Grape processing in spring - how to spray to prevent pests and diseases?
For stable fruiting, grape bushes are important not only competent pruning and timely feeding, as well as preventive measures to combat common diseases and pests. What preparations are recommended for spring processing at different phases of plant development and whether they can be replaced with folk remedies - find out more about this from the article.
Basic rules for growing and caring for grapes
Grape varieties differ for their purpose, endurance to a pathogenic environment, frost resistance, ripening, marketable and taste qualities of the crop.
Did you know? On the globe, about 80 thousand m² of land is occupied by vineyards. Of these, about 70% are used for winemaking, 27.5% for harvesting fresh berries, and only 2% for harvesting raisins.
However, all types of this culture combine the uniform rules of agricultural cultivation:
- When choosing planting material, instances with a well-developed root system and powerful shoots are preferred. Healthy seedlings are distinguished by a smooth surface, a rich brown color of the bark, a smooth vine, the length of which should not be less than 20 cm, and well-developed dark brown buds. The growths, spotting, light neoplasms on the roots, galls, thickenings, traces of mold, rot should be alert.
- For planting grapes, well-lit and sheltered from the through wind areas with groundwater occurrence no closer than 2 m from the surface of the earth are recommended.
- Landing is best planned in the fall, at least 2 weeks before the first frost. By spring, the vine will have time to grow stronger and will not suffer from drought. When spring rooting, it is important to wait until the earth warms up to + 12 ° C. However, weak seedlings may die or dry out due to weathering of soil moisture. Moreover, such specimens are characterized by late bearing. In spring or fall: when is it still better to plant grapes.
- Prepare a hole a month before rooting the grape seedlings. Its dimensions should correspond to the roots, without constraining them. Typically, for such purposes, a recess is excavated with a height and a width of 80 cm. About 5 cm of gravel and 2 buckets of compost are poured into the bottom. Then they sprinkle the hole with a 10-centimeter layer of fertile soil, mix everything with a shovel and cover it with polyethylene, reliably fixing its edges. After 4 weeks, a microclimate favorable for growth is formed inside.
- After opening the pit, you need to remove the topsoil from it, pour over it and, after spreading the roots pretreated with clay mash, sprinkle with a substrate. To eliminate the formed underground voids, the earth is carefully rammed. It is important that the soil covers the root neck, which conditionally begins just below the roots. Otherwise, the plant will not overwinter. Above the soil should remain 2 eyes or 3 cm from the vaccination site.
- After planting, be sure to mulch the trunk hole. To do this, it is better to use sawdust, straw, peat (especially when growing varieties unstable to low temperatures). Coniferous waste and foliage are not recommended for grapes, as they contribute to soil oxidation. The optimal layer of mulch is 5–9 cm.
- For the ripening of juicy grape brushes, the bush should be regularly watered, avoiding waterlogging and drying out of the soil. Excessive moisture is a favorable environment for the development of pathogens of fungal diseases and putrefactive infections. Therefore, in the process of moistening, it is necessary to take into account the location of groundwater on the site. Bushes at the beginning of the growing season and seedlings in the first years after rooting require special attention. It is important to intensify watering during flowering crops and suspend after the formation of the ovary. At this stage, control over the state of the soil is required, because its drying will provoke shedding of unripe berries. The number of irrigations depends on weather conditions and climatic features of the region. So that the plant does not suffer from excess moisture, make a sewer hole on the edge of the trunk circle. Read more about how to water grapes correctly and how often.
- Periodically alkalize acidic substrates with lime, cement dust, dolomite flour or old plaster. In the garden, such events are relevant once every 3-4 years.
- The grape needs at least 4 top dressings: in the spring before the leaves bloom, 14 days before the emergence of inflorescences, before the ripeness of the fruits and after they are removed from the vine. In early spring, nitrogenous components are introduced. A flowering crop needs superphosphates, and when the ovary appears, the bushes are watered with boric acid and zinc. To stimulate frost resistance of the vine, it is recommended to add potassium and copper at the end of summer.
