Features of planting and caring for black diver cherries
Cherry variety with a history of one and a half years, for this alone deserves respect. However, it is even more surprising that this story is not only not going to end, but, on the contrary, is actively developing further. The unique gastronomic qualities of Dayber black cherries and its high productivity are winning new fans for it. Read more about this cherry variety in the article below.
Biological features and characteristics of black cherry Dyber
This cherry variety, also called South-coast cherry, has characteristic features that distinguish it from other representatives of these fruit trees.
This cherry variety has a powerful spreading tree, whose height reaches 7 m. A thick oval-shaped crown consists of brown branches and a large number of oval-elongated pointed leaves.
The flower petals of this tree differ from other flowers of cherry varieties in their unusual corrugation.
Did you know? It is not cherry that became the progenitor of cherries, as many people think, but vice versa. Moreover, archaeologists have proved that the cherry tree has been cultivated by humans for almost 10 thousand years, which puts it among the most ancient cultivated fruit trees.
The berries of this cherry are large in size. Their mass reaches 7 g. The heart-shaped shape of the fruit is complemented by a clearly visible seam.
The delicate dark flesh has sweetness with pronounced dessert qualities and a slightly noticeable sourness. A medium-sized stone, which occupies 7% of the total weight of the berry, hardly partes with the pulp.
Not being a self-made tree, the black Dyber needs third-party pollinators. It is most effectively pollinated:
- Black eagle;
- Ramon Olive;
- Bigarro Gaucher.
Starting to bear fruit only in the 5th year after planting, the variety under discussion then annually gives a large crop of berries ripening from late June to early July. Did you know? Few fruits can compete with cherries in the number of colors, tones, and shades of fruits. The color palette of cherry berries covers a maximum of variations of yellow, pink, red and even black.
Black Dyberra fertility exceeds the yield of many other cherry varieties. In favorable conditions, it is able to produce up to 90 kg of fruit from one tree.
Sweet cherry does not belong to frost-resistant crops and prefers regions with sparing conditions of growing in the sense of low temperatures. In climatic conditions characterized by humid and cool summers and frosty winters, cherries either do not take root at all or do not bear fruit.
Rules for planting cherry seedlings
From the timely and proper planting of seedlings, the comfort of further growth and the productivity of cherries depend.
In most regions, seedlings are planted in the spring after thawing and warming up the soil. The most important condition for determining the optimal planting time is the guarantee that the frost will not return.
This fruit variety prefers nutritious soils with a loose structure. Landing area must be selected as sunny as possible, but protected from strong winds. Since the root system of the tree penetrates the soil to a depth of 2 m, it should not be planted in places where groundwater comes close to the surface of the earth. When choosing a place for the future growth of cherries, neighbors are important, which are located nearby. Sweet cherry successfully adjoins to:
- mountain ash;
Do not plant sweet cherry next to:
- nightshade crops;
- a birch;
- sea buckthorn.
Direct landing technology
The planting process is as follows:
- Dig a hole with a width and depth of 80 cm.
- In the case of heavy soil, sand or another drainage layer is poured into the pit in a small layer, and with light soil, a little clay is added.
- In the pit establish support for the seedling.
- 2 kg of potassium phosphate, 3 kg of superphosphate, 1 l of wood ash, 2 kg of humus and 2 kg of ammonium sulfate are mixed with the top removed fertile soil layer in an amount of 2 buckets.
- The resulting mixture at the bottom of the pit is poured a low mound.
- On it have the roots of a seedling spread straight down.
- The roots are covered with a prepared mixture, periodically tamping it to prevent voids in the soil.
- The root neck of the seedling should be at least 3 cm from the ground.
- The planted tree is tied to a support
- The seedling is watered with 2 buckets of water, after making an earthen rim along the basal circle.
- The round-trunk area is mulched with ground peat, dry humus, sawdust or hay.
Variety Care Features
For good growth and fruiting, the tree needs proper care.
With a root system that goes 2 meters deep into the ground, the cherry is able to provide itself with a sufficient amount of moisture. However, in the dry period of summer, a weekly watering of 2 buckets is required for each round-trunk circle of cherry trees.
To obtain large and sweet berries, the tree must be fed with fertilizers. During the growing season, it is fed at least 3 times:
- For the first time, top dressing is carried out in April by applying 200 g of urea to each tree when digging up the perineal space.
