Grape variety Citron Magaracha. Description and photo
Citron Magaracha is a technical grape variety that is popular with winemakers, taking pride of place on plantations. If you decide to grow this grape and make wine from it at home, we offer you to understand the characteristics of the variety and the features of agricultural technology.
The Citron Magaracha grape variety was developed by the Crimean National Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking "Magarach" in the 1970s. To obtain it, the method of generative hybridization of varieties Madeleine Anzhevin, Magarach (No. 124-66-26) and Novoukrainsky early were used. P. Y. Golodrig was engaged in breeding, thanks to which other varieties well-known throughout the world were created during this period of time. Mass distribution of the new variety did not happen due to the tough anti-alcohol company of the 1980s, but later Citronny Magaracha nevertheless took an honorable place among the best technical varieties and is still popular for the production of quality white wines around the world.
Did you know? The variety became famous thanks to the “Muscatel White” wine produced from it in 1998, which was rated with the highest scores at international competitions in 1999-2001.
Description of grape varieties Citron Magaracha
Citron Magaracha belongs to the variety of medium ripening period, the fruiting period of which falls on the 125th day of vegetation. The vine can have a large or medium growth force, shoots are characterized by good maturation. The leaves are small, smooth on both sides, green in color, have 3 or 5 lobes. The flowers of the variety are bisexual, which ensures good pollinability. The clusters of Citron Magarach as for a technical grade are quite large, have a conical or cylindrical shape.
The clusters are planted with many small or medium green grapes, which during the period of technical maturity acquire a golden hue. Usually the berries are slightly covered with a characteristic “waxy” coating. The grape is covered with a dense but thin skin. Each grape has 2-3 oval seeds.
When choosing varieties for growing, the main attention is paid to the characteristics of the variety, which allow highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of grapes.
Drought and frost resistance
Citron Magaracha grapes are characterized by moderate drought tolerance, therefore, in a hot dry period, they need regular watering.
Important! Resistance to frost in young specimens is much worse, therefore, they are recommended to be covered for winter.
Disease and pest resistance
The Citron Magaracha grape variety is protected against fungi, viruses and bacterial infections at the genetic level, therefore it is not afraid of common diseases affecting other grape varieties. Grapes are rarely affected by garden pests, and wasps and birds can be distinguished from common crop destroyers.
Productivity and fruiting
Depending on weather conditions, the crop is harvested in late August - mid-September, when the berries reach technical maturity. High self-pollination provides good yield indicators - at least 9 kg of berries from one bush. The grapes can ripen unevenly, then the clusters that ripened earlier are used to make table wines, and later dessert wines. It is important to harvest the crop in time so as not to lose valuable raw materials, since there are no usual signs of overripe fruits in the form of shedding.
Fields of application
The berries are sweet and juicy, have a pronounced aftertaste of citrus fruits and nutmeg, which even bad weather conditions cannot ruin. Thanks to these characteristics, Citron Magaracha is grown on an industrial scale, and then used as a raw material for the manufacture of high-quality dessert and table wine. Grapes have also become popular for the production of sparkling wines.
Learn how to make wine from white grapes.
Good safety and transportability indicators make it possible to grow grapes on plantations located away from wine production, which is also very much appreciated by winemakers. The variety is also popular for home cultivation, due to the versatility of the taste of berries, grapes are consumed fresh, and also used to make juice and wine.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Citron Magaracha variety is characterized by a large number of positive qualities and a minimum number of negative ones, so we will consider each of them in more detail.
- The advantages of the variety include:
- stable yield, which does not depend on the weather;
- high taste qualities that are not affected by external factors;
- good frost resistance;
- resistance to sunburn and crop shedding;
- resistance to diseases and pests;
- unpretentiousness in leaving;
- good preservation and transportability of fruits.
Among the disadvantages of the variety, one can distinguish one - unstable maturity, which affects the profitability of the wine business. If the main part of the grapes ripens early, it will be possible to produce more budget table wine and receive less profit, and if the ripening dates move and the late harvest will be more plentiful, it will be directed to the production of expensive elite dessert wine, which will make a good profit.
Features of grape planting
For abundant fruiting, Citron Magaracha needs a properly selected landing site and suitable soil characteristics. In addition, you should purchase healthy young seedlings and observe the intricacies of planting.
When to plant Citron Magaracha?
Planting seedlings can be done in the spring and autumn. If planting will be done in the fall, it is better to use annual cuttings or rootstock as planting material. It should be planted in late October - early November, so that the bushes have time to take root before frost. In spring, young green cuttings are used, which are planted in warm soil in early May.