- Each spring, for the correct development and abundant fruiting of the crop, trim the grape biomass. You need to start with two-year-old seedlings before budding. More often, gardeners practice fan technology, which provides for 2-3 sprouts in the bush, followed by removal of their tops at the level of 8 ocelli. In some early-growing varieties, which are distinguished by abundant summer growth, green branches need to be cut in the fall, because they will not have time to grow stronger and will suffer from frost.
- In November, before the onset of frost, near the grape shrubs (especially when it comes to varieties with low frost resistance), you need to make a small trench so that the vine is located in it.
Leafless branches are laid carefully so as not to break. Then they sprinkle with soil on top and cover with roofing material or slate, a plastic film. Closer to the onset of heat, all structures are removed to prevent overheating of the culture. In spring, with a sharp drop in temperature, the vine is covered with dry branches or hay. Alternatively, smoke the sprouts with smoke. See also methods of sheltering grapes for the winter.
- Since grapes are more or less vulnerable to downy mildew, oidium, sulfur rot, chlorosis, bacterial cancer, as well as the invasion of harmful insects, it is recommended to periodically spray the bushes with pesticides and diseases during the vegetative period for preventive purposes. Otherwise, with the development of the pathogenic environment, the crop will not ripen - the foliage will prematurely fade and crumble, and the berries can rot directly on the stems.
Why do you need to process grapes in the spring?
With the onset of heat, not only the circulation of juice in the grape stems is activated, but also the vital activity of microorganisms, as well as various insects. As a result, under conditions of improper care of the crop, excess melt or rain water, lack of sanitary cutting of old and damaged branches, the plant is at risk of infection.
To prevent the problem, preventive spraying of the vineyards in the spring is recommended. They will not harm a healthy plant, and the damaged will be saved from death. Many gardeners carry out processing of crops according to a conditional schedule, which during the vegetative period provides for about 3-5 procedures with different solutions.
It can be both chemical, biological, and folk remedies. Their main task is to destroy the potential threat by blocking the activity of pathogens or pests. Did you know? Ukrainians practically do not eat grapes. This conclusion was reached by analysts in the analysis of the annual consumption of table varieties of culture. It turns out that in Ukraine every citizen for a year does not eat even a kilogram of berries, with a recommended rate of 10 kg.
It is important to start preventive measures before the leaves bloom, since many microorganisms (for example, mildew pathogens) are inactive at temperatures below + 8 ° C. Ideal conditions for spraying are cloudy, warm and calm weather.
It is better to do this in the evening, since morning dew and high humidity reduce the effectiveness of the drugs. It is strictly forbidden to carry out processing in the heat, because the sun's rays provoke the appearance of severe burns on the vine. It is important that the leaves be coated with the active substance as long as possible.
In order not to be late with the processing, proceed as follows:
Recommended to find out
- Perform the first disinfection immediately after removing the shelter and raising the stems to a support (usually this is the first decade of April). At this stage, fungicides that destroy fungal and putrefactive microflora are effective. At the same time, it is important to spray the solution not only on the stems, but also in the area of the trunk circle, because after wintering pathogenic microbes may remain in the substrate.
- The second spring spraying is relevant in the second decade of April, when pests are activated with the onset of stable heat. As a result of their vital activity, deciduous buds, rhizomes and young vines often suffer, which subsequently affects the quantity and quality of fruiting. Insecticides are used to kill insects.
- The need for a third treatment arises 10 days after the second in cases of severe infection.
- The fourth seasonal spraying, which is final, is carried out after flowering. This is the first decade of May. At this stage of bush development, it is appropriate to use a mixture of insecticides and fungicides. In the process of preparing the working solution, it is important to pay attention to the compatibility of the drugs used, as well as the recommendations of the manufacturers.
Important! Spraying with insecticides and fungicides, as well as folk remedies, should be stopped about a month before the expected harvest.
