Features planting and further care for strawberries Marmalade
Strawberries (garden strawberries) rightfully occupy a worthy place in the infield. It not only pleases with exquisitely delicious berries, but also with its carpet bloom gives the surrounding space a unique charm. But to grow and get a good crop is not easy: it requires some experience and knowledge to care for the plant. In addition, a rhetorical question always arises about which variety is best for planting, so that the flavor range of the berry is at its best, the yield is stable, and the plant is undemanding when grown. These parameters are responsible for the strawberry variety Marmalade.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
Marmalade is an Italian variety of strawberry berries, medium to early ripening. Remontance is conditional: usually fruiting occurs once a season (first half of June), but under favorable weather conditions and proper care a second wave of harvest is possible in late summer or early autumn. Culture has its own biological characteristics, which are listed below.
The plant forms a beautiful and strong bush, which is endowed with such characteristics:
- the aboveground part is powerful and spreading, up to 40 cm high;
- leaves - medium-sized, dark green, triple, complex shape, on long (up to 10 cm) stems, raised above the ground;
- flowers - white, large, multi-petalled;
- peduncles - strong, high, not prone to lodging.
The first berries are the largest in size and may have a non-standard shape: comb-shaped, folded, with a flattened top. Strawberries of the main collection are uniform in appearance and have their own specific characteristics:
- mass - large, 25–40 g;
- form - regular conical, with a slightly flattened end; the largest berries often have a comb-like shape;
- color - bright red, glossy;
- pulp - dense, juicy, aromatic, pink-red hue;
- taste - sweet, dessert.
Did you know? The strawberry Marmalade received such an elegant name from its Italian creators because of the similarity of taste with the jelly dessert of the same name.
Strawberry flowers are bisexual and can be pollinated in the open ground using wind and insects that deliver pollen to plants. But still, in order to ensure that the harvest is more generous, and the fruits are more aligned and of high quality, it is recommended not to be limited to planting one strawberry variety. It is desirable that 2–4 other strawberry varieties grow in the neighborhood. This helps to create better conditions for good fruit setting.
Productivity and Transportability
The variety takes one of the leading places among its brethren in the number of products collected per unit area. It is important to note that the peak yield occurs in the second and third year, followed by a decrease in crop productivity. From one bush of the plant you can get from 0.7 kg to 1 kg of sweet product, and in commercial gardening - 14-17 t / ha. Much depends on the growing technology used and weather conditions. Marmalade shows effective results when cultivated indoors, when optimal growth conditions are created for it.
Transportability of strawberries is good . In the stage of technical ripeness, it can easily transport even long distances, without losing its beautiful, salable appearance and excellent taste.
Read also articles on this topic:
Frost resistance and drought resistance
The variety is not frost-resistant, as it is intended for growth in regions with a warm, mild climate. If there is 20-30 cm of snow cover, the frost is -30 ° C, she is not afraid of it, but with little snowy cold winters, freezing of bushes is possible even at -15 ° C. Therefore, plants need good winter shelter. In areas with harsh, cold local conditions, Marmalade is recommended to be grown indoors, using greenhouses and greenhouses.
A counterweight to such a factor as low frost resistance is an excellent adaptation of the culture in the dry period. The berry plant is quite drought tolerant, calmly tolerates heat and bears fruit well.
Advantages and disadvantages
The plant stands out among other types of strawberries by the presence of a large stock of positive properties.
- The benefits of Marmalade are as follows:
- the presence of excellent taste;
- high productivity;
- salable, beautiful, product appearance;
- high resistance to powdery mildew, chlorosis, verticillosis;
- good berry storage;
- universality of application;
- resistance and ductility in the dry period;
- excellent transportability.
- The disadvantages of Marmalade include several points:
- poor adaptability to growth in regions with harsh climates;
- low frost resistance (shelter required);
- frequent change of landings (every 3 years);
- does not tolerate thickened plantings.
Video: Strawberry Marmalade
Preparation for landing
Agrotechnical manipulations for the cultivation of garden strawberries are not difficult, but require timely execution. First of all, it is necessary to properly prepare a place for the future plantation of berry plantations, to mark the planting scheme.
Did you know? Strawberries are the only berries whose seeds (about 200 pcs.) Are not inside but outside the fruit.
Marmalade bushes are quite voluminous, requiring large space. When planting in rows, the row spacing is 50–80 cm, and the spacing between the bushes is 30–40 cm. In one place, this variety grows for 3 years with abundant yield, then the productivity of the crop decreases, it needs to be transferred to another site.
