Features of planting and growing violets at home
Violets are quite popular indoor plants, and often their cultivation grows from a regular hobby into a serious and profitable business. Many people wonder how to plant a violet and what further care the plant needs in order to keep it blooming as long as possible. This article will reveal the secrets of successfully growing violets at home as ideas for business and just a great hobby.
Brief description of the plant
This herbaceous plant can be annual or perennial, depending on the type of violet, of which there are more than 400. It has a creeping rhizome with brittle and thin roots. Its leaves may have a cirrus-dissected, simple form with stipules and visually look oval or slightly oblong. The edges of the leaves can be either flat or jagged. Leaves form a basal rosette. Their color can vary depending on the variety or type of flower and can be from light to dark shades of green. Petioles are heart-shaped.
However, the most common colors can be called:
Important! A sign of a lack of light is the stretching of the leaves upwards, with an excessive amount of sunlight the leaves begin to bend over the edge of the pot.
For a good flowering of violets, it is necessary to create special conditions for it, which will favorably affect the process of its growth and flowering.
These decorative flowers are very fond of sunlight, but their delicate petals can suffer from direct sunlight. Lighting should be diffused and bright enough, and this should be taken into account when choosing the best place for a flowerpot with violet. Based on this, it is optimal to arrange the flowers on the southern, western or eastern window, creating a slight shadow for them. On the northern window in the spring and summer, they will be well and comfortable, but at other times they may not bloom.
The air in the room where they are cultivating violets should be warmed up to a temperature of + 20 ... + 23 ° C. Such a thermal regime will allow the plant to grow well and give abundant flowering. If the situation in the room is cooler, a wide and bright border can be seen on the flowers, the color of the leaves can become deeper and more saturated.
If the air temperature is hotter, for example, in summer, violet may produce fewer flowers, which will be smaller in size. The green color of the leaves becomes more dull. Varieties with such a feature as specks can practically lose their distinctive feature, or specks become dull and smaller in size. Therefore, too warm or hot climate negatively affects the appearance of the plant.
Did you know? If you find a glade with violets in the wild, then the likelihood that zinc deposits are in the soil is extremely high, because these flowers are recognized by the "geologists" of the floral world.
In order to help the plant in the hot season, you can use air conditioning or a fan to help provide a rush of fresh air. However, you should beware of drafts, since intense cold air flow can cause spots and stains of a light beige hue on the leaves. Complete hypothermia of a delicate flower can destroy its root system, as it rots.
To water violets, water must be prepared in a special way:
- It is necessary to collect water from the tap and let it stand for several days in a container without a lid, which will allow chlorine to evaporate from it.
- The settled water is boiled in order to get rid of excess salts.
- Cool her.
The watering process is also worthy of special attention. The stream of water should be thin, directed in such a way as to avoid contact with the growth point, leaves and flowers of the plant. You can also apply watering by using a tray filled with water, which is placed under a pot of violets, and the roots of the flower absorb as much moisture as they need.
We recommend that you learn about the features of watering violets at home.
Such a tray is placed for 15-20 minutes to prevent excessive moisture of the roots. For violets, this is more disastrous than a slight drought. A sign of the need for watering is dry to the touch earth in a pot. Wet wiping the leaves should be carried out every 1.5–2 months. Leaves are washed under the tap, eliminating dust, trying to prevent water from entering the soil.
In order to grow beautiful and blooming violets, for them it is necessary to create conditions of high humidity, the minimum level should not fall below 50%. If the violet is in the apartment, then during the heating season this condition requires increased control, since heating appliances and batteries greatly dry the air.
To correct this situation, it is necessary to use improvised tools and devices:
- place open containers with water near radiators.
High humidity is especially necessary for leaflets that germinate, processes, transplanted plants. To create the most comfortable conditions in these cases, you can build a small greenhouse, covering, for example, the sprout with polyethylene. However, it is worth remembering the need for ventilation, the influx of fresh air.
Important! Humidity should not exceed 70%, and condensation should not be allowed, which could harm the violet, causing a fungal disease.
How to plant a violet
Planting a violet at home is a simple matter, although it requires strength and attention. First of all, you need to find out as much information as possible about the features of the type of violets that you plan to grow.