How to spray grapes in the spring: the best means
The modern range of products for spraying vineyards is very wide. Chemicals have the greatest effect, because of which they are used in severely neglected cases. Biological ones are characterized by a gentle effect and less toxicity, while folk ones are effective only in the initial phases of the development of pathology.
Did you know? About 150 active substances and more than a dozen vital vitamins were found in the composition of grape berries. At the same time, the caloric content of a 100-gram portion of the product is 65 kcal .
All insecticides and fungicides of chemical origin are able to block a specific pathogen as soon as possible, thereby allowing the plant to fully develop. When using them, it is necessary to strictly observe the technique of their own safety, as well as to protect children, pets, bees from the place of processing.
In order to understand the degree of toxicity of the toxic chemical used, it is important to first study the characteristics of the active substance and the precautions recommended in the instructions.
Do not prepare working solution in containers used for cooking, and also eat and drink during disinfection. In cases of spillage of highly toxic preparations, it is required to remove the topsoil and rinse that place with plenty of water.
If mixing insecticides and fungicides is necessary, it is important to conduct a preliminary compatibility test. If sediment appears at the bottom of the vessel, this combination is not effective.
Important! Do not spray grapes during flowering. Under the influence of chemicals, the flowers may crumble or not pollinate due to the odor that repels insects.
To prevent or eliminate pathogens in gardening, the following are often used:
- Copper sulfate - is considered the best antifungal agent for vineyards. The working solution is prepared in an enamel bowl using quicklime (300 g per 10 l of water). It is initially poured into a container and dissolved in a glass of hot water. In this case, there should be active hissing and seething. Therefore, for your own safety, it is better to move away from the vessel. After the termination of the chemical reaction, 300 g of copper sulfate are smoothly added inside, constantly stirring the contents of the container. Before spraying, the resulting liquid is drained and tested by dipping a metal rod into the solution. If its color has not changed, you can begin to disinfect the grapes. For repeated spraying, a weaker solution (100 g / 10 L) is recommended.
- Iron sulfate - recommended for spring disinfection of the vine from rot, downy mildew, necrosis, anthracnose, as well as for feeding the soil with iron. The substance is used immediately after removal of the shelter. The working solution is prepared in a ratio of 500 g / 10 l of water.
- Bordeaux mixture - effective in the fight against downy mildew, anthracnose, rot. The first disinfection is carried out on a bare vine with a 3% solution. For repeated spraying, the concentration is reduced to 0.5%, since the substance helps to slow the growth of bushes.
- Urea (urea) - contains about 50% nitrogen, which is why it is important for grapes in the spring not only as an insecticide, fungicide, as well as top dressing. With the help of urea, it is possible to prevent scab, attacks of caterpillars and coppers. Preventive spraying of the vine is preferably carried out before the resumption of the circulation of juice. The working solution is prepared in a proportion of 0.5 kg of granules per 10 liters of water.
- "Ridomil" is a low-toxic fungicide, which is effective in most fungal diseases (oversporosis, gray spotting, black rot, anthracnose, late blight). Processing of bushes is carried out in the spring with a 1% solution.
- "Quadrice" - the drug has low toxicity and effective antifungal properties. The active substance blocks the viability of pathogens throughout the day. The working solution is prepared in a proportion of 250 g per 10 l of water.
- Colloidal sulfur - recommended for oidium, anthracnose and attacking sucking parasites. It is used more often during the last treatment in tandem with copper-based fungicides. The working solution is prepared in a ratio of 100 g per 10 l of water.
Important! Spraying any plant with fungicides should be carried out from the bottom, moving up.
Those who fear the effects of chemicals can use old ancestral recipes. However, it is worth considering that serious diseases and large colonies of pests for folk remedies will not be possible.
That is why they are used only as preventive measures. In the arsenal of such gardeners there is always garlic, red capsicum, laundry soap, horsetail, onion, baking soda, potassium permanganate, and potato tops.