7-10 days before the proposed planting of bushes, the selected area is dug up and fertilized with a mixture of humus and peat (in a ratio of 1: 1) at the rate of 1 bucket of substrate per 1 m². Before planting, mark the planting scheme, prepare the holes (20–25 cm deep), adding a little ash there and pouring plenty of water.
Read also about the proper planting of strawberries in the spring.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
To obtain high-quality planting material for strawberries, leave 2-3 released mustaches on the bush, the rest is removed. The earliest rosettes are the first to root on the shoots, they grow the strongest and most complete. Selected strawberry seedlings should have:
- healthy developed growth point with 3-4 leaves;
- well-branched, strong root system 8-10 cm long.
Choosing the right place on the site
When choosing a territory for growing crops, you must adhere to the following recommendations:
- berry rows should be placed in the south-west of the garden plot, with good lighting and protection from the wind;
- for strawberries, choose light, loose, neutral-acid soil, add sand and peat to dense, heavy soil, and lime to acid;
- you can not plant strawberries in the garden, where cabbage, sunflower, melons and legumes, potatoes, onions, peppers grew earlier;
- avoid places close to the surface of the groundwater;
- to plant bushes, in areas with a humid climate, on high ridges.
We also recommend that you read how to plant strawberries under cover material.
The optimal period for planting is the end of summer - the beginning of autumn (from the second half of August to September). It depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region. Over the autumn period, the seedlings take root well enough and grows in order to survive the upcoming winter safely.
In areas with a cold harsh climate, it is recommended that Marmalade is planted in the spring: April-May. In this case, by autumn, strawberry seedlings form a strong, strong root structure, so spring planting is considered more effective.
Step-by-step landing instructions for beginners
For those who are engaged in the cultivation of berry plants recently, you should take into account the following recommendations for planting marmalade seedlings in the ground:
- Mark the area, marking with the help of threads and pegs, rows. The row spacing should be 50–80 cm.
- In rows, with an interval of 30–40 cm, dig holes of 20–25 cm depth or conduct furrows. Contribute to each well: a handful (2-3 tbsp.spoons) of chopped wood ash and about 1 liter of water.
- Holding the seedling by hand and carefully spreading the roots strictly down (the roots bent up do not take root and die off), place the plant in a prepared place.
- Sprinkle with earth, slightly compacting the soil.
- Water the planted outlet abundantly with water, doing it carefully, in several steps, making sure that the roots of the bush are not exposed.
- The planting circle of planting is mulched with organic matter: sawdust, hay, straw, peat, etc.
Features of seasonal care
During the growing season, strawberry beds require timely weeding, regular watering, fertilizing, and preventive maintenance. During the season, weeds are weeded 6–8 times, depending on the cleanliness of the soil cover. Berry crop, when the plot is overgrown with weeds, gives small and sour berries, productivity decreases sharply.
At the same time, work is underway to remove the extra mustache to enhance bush growth and abundant flowering (if the aim is to obtain planting material). All mustaches are cut with disinfected clippers or pruners. It is impossible to pick off unsuitable shoots - there is a chance of damage to the core and root system of the bush, the plant will grow poorly and may die. When the stands are thickened, young sockets are removed.
Video: How to properly care for strawberries in spring, summer and autumn
The culture has a superficial root system, which extends into the soil only 20-30 cm, which prevents the plant from extracting water from deeper moist layers. Although Marmalade is quite drought-resistant, the lack of fluid adversely affects the vegetation of seedlings. After the snow melt, the soil has a good saturation with moisture, so there is no need for watering.
With the arrival of spring heat, moisture evaporates quite quickly and there is a need for watering plants, which is carried out regularly, as the soil dries, about 1 time per week . The need for plants for irrigation will help determine the visual inspection of bushes in the afternoon. If strawberry leaves are sluggish, their edges are wrapped inward, then this is a visible sign of drying out of the soil and the reason for emergency watering of the plantings. Learn more about how to water strawberries frequently and correctly.
Proper watering is carried out:
- in dry weather, 1 time in 5-7 days;
- water at room temperature;
- at a flow rate of water per bush - about 0.5–1 l;
- with a depth of soil moisture after irrigation - at least 40 cm;
- with observance of watering time - morning hours (before sunrise) or evening (after sunset);
- before flowering, strawberries are irrigated by sprinkling;
- after the appearance of buds and during fruiting, the plants are moistened under the root;
- planting material is watered daily for a week, then the procedures are reduced to 1 time in 3 days;
- in cool, humid weather, watering is not performed;
- Conducting abundant pre-winter watering in late autumn (wintering of seedlings is improving in moist soil).