However, there are uniform rules that must be followed:
- compliance with the timing of landing;
- carrying out the necessary preparatory work;
- preparation of tools for planting;
- choosing the right flowerpot;
- soil preparation.
Depending on the type of planting material, violet planting occurs:
- from seeds - from August to October;
- in case of using cuttings, from May to July.
Before embarking on planting, it is necessary to prepare:
- a pot that is suitable in size and shape;
- containers for seedlings or rooting violets. For this, you may need plastic cups or parts of plastic bottles;
- optimal soil composition. If the purchase option cannot be purchased, then you should take care of the preparation of the necessary components;
- a fluorescent lamp, in order to provide the necessary amount of light for violets in the winter.
You will be interested to learn about how to choose the right pots for violets and how to care for them.
It is better to grow violet in a pot, which will correspond to the following characteristics:
- round shape;
- shallow, almost flat, up to 10 cm tall;
- the diameter of the pot should be 2-3 times less than the diameter of the outlet, on average it is up to 13 cm;
- better to pick up a plastic pot.
Indoor violets grow well in soil, which has the following characteristics:
- air, providing access to oxygen to the roots;
- retains moisture;
- slightly acidic, even neutral, with a pH of 5.5–6.5 for senpolia.
To give the soil a lighter structure and its breathability, it is necessary to add to the soil pot:
- chopped charcoal.
It is necessary to plant the plant in a flowerpot with a sufficiently large layer of high-quality drainage, which can be used as:
- expanded clay;
- polystyrene foam;
- coarse river sand.
Find out in more detail how to make the primer for violets with your own hands and what the composition should be.
To create the soil with your own hands, you should take care of the presence of such components:
- humus leaf;
- coniferous humus;
- turf land;
- fine river sand.
It should be remembered about the fertilizers that are needed to feed the plant:
- nitrogen containing. Especially important in the early stages of flower development;
- with potassium and phosphorus in the composition, as they contribute to better rooting of the plant and a set of vital forces.
Violets are grown by propagating:
- side outlets;
Read also how to choose the best fertilizer for violets.
From the leaflet
Growing violets from a leaf is the most popular and easiest way to propagate this flower.
In order to understand which leaf can be used, it is necessary to carefully examine the plant and select a leaf:
- medium in size;
- healthy, without visible defects and lesions;
- dense, strong;
- saturated green color, it is better to have a darker shade, since there is a higher content of chlorophyll;
- from the 2-3rd lower row of the outlet.
Choosing the appropriate instance, you must do the following procedure:
- Cut the stem of the leaf at an acute angle, separating it from the mother plant. It is necessary to make a neat and even cut with a shank 4–5 cm long.
- Place in a separate container with cold, prepared water so that the stem is in the water. It is pre-boiled, and then a tablet of activated carbon is dissolved in it. The same tool can be used to treat the cut on the violet.
- The process should be placed so that the petiole is always in the water, and the leaf is above its surface. To do this, you can either choose a container for germination with a diameter less than the size of the sheet, or put a sheet of paper on the surface of the glass, making a hole in it, and put a sheet on it, lowering the stalk in water.
- Then you need to create a greenhouse by covering a glass of water with a bag of polyethylene, this will speed up the rooting process.
Video: propagation of violets from a leaf
Germination of the leaf should take place at a temperature of + 25 ° C. If it has lowered, the stalk may begin to rot. In this case, it is shortened, cutting the affected edge. Planting with a leaf is done when small processes appear on the cuttings, then a leaf with roots is planted in the ground. To begin with, such leaf sprouting should take place in a small container, after the plant is well rooted and take root, it can be transplanted into a pot for long-term cultivation.
Growing from a leaf without roots occurs as follows:
- Holes must be made in plastic cups to improve water flow.
- Pour a drainage layer in containers using expanded clay gravel. Then a layer of sand, providing friability of the soil. Then pour a layer of nutrient soil with the addition of moss and vermiculite, providing ease and ability to pass air.
- Moisten the contents of the cups.
- Place a leaf without a root in the topsoil and sprinkle with earth.