From the listed ingredients you can prepare:
- Means for downy mildew. To do this, prepare a strong decoction of dry horsetail and, when it cools down, add garlic gruel to it (based on 75 g per bucket of water). They mix everything well, let it brew for several hours, and then proceed to sprinkling.
- Fungicide from powdery mildew. It is based on 40 g of baking soda dissolved in a soap solution and 10 l of water. Alternatively, you can do with 5 g of potassium permanganate or 1 liter of milk by adding one of the ingredients to the same amount of liquid.
- Insecticide against grape ticks. To do this, you need to prepare a strong decoction of 10 liters of boiling water and 2 kg of potato stems. After 5 hours, chopped garlic cloves can be added to the composition. A solution of half a liter of water and 50 g of garlic gruel will save young grape seedlings from adversity. To prevent burns, the resulting mixture must be diluted with a liter of water after 20 minutes.
- The solution from fungi. To do this, a metal bucket of 10 liters is half filled with onion husks, then poured with water and brought to a boil. After 20 minutes, the fire is turned off and the medium is allowed to infuse. After a day, 30 g of liquid honey is added to the container. Before disinfection, the solution must be filtered.
Did you know? Democritus and Homer were the first to advise saving floral vegetation from powdery mildew with tincture of olives, and use sulfuric solution against pests.
Spring sprinkling of plants with preparations of biological origin can be carried out at any time of the day, since they are based on saprophytes and other beneficial microorganisms.
The advantage of this group is accessibility, high efficiency and non-toxicity. They are used to control pests, fungal and bacterial infections.
- "Fitosporin" - effective in combating false and real powdery mildew, rot, late blight, anthracnose, scab. For spraying, a mother liquor is initially prepared, diluting half of the contents of the packet in filtered or settled water at room temperature. After that, dissolve a tablespoon of the mixture in a bucket of water (10 l).
- "Trichodermin" - the saprophytes that make up the fungicide are actively resisting phomosis, re-sporosis, powdery mildew and downy mildew, late blight and anthracnose. To improve the result, it is recommended to process the culture after the leafy buds open, and also 15–20 days after the first disinfection. It is advisable to carry out the procedure several hours after the rain. A working solution is prepared in a proportion of 50 ml of the drug per 10 liters of warm water (preferably settled for 24 hours).
- "Actofit" - the uniqueness of this insecticide lies in the contained toxins of biological origin. The tool helps with attacks of spider mites, leafworms, phylloxera, and bear. It is important to treat the bushes in dry and sunny weather at a temperature of + 18 ° C. The working solution is prepared in a proportion of 20 ml per 10 liters.
Important! При укоренении виноградных саженцев запрещено использовать свежий либо перепревший навоз. Это связано с наличием в нём вредоносных насекомых.
Неправильная дезинфекция часто усугубляет развитие болезни либо способствует прогрессированию вредителей. В итоге впустую потрачены средства, и виноград постепенно гибнет. Чтобы избежать такого развития событий важно учесть самые распространённые ошибки садоводов при весенней обработке виноградников.
В частности, речь идёт о:
- грубых нарушениях сроков опрыскивания (всегда нужно руководствоваться рекомендациями производителей, а также инструкцией по применению, учитывая особенности используемого препарата);
- несоблюдении рекомендованного времени для обеззараживания лозы (большинство инсектицидов и фунгицидов эффективны при вечерней обработке, поскольку их активные вещества действуют в сырую пасмурную погоду, некоторые препараты требуют солнечных условий либо повышенной влажности);
- нарушениях рекомендованных концентрацийпри подготовке рабочего раствора либо отступление от указанной технологии (неправильные пропорции, как и попадающие на мокрую листву солнечные лучи, провоцируют сильные ожоги, а слабые растворы не приносят ожидаемого результата);
- отсутствии повторных обработок при запущенных ситуациях (тогда болезнь либо атакующие насекомые поражают большую площадь лозы, из-за чего растению сложно восстановиться).