Features varieties of cherries
Yellow cherries are loved for their beautiful "sunny" color and taste. Allergic reactions are much less common with fruits of this color than with red ones. Lovers of yellow cherries may be interested in the variety Summer resident.
This sweet cherry variety was bred by Ukrainian breeders at the Institute of Irrigated Horticulture (Melitopol). The authorship belongs to N. I. Turovtsev. It was obtained by pollination of the white Napoleon variety with a mixture of pollen from 12 different sweet cherry varieties.
The variety has undergone state variety testing since 1984. Recommended for the North Caucasus region and Astrakhan region, but due to its frost and drought tolerance it can be grown in other areas. In Ukraine, the variety is zoned in the steppe zone.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Variety of cherries Dachnitsa has early ripening - from mid-June.
Appearance cherries Summer resident
Sweet cherry summer cottage grows quickly and forms a spreading crown of medium density. Fruits are yellow, with a thin, not noticeable skin and juicy creamy flesh. They have a rounded shape, similar to a heart, and a subtle abdominal suture. The taste is sweet and sour, rated by tasters at 4.6 points. The fruits are consumed fresh or go for preservation (compotes, preserves). The medium-sized bone is easily separated from the pulp.
Did you know? Humanity began to grow sweet cherry a very long time ago - another 8 thousand years before our era. Presumably this happened in Anatolia (the territory of modern Turkey).
The variety withstands dry weather and frosts down to -30 ° C, is resistant to cracking in rainy weather, is medium resistant to fungal diseases. It begins bearing fruit in the 4th year from planting. Fruits are tied on bouquet twigs and annual growth. Flower buds tolerate low return temperatures in spring.
Pollinators and productivity
The variety is self-fertile and needs nearby growing pollinators. The best pollinating varieties are Franz Joseph, Talisman, Drogana yellow, Melitopol black. Productivity from one adult sweet cherry of this variety reaches 45-50 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- A variety may interest gardeners in the following benefits:
- presentation of the fruit;
- high taste;
- good bone separability;
- drought and frost resistance, resistance to spring frost;
- good transportability;
- weakly hit with a cherry fly;
- medium resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis;
- resistant to cracking.
- The disadvantages are as follows:
- the need for pollinators;
- requires regular pruning.
Features of cultivation and care
Planting cherries of the summer resident variety and caring for it has its own characteristics.
Video: Sweet cherries
Choosing a place and planting material
For cherries, you should choose a well-lit place, because when shaded, the fruits will not gain the necessary sweetness. The groundwater level is no closer than 1.5–2 m. Precipitation should not be collected there. The presence of cold winds is unacceptable. Nearby there should be pollinating varieties of cherries or cherries.
Important! This tree should not be planted on peaty, marshy or heavy clay soils. If the soil is acidic, it should be deoxidized with lime.
This fruit tree prefers loose fertile soils of a neutral reaction (6.5–7 pH). Sandy loam and loam are best. In advance, you should dig a hole 80 cm wide and 60 cm deep. The upper fertile layer should be mixed with organic matter (1-2 buckets), ash (0.5-1 kg).
When buying a seedling, you should opt for one or two year old tree. He must have well-developed roots, a smooth bark without damage. You should not buy a plant with damage, spots and growths. It is recommended to make a cut of the root - it must be light, “alive”. On the branches, which should be at least 3-4 pieces, kidneys must be present.
Video: How to choose a sweet cherry seedling
If several sweet cherries are planted, they can be placed at a distance of 3–3.5 m from each other in a checkerboard pattern.
The landing itself is as follows:
- So much nutrient soil is poured to the bottom so that after planting the root neck and the vaccination site are slightly above the ground.
- Insert the stake.
- The seedling is placed in the center of the pit and straighten the roots.
- The pit is covered with prepared soil. At the same time, it is carefully compacted so that there are no voids.
- The seedling is tied to a support.
- Around the seedlings make a near-stem well and abundantly watered. You can put a layer of mulch on top.
Watering and feeding
To obtain a good harvest, appropriate watering should be carried out.
Hydration is recommended in this way:
- until flowering;
- in June at the time of pouring fruit;
- water abundantly in autumn to prepare for wintering.
The soil around the trees is moistened every 7 days, especially in dry and hot weather. In the second half of summer, watering is stopped so as not to cause an active growth of shoots, since this process will reduce winter hardiness. After moistening, loosening the soil should be carried out in order to improve the flow of moisture and air to the roots of the tree.
To obtain a high yield, it is necessary to ensure the supply of all the necessary nutrients to the cherry.
For the entire season you need to carry out at least three top dressings:
- in May, fertilizers are made from urea, superphosphate and potassium sulfate;
- in July, when the entire crop has already been harvested, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are applied;
- in August, organic fertilizers are used as top dressing - manure and chicken droppings.