Before you start growing violets from seeds, you need to make sure the quality of the seed, the absence of pests and disease in it. These qualities, as a rule, are possessed by material purchased in specialized stores. It is also worth paying special attention to the quality of the soil in which the violet will be planted with seeds. He, as well as for other methods of growing, must be nutritious and airy. For seed germination, it is recommended first to use not pots, but plastic cups or small plastic containers.
Did you know? The most delicate aroma of violets is used by Italian perfumers to make the unique aroma “Vera Violetta”. Its recipe is more than 150 years old, and only Parma senpolis are used for these spirits.
Landing should occur in accordance with the following plan:
- For additional aeration and better seed germination, the topsoil should be sieved through a sieve and then treated with an anti-parasite agent.
- After the soil has dried in a planting tank, it is necessary to create grooves for the seeds.
- Plant the seeds and sprinkle them with a small layer of soil.
- Water the bed.
When sowing seeds in open ground, planting is carried out from late summer to early fall, only by collecting fresh seed. The process occurs in such a period that the seeds will be in the ground all autumn and winter, and the appearance of the first seedlings should be expected only in the spring, and the first flowering of such plants is expected only in the second year. The beds in the flowerbed should be well loosened, adding peat and humus, treated with a fungicidal agent, to prevent the appearance of fungal diseases and parasites. Picking sprouted seedlings occurs with a distance of 5-7 cm.
Video: growing violets from seeds
Plant care after planting
The room where the seedlings and sprouts of violets are kept should be:
- without drafts;
- sufficiently lit, preventing direct sunlight from sprouting;
- warm, with an air temperature not lower than + 15 ° C. Optimum mode + 20 ... + 25 ° C;
- with high humidity.
For the plant you need:
- regular watering, which should be recommended by absorbing moisture through the roots, and not directly through the top. In the summer, daily, in the winter - as the soil dries up;
- drip irrigation of a plant from a spray;
- regular nutrition with nutrients;
- additional lighting, with a lack of natural light in the cool season;
- removal of faded and dried flowers and leaves;
- Turn the potted plant every week to create a symmetrical outlet.
Important! In order to speed up the process of the appearance of the first seedlings at home, after planting the containers with seedlings are covered with a film or glass to create greenhouse conditions.
Diseases and pests of violets
Compliance with the conditions for growing violets is essential for their normal growth and good flowering.
So, the improper content of a flower can affect its appearance and vitality:
- swirling leaves with spots and stains of beige are a sign of exposure to cold air flows;
- rotting of the root system can occur as a result of excessive watering, as well as hypothermia of the plant.
Violation of the rules of care and maintenance makes plants vulnerable, and it can suffer from such infectious diseases:
- powdery mildew, which manifests itself in the form of a light coating, similar to flour, on the leaves of violet. This is a fungal disease for the elimination of which antifungal drugs, sulfur, are used. Need to control the temperature and humidity in the room;
- Fusarium - a fungus that destroys the root system of violets. A sign is brown spots on the cuttings, falling leaves, the color of the roots in black. For the fight use fungicides;
- фитофтороз — грибок, проникающий в растение через его мелкие повреждения. Распознать его можно по бурым пятнам на листочках сенполии. Лечению заболевание не подлежит, следовательно, необходимо соблюдать должный уход за растением, чтобы не допустить его появления;
- серая гниль — налёт характерного цвета, который провоцирует появление гнили на фиалке. Бороться с этим заболеванием можно при помощи фунгицидов;
- ржавчина — появление ржавых пятен, которые сверху выглядят оранжевыми разводами, а снизу листа немного выпуклой формы. Для устранения этого недуга используют фунгициды, серную пыль и бордоскую смесь.
Страшны фиалке и вредители, среди которых следует отметить таких:
- scale insects;
- wood lice;
- комары и мушки, в частности, их личинки;
- белокрылки тепличные.
Для защиты от большинства этих вредителей применяются акарициды и инсектициды, которые эффективно воздействуют на них, предотвращая появление последующего потомства.
Советуем вам узнать, почему у фиалки скручиваются листья и что при этом делать.
Выращивание фиалок — это кропотливый процесс, который требует создания особой атмосферы: соблюдения температурного режима, влажности и полива. Однако радость, которую дарят цветы, восполняет этот труд.