Features of planting and caring for the apple variety Jin
It’s easy to grow an apple tree - it does not require much attention and does not take a lot of time from the owner. However, successful harvests can be achieved with the right selection of varieties, places for planting, observing the technology of planting a seedling and implementing a minimum of necessary care procedures. How to grow a genie apple tree, read this article.
Variety breeding history
Varieties of apple trees with a colon-shaped crown were obtained by chance during a natural mutation. In 1960, after a branch of the Macintosh variety was found to be unusual in shape and structure, a gardener from Canada grew a young plant from it, named after his Macintosh Vazhek. It gave a start to all the colon-shaped apple trees planted today, including the Jin variety, which, after 7 years, was received by Russian breeder V. Kichin. He was assigned the working code KV-5.
Did you know? In the Guinness Book of Records, there is a record that the longest unbroken peel was obtained by American Katie Wolfer in 1976. A woman peeled an apple for more than 11 hours and cut a peel 52.5 m long.
Description and characteristics of wood
Dzhin trees grow low - up to 2.5 m. Their crown is compact and has a columnar shape. The annual growth of shoots is weak - 10-15 cm. Branches are thickened, with shortened internodes. They depart from the trunk at a right angle.
Fruits appear in the fall - in September. They are formed mainly on ringworms, medium in size, and have a mass of 120–170 g. They are spherical in shape. The skin is bright red, glossy. The pulp is white with a pink tint, characterized by juiciness, density, sweet and sour taste. According to the tasting scale, taste is rated at a high 4.7 points.
Jin trees have the ability to self-pollinate. They do not need pollinating trees. However, if you plant plants that will pollinate them, then productivity will be higher.
Trees of this variety begin to bear fruit 1-2 years after planting on the site. In the early years, their productivity is weak - up to 4–5 kg can be removed from one plant. In the future, the yield increases to 12-15 kg. 35–45 kg are removed from mature trees.
Jin trees tolerate low temperatures well and quickly recover after exposure to frost. If you organize the insulation of the trunks and root system for the winter, then the trees can be grown in the middle lane and in the Urals.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Gardeners who already had experience in growing Jin apple trees note the following positive qualities:
- compactness of the crown, which facilitates the care of it and allows you to grow in small areas;
- excellent taste and marketability of the fruit;
- high level of frost resistance;
- good resistance to major diseases, in particular to scab and powdery mildew;
- early maturity;
- high level of productivity.
- The disadvantages include periodicity in bearing.
Apple tree planting
Before embarking on the planting of an apple tree, it is necessary to select a successful site for growing a tree, prepare the soil on it and purchase a quality seedling.
Video: planting a columnar apple variety Gin
Suitable growing conditions
The area where the fruit tree is planned to be placed should be well lit and protected from drafts. It is important to know the level of groundwater on it. The optimum depth is no closer than 2–2.5 m to the surface.
The apple tree grows best on fertile, loose soil, well-conducted moisture and oxygen, with low acidity - from 5.1 to 7.0 pH. If the soil on the site is depleted, then in the fall it is fertilized with organic or mineral fertilizers. With high acidity, the soil is deoxidized with lime.
Sapling should be purchased at verified locations. It is better to choose a one-year or two-year-old, up to 1.5 cm tall, with a strong, highly developed root system, a healthy root neck.
Landing is best planned at the end of April - mid-May. Autumn landing is also possible, which is produced in late September - early October.
A planting hole must be dug 10-20 days before the seedling is placed in the ground. Its diameter should be 1 m, depth - 0.8–1 m. Humus (1 bucket), potassium-containing mixtures (1 tbsp.), Wood ash (1 tbsp.) Are added to the pit.
Step-by-step instructions for planting an apple seedling:
- Drive a stake in the center of the hole to garter the trunk.
- Pour a hill of fertilized soil to the bottom.
- Place the seedling in the center of the hill.
- Spread the roots evenly.
- Set the root neck 5–7 cm higher from the edge of the pit.
- Fill the voids with the remaining earth.
- Tamp the soil.
- Pour 2-3 buckets of water under the trunk of a seedling.
- Cover the soil surface with a 5-7-cm layer of mulch from humus, peat, sawdust, straw.
- Tie a seedling to a stake.
If several apple trees of the described variety are planted on the site, then the distance between them must be observed at 70 cm. Aisles should be made 80 cm wide.
Features of apple care
In order for the Jin apple tree to grow healthy and bring high-quality crops for a long time, it must be periodically watered, fed, trimmed and sprayed in order to prevent infection by diseases and attacks of parasite insects.
Moisturizing irrigation is practiced for the apple tree. This means that they are watered 3-4 times a season, using large volumes of water. It is imperative to moisten the soil when the flowers bloom on the trees, before the ovaries form, 2-3 weeks before the fruit is fully ripe. Under one plant, about 3-4 buckets of water are consumed.
