Features of planting and care of Vasilisa cherries
Among garden trees, sweet cherry is not the last place. Sweet and juicy berries are to the taste of both adults and children. One of the most delicious varieties - sweet cherry Vasilisa - is popular with domestic and foreign gardeners. About the characteristics of this fruit tree and the rules for its cultivation - further in the article.
Botanical grade description
Vasilisa is a variety of Ukrainian selection, large-fruited and mid-ripening. The plant has a branched root system, formed mainly by vertical processes. Tall (up to 4 m) tree forms a spreading crown of rounded elongated shape. The bark of the seedlings is reddish-brown, acquires a gray hue as it grows. Shoots are thick, strong, slightly bent during growth. The foliage grows densely, the plates are dark green in color.
Did you know? Among all fruit stone fruits, sweet cherry ranks first in productivity as a honey plant. From 1 ha of cultural planting, bees collect up to 35 kg of honey product.
Characterization of fruits and tree
The deep root system of Vasilisa cherry helps her easily survive the dry period. To obtain a high yield, it is advisable to familiarize yourself with other characteristics of the crop.
Crown Height and Density
The height of the crown takes 2/3 of the height of the tree, while it is thick. To achieve the maximum return on a tree, gardeners normalize branches, carry out thinning. It is also necessary to adjust the height so that it is more convenient to collect fruits from the upper branches.
Taste qualities of fruits
The berries of the variety are large, up to 14 g in weight. The pulp is dense and juicy, sweet in taste, with a touch of wine. Round bones are easily separated from the pulp. The fruits of Vasilisa are universal in application: they are consumed fresh, they are made from jam and stewed fruit, and they produce other preparations for the winter.
Vasilisa tolerates winter cold well, especially if the trunk is sheltered for the winter. Some gardeners call the temperature critical for a tree at -25 ° C; therefore, in regions with long frosty winters, this variety is not recommended to be planted. More suitable for growing temperate latitudes and southern regions of the country. Despite the resistance to cold, cherries are afraid of spring return frosts, especially if the buds have already woken up.
Important! The Vasilisa variety is self-fertile, therefore, without planting at least two pollinating varieties nearby, there will be no crop. Suitable pollinators for Vasilisa: Bigarro early, Burlat and Starking.
The tree brings the first crop already in the second year after planting. The fruiting period in cherries lasts up to 20 years. Most of the harvest is brought last year's shoots and bouquet branches. Depending on growing conditions (climate, soil), the amount of harvest varies in the range of 25-50 kg per tree.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The main advantages of the variety are high winter hardiness, compared with other varieties, and large-fruited. Other advantages:
- early ripening;
- excellent taste;
- high productivity;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- resistance to drought;
- Disadvantages of Vasilisa:
- does not tolerate excess moisture (numerous rainfall or excessive watering);
- requires pollinators.
Features of planting cherries
Cherry is one of the most capricious fruit crops, so compliance with planting rules is the first condition for obtaining a good harvest.
When planting in the middle lane, it is better to choose spring - the period before the movement of plant juices begins. The signal for planting will be soil warmed up to + 5 ° С and above, while the snow should already melt. The adaptation and survival of seedlings in the warm period are at the level of 100%, by autumn the tree will already be strong enough for the first wintering.
We advise you to familiarize yourself with the rules for planting cherry seedlings in spring.
In the southern regions, gardeners prefer autumn planting, around the end of September. 5-6 weeks before the first frost, the plants will take root and calmly survive the winter. The only thing you need to take care of is sheltering the trunk circle and trunk.
Choosing a place to land
An ideal place on the site would be the slope of the south or south-west direction. This is a place open to the sun without the accumulation of meltwater or rainfall. It is desirable that the tree was protected from strong gusts of wind by a building or a high fence. The height of the groundwater from the surface should be at least 2.5 m. If there are no pollinators for Vasilisa on the site, they should be planted simultaneously with the variety. Bad neighbors for cherries are nightshade crops and conifers.