Choosing a place for the bush
Citron Magaracha, like any grape variety, should grow on well-lit plantations, and does not respond well to planting in the shade. Do not practice planting a bush in a lowland, since waterlogging of the soil often becomes the main growth problem or the cause of plant death. It is better to plant grapes on an elevation so that groundwater does not damage the roots.
Important! It is forbidden to plant Citron Magaracha next to other varieties, as it can lose resistance to diseases and pests.
For planting varieties, chernozem and loams, which are characterized by fertility and have high aeration properties, are considered suitable soil. The soil on which the planting of white grapes is planned should be enriched with potassium and phosphorus. Good soil warming is also an integral feature for obtaining a quality crop.
Selection of planting material
When buying planting material for planting, you must first pay attention to its appearance. For autumn planting, choose even seedlings, without damage and signs of illness. The bark on the formed shoots of a year old should be hard, light, the root system - developed, not have damaged, rotten or diseased parts.
In the spring, you need to plant last year’s young seedling, on which at least 4 fruit buds are well defined.
Before embarking on the planting of the purchased planting material, it is necessary to prepare the site: loosen the soil, remove weeds, and apply suitable fertilizers in accordance with the type of soil.
The landing process is as follows:
- In the prepared area, dig a hole 60 cm deep, 40 cm wide.
- At the bottom of the pit, pour a drainage layer (15–20 cm) in the form of crushed stone, broken brick or building pebbles.
- Drive a tall strong wooden stake (or metal) into the center, which will serve as a support for the bending vine of grapes.
- Pour a little (up to 10 cm) of previously excavated soil mixed with a nutrient mixture based on phosphorus and potassium on top of the drainage, according to the instructions on the packaging for the components used.
- To establish a seedling in the center of the pit, carefully spreading the roots to the sides, pour the rest of the soil on top. The root neck during planting should be immersed in the soil by 6 cm.
- Pour the plant abundantly with warm water (10 liters under 1 bush).
- When planting, maintain an interval of 2.5 m between rows and 2 m between bushes.
Subsequent grape care
For growth and fruiting, grapes need care, the features of which we offer to consider in more detail.
Trimming the vine is necessary after the grapes have dropped all the leaves - in late autumn (early November). At this time, sap flow stops, and the plant normally tolerates such an intervention. It is necessary to remove all shoots extending from the central one, leaving 3 of the thickest and strongest ones that will definitely survive the winter.
Read how to prune grapes correctly in spring.
Pay attention to the number of fruit buds on the shoots that you plan to leave, there should be at least 8. A similar pruning procedure should be carried out annually. For her, they use a sharp secateurs, cutting off excess shoots at the lower point of their growth.
Protection of grapes from birds and insects
The sweetness and aroma of grapes attract insects and birds, so the crop is often subjected to attacks, after which the number of suitable berries for further use is reduced.
Consider the popular and simple crop protection products:
- the use of special fabric mesh bags that are worn on bunches of grapes;
- For birds, homemade rattle repellers are suitable, which, when the wind blows, make loud noises. To do this, any light bells, cut tin cans, which, when rubbed against each other, create a characteristic noise, are suitable;
- the tape, placed on the vines of grapes, scares away not only birds, but also insects, preventing them from planting on berries;
- for insects on vines catch traps with sweet contents (compote, honey water).
To prepare the grapes for wintering, after pruning, they are released from the support and carefully laid on the ground, after pouring plenty of warm water. Top vines are well sprinkled with straw. A film is laid on top of the straw, pressing it on all sides with bricks. If there is a risk of lowering the temperature to –25 ° С, the structure is sprinkled on top with soil.
More often Citron Magaracha is propagated by layering. To do this, a young vine with still undeveloped buds is separated from the bush in late April. It is buried 10 cm into the soil and watered 2 times a week. Over the summer, the vine will sprout and take root in the fall (early September), the vine is dug up, divided and planted each shoot with the root system in a separate hole, according to the recommendations for planting.
Diseases and pests: control methods and prevention
Fungal infections are not terrible for the cultivar, but sometimes Citron Magaracha can infect anthracnose - convex spots on leaf plates, in the place of which holes appear over time. For treatment using soda ash (5% solution). Prevention of anthracnose is not carried out, they are engaged in drug treatment only during the period of the disease.
Among the pests of Citron Magaracha, only insects and birds are isolated, the control measures of which were described above.
Did you know? To obtain high-quality wine, raw materials based on the Citron Magaracha variety are aged in oak barrels for a year and a half. Variety Citron Magaracha is recommended for planting on small garden plots for home use and on large plantations for industrial purposes. To make it easier to grow bushes and get a big crop, you must observe the intricacies of planting and care.