm, consists of a mixture of chernozem with a small amount of sand), the second consists of mineral fertilizers (about 180–200 g of phosphorus and 130–150 g of potassium). Potassium phosphorus fertilizers can be replaced with wood ash (3 l). Then the layers are repeated: soil - fertilizer - soil. A small mound can be poured near the trunk of the seedling, but at the same time, make sure that there is a distance of 5 cm between the ground and the root neck.
- Tamping the substrate . It is important that there are no empty spaces in the hole.
- Abundant watering of the seedling, using 30–40 liters of water per crop.
- Bindings of a seedling to a support .
- Shortening the shoot to the level of 3-4 eyes.
- Creating greenhouse conditions (for 2-3 weeks) using a film of polyethylene, or a bottle of plastic.
- A canopy structure to protect the young culture from direct sunlight (only for the first summer).
Important! If you resort to spring planting, then a hole for the root system can be prepared in the fall, observing the above rules.
Traditionally consists of watering, fertilizing, mulching, pruning and preparing for winter. Read more about each step.
Watering and feeding grapes
Irrigation regularity can be adjusted at any time by weather conditions. So, in the dry season, culture is watered more often, in rainy times, the frequency of watering is reduced. Under optimal conditions, it is recommended to irrigate Galahad every 10-15 days, using 30-40 l of water for one plant. Attention should be paid to the fact that after a winter state of calm, one should not immediately resort to plentiful watering. So, immediately after removing shelter from the bushes, experienced growers are advised to water the plants for the first time, using 4-5 liters of warm water (temperature - +25 ... + 30ºС).
Important! It is worth remembering that 5-7 days before the beginning of flowering, the culture needs to be moisturized, and it should also be watered immediately after flowering.
The method of irrigation is drip, but it is best to feed water to the roots using vertical pipes dug in the ground. As for top dressing, it is urgently needed only for season 3 after planting, but provided that the hole for planting has been prepared taking into account all the above recommendations.
So, the basic rules of fertilizer:
- The first top dressing is made in the spring, after the soil has completely warmed up . Before that, it is worthwhile to loosen the earth. Fertilizer should be comprehensive: Nitrofoska + Kemira Lux (dry look). A similar complex can be prepared using superphosphate (40 g), medium acid potassium (25 g) and urea (45 g).
- The second top dressing falls on the period before flowering (for 7-10 days) . Cow dung, bird droppings, nettle leaves, dandelion, or rather, infusions of these substances on water in proportions of 1:10, and in the case of bird droppings, are used as fertilizers as 1:15. Every 10 l of such a fertilizer mixture should be “reinforced” with 15 g of potassium and 25 g of phosphorus. One plant will need 12-15 liters of such food.
- For the third time, Galahad is fertilized 5–7 days after the flowering process using superphosphate (40–50 g) and potassium sulfate (20–25 g). You can just pour the fertilizing data on the soil, or you can prepare a solution and water the culture with fertilizer.
Important! It is not recommended to fertilize Galahad with top dressings containing nitrogen, which can weaken its immunity, and cause poor ripening of berries. Nitrogen has a good effect on the development of grape foliage, which will pull all the forces from the bush, and, accordingly, the plant has too little power on the clusters and berries.
It is carried out immediately after planting a seedling: a place around the trunk is wrapped with organic substances (sawdust, humus). This is necessary so that the moisture does not evaporate too quickly. In addition, mulch prevents clogging of the ground. Autumn mulching is carried out during the preparation of vineyards for winter cold.
The grapes are cut to form a bush. The main stage of such circumcision occurs in the fall, when the plant drops its leaves. In summer and spring, only pruning of diseased shoots, as well as leaves that obscure the brush, is carried out. It is worth adjusting the length of the shoots. An adult plant should have 30–40 eyes (6–8 in one vine). All other processes need to be cut in the fall.
This variety perfectly tolerates frosts, but you should not mistakenly think that this feature excludes the preparation of the vineyard for wintering.
Such preparation consists of the following procedures:
- Cleaning the soil from previous mulch, scorched foliage, berries and weeds.
- Loosening the soil .
- Mulching . Around the trunks it is necessary to form 25 cm mounds of peat, or humus.
- Shelter of the vine . To do this, it should be removed from the support and laid out on the ground. You can dig trenches of small depth, in which it is advisable to place the vine. After that, the ground part of the plant is covered with breathable material (it is best to use burlap). Spruce branches are poured onto the material. When the snow falls, it is worthwhile to form a snowdrift from it over a covered vineyard. This procedure is repeated several times during the winter, as the snow cover subsides.
Important! It is possible to remove winter shelters in spring only when the air temperature stably exceeds + 5ºС and the risk of frosts decreases. If you have already taken off the shelter, and weather forecasters predict a cold snap, then in order to protect the vineyard from frost, it is recommended to lay fires near the plantings or pour plants with Epin's solution (use cold water) the day before the cold snap.
The propagation of the hybrid form is carried out in two ways: cuttings and seedlings. But, almost every cuttings cut from the vine in the warm season, takes root and turns into a seedling. The main thing is to put it in water or moist soil. The procedure for planting seedlings is described in paragraph 4.
Diseases and Pests
One of the benefits of Galahad is immunity. The variety is not at all afraid of gray rot, and is practically not afraid of mildew and oidium. But, prevention of these diseases will not do much harm. So, after wintering, as soon as the shelter was removed, the vineyard should be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (3%) or copper sulphate. The consequence of this procedure may be the appearance of a bluish tint in the plant, which disappears after a few days. Repeated spraying is carried out after the leaves are blooming, but Bordeaux liquid should already be 1%.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to resort to chemical spraying of vineyards during the period when the crop blooms, as well as during the ripening period of the berries (the latest allowable chemical treatment time is 20–25 days before the ripening process begins).
When flowering is over, a third seasonal prophylactic treatment with colloidal sulfur is carried out in proportions of 25-30 g of sulfur / 10 l of water. During the growing season, it is recommended to loosen the soil three times, and sprinkle it with ash wood or crushed chalk. Grapes can pick up the fungus, which affects not only its vine, but also the fruits. In order to avoid the appearance and spread of such infections, the vine should be sprayed with fungicides (Bayleton, Fitosporin-M, Gamair, Trichodermin).
Опытные садоводы рекомендуют воспользоваться современными звуковыми пугалами, которые помогут прогнать непрошеных пернатых гостей. Главный враг Галахада, как и любого другого виноградного сорта, — филлоксера, знакомая также под названием виноградная тля. Различают две разновидности данной болезни — лиственную и корневую. Первая, сравнительно, безопасная, поскольку исчезает после опрыскиваний Актелликом, Золоном, Конфидором-Макси. Корневая филлоксера — практически смертельное заболевание винограда.
Important! Профилактика виноградной тли заключается в опрыскивании лозы и грунта раствором из 7% карбамида или Нитрафена. В период вегетации целесообразно прибегнуть к народной мудрости и окропить растения поваренной солью или содой (300 г / 200 г / 10 л воды).
Единственная мера, к которой можно прибегнуть, — прививание на подвоях из разновидностей, которые имеют иммунитет к болезни (к примеру, Любительская, Шоколадная, Пламенная). Виноград Галахад — доказательство того, что селекция не стоит на месте. Это довольно молодой сорт, который уже успел отличиться своими высокими качествами. При соблюдении перечисленных выше правил ухода и выращивания, вы можете уже сейчас обзавестись таким сортом, и уже через год лакомится его ароматными сочными ягодами.