After moistening the plants, it is recommended to loosen the soil, which provides the root system with better access to air and moisture. If the roots of old bushes are exposed on the surface of the earth, then it is necessary to pour earth on them, slightly compact and moisten with water.
Important! Excessive moisture adversely affects the taste of Marmalade - berries become watery and acidic, subject to rot.
Mulching the beds (3-5 cm layer) with shredded bark, hay, peat, etc. will help to reduce the frequency of irrigation and to keep the moisture of the earth, and to limit weed growth . Using inorganic materials, the use of film mulch is effective. The dark film coating on the beds will allow to reduce moisture evaporation on the beds to a greater extent, and maintain a stable temperature regime.
From the beginning of the growing season to the beginning of fruiting, strawberries need to be fed to give plants the strength of growth and the ability to form a good harvest. The use of organic fertilizers among gardeners is considered the most acceptable option, since they are an environmentally friendly and safe product. But, as practice shows, it is reasonable to combine them or alternate with mineral fertilizers.
Learn also how to fertilize the earth in the fall under strawberries.
Dressing strawberry beds occurs in stages at a certain time:
- After brushing and trimming the bushes.
- Before flowering (period of budding).
- During flowering and first fruiting.
- During the period of growth of berries.
- After the harvest.
The first feeding. For the dynamic growth of the aerial part and the strengthening of the root system of only plants awakened after winter, nitrogen biological additives are used, for example, such solutions:
- 200 g of bird droppings in 10 l of water insist 24 hours;
- 300 g of mullein are diluted in 10 l of water, stand for 2 days, add 1 tbsp. a spoonful of ammonium sulfate;
- 25 g of urea is dissolved in a bucket of water.
The application (watering) of nitrogen-containing fertilizer is carried out directly under the root of the bush at the rate of 0.5 l per plant.
The second top dressing. In order to increase the number of flower ovaries, reduce the formation of empty flowers, these types of dressings are used:
- a quarter of the bucket is filled with manure (horse, cow), add water to the top, insist 72 hours, the resulting substance is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4, watering the beds - 10 liters per 1 m²;
- in a bucket of water bred 2 tbsp. tablespoons of iodine, 5 g of boric acid, 120 g of chopped wood ash, stir, pour 500 g of liquid under a seedling.
It will be useful for you to read about the use of boric acid for strawberries during flowering.
The third top dressing. It is carried out using complex mineral fertilizers containing potassium, magnesium and phosphorus - this allows you to achieve a generous crop with large, colorful berries and to prevent disease. Such funds include:
- nitroammofosk: 1 dessert spoon of the substance is sprinkled under the bush;
- 2 tbsp. tablespoons of nitrophosphate, 1 tbsp. dissolve a spoon of potassium sulfate in 10 l of water, the irrigation rate is 0.5 l per plant;
- superphosphate: contribute 30 g per 1 m²;
- potassium sulfate: 10-15 g per 1 m²;
- complex formulations: "Stimovit", "Azofoska", "Crystal", "Agricola", "Strong" and others (use according to the instructions for use).
Video: How to properly fertilize strawberries
The fourth feeding. During mass fruiting, to obtain large-fruited products, bushes are fed:
- with a solution - 300 g of mullein is diluted in 10 l of water, 200 g of ash are added, they are left to stand for 1 day, then 1 tbsp. a spoon of nitroammophoski: consumption - 1 liter per plant;
- humic fertilizers: "Gumi-20 M", "Biohumus", "Lignohumat" and others (according to the instructions).
The fifth top dressing. To ensure the formation of future flower buds in the next season, substances containing phosphorus and potassium are used:
- complex mineral fertilizer “Diammophos”: 1 tbsp. spoon of funds per 1 m²;
- wood ash: 5 cups of ash per 1 m².
Important! Mineral top dressing must be accompanied by abundant watering of plants.
Each gardener, taking into account the structure of the soil, the use of fertilizer composition in autumn, the state of plants after wintering, individually determines the need for various types of fertilizing for strawberries in the spring.
Taking preventive measures to protect strawberry plantings from various ailments and parasitic insects, it is possible to reduce their spread in the garden area and even get rid of them in general. For these purposes, it is necessary to carry out the following operations:
- follow crop rotation rules (you can’t plant strawberries in the garden where cabbage, sunflowers, melons and legumes, potatoes, onions, and peppers were previously grown);
- transplant strawberries to a new site every 3-4 years;
- to disinfect planting material, agricultural equipment;
- remove diseased, infected plants from the beds;
- timely use of chemicals and folk remedies for plant protection.
The cold season, when the snow cover reaches 20-30 cm, Marmalade tolerates well, severe frosts are not afraid of her. But to predict how snowy the coming winter will be is impossible. Therefore, in order to protect plants from freezing, winter shelter is used.