- The second time, after flowering, the plant is fed with 300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate, scattered in each near-stem circle of growing sweet cherries.
- In autumn, a third top dressing is done by introducing 2 buckets of humus under each sweet cherry, after which the trunk circle is dug up and well watered.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The high height of the black Dyber tree requires its regulation by cutting and forming a crown. Typically, pruning is done in the spring before sap flow begins. In its course, skeletal branches are shortened in order to give the tree a bunk shape. Up to 9 branches remain on the first tier, and up to 3 on the second tier. To prevent the tree from stretching to a height, its central conductor is limited to 3 meters.
In the spring, frozen and mechanically damaged branches are also cut. To increase productivity, it is useful to remove all shoots growing upward or extending from the trunk at an acute angle.
Important! If branches with a diameter exceeding 1 cm are cut, it is necessary to cover the slices with garden varieties or oil-based paints.
Diseases and Pests
Cherry is susceptible to many diseases and attacks of various pests. Of the diseases, culture is most affected:
- Hole spotting (kleasterosporiosis), characterized by the appearance of brown spots on the foliage, inside which the damaged tissue dies and falls out, resulting in holes on the surface of the leaves. As a prophylaxis of the disease in early spring, before the leaves bloom, the tree should be sprayed with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. To combat the disease, it is necessary to cut branches with affected foliage, and cover the places of the cuts with garden var.
- Brown spotting (phylostictosis), which forms round spots on the leaf surface with dying and falling tissue. The methods for preventing and controlling the disease are the same as for hole blotch.
- Fruit rot, which creates round growths on the berries, as a result of which the fruits are affected by rot and mummify. As a warning of the disease and its treatment, it is necessary to spray the tree with fungicides such as "Horus" or "Cypronidyloma". For a radical fight against the disease, you need to cut off the infected cherries and cut the affected branches.
- Scab, characterized by the formation on the foliage surfaces of bright yellow spots, gradually darkening and leading to cracking of the leaves. To prevent the disease and its treatment, it is necessary to treat the tree with Kuprozan, dissolving 50 g of it in a bucket of water. The tree must be sprayed with this solution at least three times with an interval of 3 weeks.
- Monilial burn, leading to spontaneous drying of ovaries, foliage and young shoots. They fight this disease by spraying a tree with Horus at the rate of 2 g of funds per bucket of water. The treatment is repeated after 6 days.
Of the pests, cherry is most often attacked:
- Cherry mucous sawfly, whose larvae eat leafy tissue, leaving only streaks on the foliage. For the prevention and control of the pest, cherries should be treated with Decis, Karate or Iskra-M preparations.
- Cherry flies, which leads to darkening of the fruits, their softening, decay and decay. To prevent the attack of this pest, the ovary should be sprayed with “Karate” or “Decis”, after a couple of weeks repeating the process.
- Weevil, eating away buds, ovaries and buds and laying larvae in the bones, damaging the fruits.
- A ringed silkworm, whose caterpillars devour the buds and young leaves, arranging nests from the web in the forks of branches. To combat this pest, it is necessary to collect and destroy caterpillars during the season. And for preventive purposes, in the spring, you should spray the tree with "Zolon", "Karate", "Decis" or "Entobacterin".
Harvesting and storage of crops
It is preferable to collect cherry berries on a fine day in the morning. During this period, the fruit pulp has a maximum density. With a rich harvest, the berries are scattered on a spread fabric in one layer. This allows not only comfortable sorting, but also to avoid the pressure of some berries on others. Berries must be removed from the branches only with the peduncle, whose nutrients and moisture are able to maintain the berries in good condition longer.
Different conditions and storage methods determine the shelf life of berries:
- in the common chamber of the refrigerator berries are stored for several days;
- cherries are stored in the freezer for up to 8 months;
- dried berries are stored for up to 1 year;
- canned cherries persist for 1 year.
Important! Before sending the berries for storage, they should not be washed.
The old variety of Dayber cherries is black and, after more than a century and a half after its creation, successfully withstands competition with many newfangled modern varieties. The excellent gastronomic qualities of the variety, coupled with high yields, inspire many gardeners to grow this wonderful sweet cherry in their gardens.