Important! Before wintering, it is forbidden to introduce nitrogen-containing fertilizers into the soil, since they cause active growth of shoots and green mass, which makes it difficult for the tree to endure winter frosts.
Once every 5 years it is necessary to carry out liming of the soil. Cherries do not tolerate an increased level of acidity. For this purpose, when digging, lime, chalk, wood ash and dolomite flour are added.
Cropping and shaping the crown
During fruiting, cherries need regular pruning. This process is carried out in the spring before the kidneys swell. From the age of 2-3 years, shoots and lower branches should be removed to form a crown, shorten the conductor, and thin out pruning to prevent thickening.
The first pruning is done as soon as the planted tree reaches 0.7 m. The lower branch is shortened to 0.5 m, and the main conductor is cut so that it exceeds the branches by 15 cm. The crown is formed in tiers. First, on the lower tier, branches are left at an equal distance from each other.
Important! All places of cuts should be treated with garden varnish to prevent the entry of harmful bacteria.
On the second and third tier there should be 1 branch less. An interval of 0.7 m is maintained between the tiers. After reaching the age of 6 years, it is necessary to ensure that the height is up to 3.5 m and the branches are no more than 4 m. Only extra branches that grow in the wrong direction (inside the crown) are cut.
It is also necessary to carry out sanitary pruning - remove dry and damaged branches and shoots. It is carried out as necessary. In the fall, sanitary pruning is carried out until October, so that the slices heal before frost.
Preparing trees for winter
Sweet cherry variety Dachnitsa is quite resistant to frost and can withstand temperatures up to -30 ° C. In the cold period, young seedlings need protection from frost and rodents. For this purpose, their trunk must be protected with burlap, agrofibre or spruce.
Read also how to distinguish cherries from cherries.
To protect the root system from freezing, the soil around the trees should be mulled. As mulch, you can use compost, sawdust, humus and straw. The trunk of trees and skeletal branches before wintering should be whitewashed with lime mortar.
Pest and Disease Control
An important point in the cultivation of sweet cottage Dachnitsa is to take measures to prevent the appearance of diseases and pests, since their appearance can significantly reduce the quantity and quality of the crop. It should be noted that the variety is medium resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis, it is little affected by the cherry fly . The following chemicals are used to combat fungal and viral diseases: Signum, Quadrice, Horus, Revus Top, Ridomil Gold, Topaz, Nitrafen, Oleuprit, Skor.
Cherry can be affected by pests such as ticks, cherry sawflies, moths, aphids and weevils, as well as bark beetles, silkworms . The following tools effectively help to combat harmful insects: Inspector, Balazo, Karbofos, Aktara, Calypso, Actellik, Koragen, Envidor.
An important point in the fight against diseases and insect pests is the implementation of preventive treatments aimed at preventing their occurrence:
- In April, when the kidneys appear, they are treated with 1% Bordeaux fluid. Repeated spraying is carried out in May. These procedures perfectly prevent the appearance of fungal diseases.
- During the formation of buds, trees should be sprayed with iron sulfate.
- In autumn, the soil around the cherry stem must be treated with a urea solution. The solution is prepared on the basis of a ratio of 0.6 kg per 10 l of water.
- cut off the branches affected by the disease, and cover the cuts with garden varieties;
- collect fallen cherries and dispose of them;
- Do not leave berries on the branches so that they do not begin to rot;
- dig the earth around the trunk;
- regularly pull out weeds around the trunk section;
- in the autumn, rake and dispose of fallen leaves;
- observe cultivation agricultural techniques - proper watering, top dressing;
- remove old peeling bark and whitewash in the spring and before wintering;
- conduct a regular inspection to timely identify insect pests and diseases in order to take the necessary measures at the initial stage of occurrence.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Sweet cottage Dachnitsa belongs to the early ripening varieties, therefore, they begin harvesting in mid-June. To remove cherries from a tree, a ladder is used, since the variety is quite tall. Fruits are not stored for long. At a temperature of -1 ... + 1 ° C (humidity 93–96%), fruits can be stored for 1-2 weeks. When stored in a refrigerator, the cherries are placed in a glass jar, and the bottom and each layer of berries are overpowered with sweet cherry leaves. Thus, the fruits can be stored for almost a month.
Did you know? Removed sweet cherries can not be frozen, but dried in a dryer. Delicious and healthy dried fruits are obtained, similar to raisins.
These berries can be frozen. To do this, they are washed and dried, and then placed on a tray and put in the freezer. When the fruits are frozen, they are placed in a container and placed in a refrigerator. You can store frozen berries for up to 8 months. Bones, if desired, can be separated before freezing.
From the summer resident variety, early harvests of delicious marketable yellow cherries are obtained. It tolerates drought and frost well, but requires cross-pollination, so pollinating trees should grow next to it. It is not difficult to grow a summer resident and look after her, but it is important not to skip pruning.