Before its use, the soil is mulched around the plant using peat or humus (1 bucket of funds per 1 m²). Such an event allows not only to fertilize the bushes, but also to perform the procedure for warming strawberry beds. It is important to note that when performing this work, it is necessary to avoid getting the substrate on the plants.
We recommend reading more about preparing strawberries for wintering.
In autumn, after the first frosts, the berry plantations are covered with organic matter - straw, hay, leaves, sawdust, etc. But it should be remembered that in a too humid climate, such materials accumulate water and strawberries underneath can rot. An excellent covering material for strawberries is needles or spruce branches . Of the artificial agents, agrofibre (spunbond) is most often used, which reliably protects strawberries from extreme weather factors: severe frosts, lack of snow, strong winds, the formation of an ice crust after a thaw, etc.
Pest and Disease Control
Strawberry Marmalade, unfortunately, is susceptible to many types of diseases (brown spotting, gray rot, etc.) and suffers from the invasion of pests (strawberry tick, bear, weevil, etc.). The reasons for which these unfavorable moments arise may be different: adverse weather conditions, failure to comply with the rules of agricultural technology for growing crops, planting infected planting stock, use of non-sanitized garden tools, etc.
Therefore, the observance of the basic rules for caring for plants and the adoption of timely preventive measures to protect strawberry bushes from diseases and pests plays an important role.
We advise you to read about processing strawberries from pests and diseases.
If parasitic insects are found, urgent measures are taken to eliminate them:
- Bear A malicious pest living in the ground and eating not only plants, but also berries. Insectoacaricides - Terradox, Wofatox, Medvecid, and Rembek biological product are effective in controlling insects.
- Strawberry, spider web, transparent ticks . Common strawberry parasites that feed on leaf juices. Apply Fitoverm (20 g of the drug is diluted in 10 l of water) in early spring and during flowering. At the beginning of spring, “Karbofos” or “Phosphamide” (60 g of substance per 8 liters of water) is also used for prophylaxis, “Neoron” 10 days before flowering.
- Weevil . Dangerous dark gray bugs that can destroy the entire early crop. To combat them, the recommended means: "Confidor", "Decis", "Karbofos". Processing is carried out a week before flowering bushes. From folk methods use a decoction of onions, celandine, tansy. It is not recommended to plant strawberries next to a raspberry patch as the weevil is their common pest.
Strawberries are susceptible to a number of infectious and viral diseases:
- Gray rot of fruits (botritis). Fungal disease. It is especially evident in rainy weather, in the form of gray mold on the ovaries and berries. Recommendations: spraying before flowering with the biological product "Alirin", "Forecast", "Zircon" (according to the instructions), Bordeaux liquid, ash infusion: 150 g of substrate per 10 l of water.
- Powdery Mildew The appearance on the leaves and fruits of white plaque, which is formed as a result of fungal infection. At the first signs of this ailment, the Fitosporin-M biofungicide is used, according to the instructions (once every 14–20 days), Topaz, a solution of soda ash (50 g of substance per bucket of water).
- Brown spotting . The disease on the leaves, in the form of brown spots, is caused by parasitic spores of the fungus. With severe infection, the mustache and stalk die. Productivity is reduced by 8-14%. Control measures: the use of fungicides "Chorus", "Forecast", "Ridomil Gold", "Ordan", a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g of manganese in 10-12 l of water).
Harvesting and storage of crops
The first berries of Marmalade can be enjoyed in early June. Mass gathering of sweet dessert lasts almost until the end of the month, the timing of harvesting depends on the region where the culture grows and weather conditions. Harvesting strawberries is carried out in dry, warm weather, after the dew has dried. If the product is intended for sale, then it is advised to collect it at the onset of technical maturity. In this case, the goods better tolerate transportation and last longer.
Berries intended for storage are selected strong, healthy, without damage, dents or spoilage . It is important to pay attention to the fact that not a single strawberry should have mold, since a fungal disease spreads quickly and can spoil all products.
Read also how to properly store strawberries.
The duration of storage of strawberries at home is different:
- at room temperature - 12 hours;
- в прохладном, хорошо проветриваемом помещении (до +10°С), не более 24 часов;
- используя холодильник с температурным режимом 0...+2°С — 5–7 дней (при +5°С и выше срок пригодности продукта сокращается почти вдвое);
- подвергая заморозке — 1 год;
- путём сушения ягод — 6–9 месяцев (вплоть до нового урожая);
- применяя способы консервации — разного вида заготовки прекрасно хранятся до следующего сезона.
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