For autumn planting in the spring and, accordingly, for the spring procedure - in the fall, prepare the soil, digging it for loosening, and clean it of the remains of weeds and the previous crop. If the acidity on the site is increased, it will be necessary to deoxidize the soil by adding lime or dolomite flour: 300-500 g of substance per 1 m². The hole is prepared 3-4 weeks before planting with the following dimensions: 60–80 cm — diameter, 50–70 cm — depth. A drainage (broken brick, gravel) is placed at the bottom with a layer of up to 20 cm.
On top of the drainage lay the nutrient mixture:
- peat, humus and river sand - 1 part each;
- fertile layer of the earth - 1 part;
- superphosphate - 40 g;
- wood ash - 500 g.
Read also about grafting cherry on spring and summer.
Before planting, seedlings of the roots are placed in a clay mash with the addition of root growth stimulants: Epin or Kornevin. Landing technology:
- The central trunk is cut to a seedling to 80 cm, the side shoots are shortened to 20 cm.
- Landing pit freed from shelter. The fertile soil placed earlier is removed to the drainage layer.
- On two sides from the center of the pit, support stakes are driven in.
- An embankment is formed from the land mixture, taking into account that the growth point of the tree should remain at the same level with the soil.
- Fall asleep seedling, while ramming the soil layers. There should not be air voids around the roots.
- As a garter, it is convenient to use elastic clamps, fixing them on two stakes in the form of the number 8.
- After this, the plant is abundantly watered, it is advisable to cover the trunk circle with mulch.
Video: instructions for planting cherry seedlings
Aftercare for the tree
Sweet cherries will please with an annual high-quality crop, if the gardener is not too lazy to pay attention to the culture during growth and development.
For irrigation in the near-stem circle, a furrow is dug, into which the required amount of water is added. Under the condition of regular precipitation for the season, the plant will need no more than 3 irrigations:
- during the growing season and flowering (April-May);
- at the time of fruiting (early June);
- winter charging of soil with moisture (late September to early October).
Cherry is very whimsical to fertilizer, so the dosage should be strictly observed. The first time the fertilizer is carried out 2 years after planting. In the spring, a urea solution (30 g / 10 l of water) is added to the irrigation furrow.
Important! Mineral fertilizers can be alternated with organic ones, but fresh organic matter cannot be added: it will burn the roots. Compost or rotted manure is safe for the crop.
For the fourth and subsequent years of active fruiting, top dressing is carried out twice a season:
- April - urea (300 g of dry matter) is introduced into the soil (into a furrow for irrigation);
- September - superphosphate (300 g), potassium sulfate (100 g), contribute by the same method.
To protect against insects and fungi, the tree trunk is whitened annually with a mixture of lime and clay. The whitewash height is approximately 1.2 m. The procedure is carried out both in spring and in autumn.
Crown pruning is carried out annually in the spring, saving the tree from damaged, frozen branches. The shoots growing inside the crown are removed so as not to create a thickening and outflow of nutrients to unpromising shoots.
Diseases and Pests
In the spring, preventive treatments of the garden against fungal diseases and insects begin. A popular remedy is Bordeaux mixture or solution of copper sulfate. A preventive measure against insects and their larvae is also the whitewash mentioned above. Vasilisa, like most hybrids, is resistant to diseases and pests, but there are still cases of infection.
Did you know? Among tobacco smokers, mouthpieces and pipes made of cherry wood are especially popular.
Methods of combating diseases and pests:
- Fungal diseases (coccomycosis and fruit rot), as well as bacterial diseases, are successfully treated with the help of the biological preparation Trichodermin. To prepare a working solution, 10 g of the drug is diluted in 5 l of water.
- To combat flies, moths and sawfly, the drug “Actellik” is used. The solution is prepared in a proportion of 2 ml / 2 l of water, this amount is enough for one tree.
- Berries attract birds, therefore, in order to protect the crops from birds, they put a net on the crown, and also stuffed animals are placed in the garden.
Harvesting and storage
Prepare for the harvest in advance: even before the fruit ripens, watering is stopped to protect the berries from cracking. When the fruits have a rich and even color tone, they are ready to harvest. For transportation and storage, it is better to prepare wooden or plastic boxes with ventilation holes, not deep. The thinner the layer of fruits, the better for their integrity. Cherry is torn off with a stalk to extend its storage. Fresh berries at a temperature of +1 ... + 3 ° C are stored for no more than 3-5 days.