During periods of drought, the number of irrigations is brought up to 5–6 times per season, and the volume of water - up to 5–6 buckets. The best way to moisten apple trees is to drip. Watering should be combined with loosening and mulching the soil.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Trim the trees annually . Be sure to carry out this procedure in the spring or early June. It is necessary in order to form a certain shape of the crown, to rid the trees of branches that impede their growth and development, create a risk of the spread of diseases and pests, lead to thickening, and also to stimulate the growth of young shoots. As a result of high-quality and regular pruning, the plants bear fruit better, and their fruits are distinguished by sweetness and attractiveness.
Important! Colon-shaped apple trees at the top have a kidney, which is strictly forbidden to prune when pruning. The formation of the crown is produced in plants under the age of 5 years. In the first year after planting, cut off all the side branches and shorten the trunk. In the second year, they pinch shoots that grow longer than 30 cm without touching the upper shoot. In the third year, pinching of the upper shoot is carried out at a distance of 25 cm from the trunk. Lateral shoots are cut to 40 cm. In the fourth year of planting, all last year’s growth is cut, as well as branches that grow incorrectly or weakened. After 5 years, a height restriction is made. In the future, only maintenance and sanitary trimming is performed, removing weak, deformed, diseased, dried, broken and growing branches inside the crown.
When pruning on the shoots, be sure to leave at least 2 buds. In the summer, young shoots are removed, which takes away nutrients from the main branches and reduces yield.
Important! Trees are trimmed with a disinfected tool. At the end of the procedure, the sections for quick healing and prevention of the development of diseases are covered with garden var or RanNet.
Fertilizer apple tree
For the Jin apple tree, 3-4 fertilizers are required per season. Top dressing should be started when 1–2 years have passed after planting. Fertilizers are applied before flowering, at the time of blossoming of flowers, in the fruiting phase and after harvesting the fruits. For this variety, top dressing with complex mineral fertilizers is suitable. They are brought into the damp earth after watering or precipitation. Fertilizing dry soil is prohibited, as this can burn the roots.
Tree Diseases and Pests
With proper agricultural technology, the Jin apple trees do not infect the disease.
Of the pests, they can be attacked by:
- Hawthorn . Big white butterfly. By itself, it is not dangerous for fruit trees, but lays larvae that feed on leaves. To avoid parasite damage, it is necessary to spray plants with Chlorofos, Karbofos, and Entobacterin-3 drugs in early spring.
- Moth. It harms apples. After settling on a tree of moth, brown spots and signs of rot appear on them. To eliminate the problem, Homom or Strobi treatments are used.
- Moth Moth caterpillars eat the fruit. For their expulsion from the garden, the owners of fruit trees set pheromone traps, spray the trees with Karate, Accord, Bi-58, Fufanon.
Harvesting, storage and transportability of the crop
When it is possible to take fruits from trees, the owners of apple trees will recognize them by tasting them, testing the condition of the peel and observing the scavenger. The taste of apples should be as juicy, sweet and sour as indicated in the description of the variety. Fruits are ready for harvesting if, when pressed with a finger on the skin, a recess appears that does not align. If the dent does not remain, then you should wait a while with the harvest.
Experienced gardeners are advised to completely free the branches from the fruit if there are 5 or more very large and red fruits on the ground.
Harvesting a fully ripe crop directly affects the duration of the keeping time. As much as possible, Jin apples reveal their taste after a month.
Harvest planning on a dry day. You should wait for the dew to dry on the skin of the fruit, since fruits that are harvested in a wet state will be worse stored. To collect apples you need to wear gloves on your hands. The fruit is carefully picked from the branches so that the stalk remains on them.
It is recommended to store fruits in the cellar, basement or refrigerator. Before being placed in storage, they are well inspected and discarded by those whose skin is damaged, and there are wormholes. For storage in the cellar, basement use boxes of wood. They are pre-coated with paper. In the refrigerator, apples are placed in a fruit tray.
When stored in cold conditions, the fruits of this variety can be eaten for 6 months. Due to the density of the pulp and peel, they tolerate transportation well and do not lose their taste characteristics and attractive presentation. Did you know? At one of the apple festivals held in Beijing (China), a Fiji apple weighing about 600 g was sold for 69 thousand yuan (10.2 thousand dollars). Gin apples are grown to be consumed fresh, made from them preserves, marmalades, juice, used for preservation, cook stewed fruit, start baking, and prepare alcoholic beverages.
Jin apple tree is ideal for growing in summer cottages, even small ones. Its compact size makes it easy to care for and harvest. By conducting recommended agricultural activities, you can achieve high and tasty yields for 15 years. Although you need to be prepared for the fact that the fruiting in Jin apple trees is irregular.