Features of planting and care for Summit cherries
Traditionally, cherries belong to the category of fruits that are the first to ripen on the site. And often, delicious fruits end faster than adults and children have enough time to enjoy them. Late varieties, for example, Summit, will help prolong the season of cherries on the table. What are the advantages of this variety and how to grow a productive tree on the site - read on.
The summit was launched in Canada based on the species Van and Sam. His characteristics include:
- high productivity (average yield - 80 kg / ha, maximum - 140 kg / ha);
- fruiting, starting from the 3rd life of a seedling;
- late ripening (berries are ripened by the end of June - early July);
- excellent taste, because of which the variety is classified as dessert;
- strong immunity, which allows you to successfully resist various diseases and fungal infections;
- resistance to frost and drought;
- low percentage of cracking berries, making them suitable for transportation;
- self-infertility, due to which the tree needs pollination.
Important! The best neighbors for this variety will be Burlat, Lambert, Vega, Karina, Tekhlovan.
In the household, Summit cherries are eaten not only fresh, but also as:
- jams and preserves;
- stewed fruit and jelly;
- decorations for baking and pastries;
- toppings for pies.
Characterization of fruits and tree
Summit is distinguished from other cherries by such features:
- tall, tall trees (up to 4 m in height), which quickly grows green mass in season;
- strong crown of conical shape;
- flexible branches covered with elongated dark green leaves;
- in early April, pale pink flowers appear on the tree.
The Summit cherry berries also have their differences:
- significant size (up to 35–40 mm in diameter) and weight (up to 10–12 g);
- a red, sparkling peel, the color saturation of which indicates the degree of maturity of the cherry;
- red-yellow, juicy and sweet pulp with a light wine tint;
- small bone, which is easily separated.
Did you know? The Summit variety is very popular in Europe and Turkey, where it is actively used for the production of juices, jams, etc. on an industrial scale.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Like any other variety, Summit has its pros and cons.
- The strengths of this variety of sweet cherry include:
- a strong tree that can withstand significant weather;
- high productivity;
- excellent disease resistance;
- the variety is not susceptible to bacterial cancer;
- frost resistance, allowing cherries to survive harsh winters;
- significant weight and size of berries;
- excellent taste of ripe cherries;
- predisposition to transportation.
The disadvantages of the variety can be attributed to susceptibility to moniliosis. In addition, it is important to follow the rules for caring for the tree in order to create the cherry conditions suitable for growth and high-quality fruiting.
Features and landing pattern
The right choice of place and the procedure for planting cherries plays a significant role for the future harvest, and Summit has some requirements for these criteria.
The time of planting a seedling depends on the climate of the area: in the northern regions, planting is carried out in the spring, as soon as the soil warms up enough, but in the southern regions autumn is considered more suitable.
Read the rules for planting cherry seedlings in spring.
The place chosen for future sweet cherry must meet the following criteria:
- soil acidity - not higher than 4%. If the soil is acidic than normal, then you can feed it with limestone (0.3 kg per 1 sq. M);
- located on a hill to reduce the likelihood of contact with groundwater;
- have protection from the wind, whether it is a building nearby or a high fence.
Experienced gardeners also recommend placing the Summit closer to residential premises, then in winter the tree will have an additional heat source.
In order for the seedling to successfully take root in a new place, the site must be prepared before planting. 10 days before planting, a hole is prepared under the tree: they dig a hole up to 40 cm deep and 0.5 m wide, the bottom of which is sprinkled with 3 kg of mullein or humus.
Important! To do this, for 1.5 - 2 weeks, the soil is weeded away from pests qualitatively, and then loosened, allowing the soil to be saturated with oxygen.
A seedling is placed in a well prepared in advance so that its neck is 4–5 cm above the ground. After gently sprinkle the roots with earth. The first watering is carried out after 5-6 days. The recommended planting scheme for cherries is 4.5 × 4.5 or 5 × 5 m.
At first, the seedling is particularly sensitive to temperature fluctuations, therefore, it is recommended to wrap the trunk with light tissue or simply whiten it to protect it from cracks and sunburn. And so that the young tree grows correctly, a peg is dug near it as a support.
Taking care of the cherry Summit does not require significant effort or time. This complex includes standard procedures, in the implementation of which it is important to adhere to certain rules.
Cherry irrigation is carried out every 3-4 days in the summer, at a time using from 10 to 15 liters of warm water. The summit tolerates drought very well, therefore it is better to delay watering from time to time than to abuse it excessively, risking root rot.
Did you know? The name of the Turkish city of Giresun is translated as "cherry". According to the historian Pliny, this region is the birthplace of cherries and cherries.
When a tree grows to 4–5 years of age, then 3 waterings per season are enough. Also, as a prevention of decay of the tree, you can regularly weekly weeding the beds around it.
No less important for cherries (especially at a young age) timely top-dressing:
- at the beginning of the season fertilizers are applied in March, making a mound of bird droppings around the trunk;
- when the tree blooms, you need to treat it with a solution of potassium nitrate (20 g per 5 liters of water);
- 1-2 weeks before the appearance of the fruit, the cherry should be sprayed with a superphosphate solution (10 g per 1 liter of water);
- and that the plant better survived the winter cold, it does not hurt to mulch its basal part with a mixture of straw and humus.
Learn how to plant cherries in spring and summer.
The quality of the stem bark plays a significant role in ensuring the life of the tree. And if this cover is broken, then there may be problems in the circulation of moisture and nutrients throughout the plant, its freezing, and the susceptibility to pests and various diseases also increases.
To prevent this from happening, timely treatment of the cortex, consisting of several stages:
- cleansing the trunk of moss, lichens, exfoliated cover;
- disinfection of cleaned areas with 3% solution of copper sulfate;
- if there are wounds, then they are repaired with a garden plaster or paste;
The composition of the whitewash mixture is as follows:
- 2 kg of slaked lime;
- 250 g of copper sulfate;
- 1 kg of oily clay.
Cropping and shaping
The crown of the Summit sweet cherry is cut several times:
- Forming pruning is performed in the first year after planting. With its help they form a skeleton for a tree and prepare branches for fruiting. Pruning is done in early spring, while the cherry is still resting after winter.
- Possible pruning during fruiting . It is carried out only if broken or infected shoots have formed on the tree.
- In the fall, after harvesting, anti-aging pruning is done : the branches are shortened so that the tree saves energy in the winter.
The shape of the crown can be selected as follows:
Did you know? Cherry is recommended for use in kidney and liver dysfunction, as it contains beneficial amino acids.
Diseases and Pests
The Summit variety has good immunity against many diseases characteristic of cherries, but this resistance does not apply to pests.
Most often, a tree suffers from:
- aphids . Spraying with Confidor (30 g of the drug per 10 l of water) will help to get rid of it, and the treatment of leaves on the tree with a soap solution is suitable as prevention;
- codling moths . With this pest they fight Bordeaux liquid (3 g per 5 liters of water). Preparations “Fufanon”, “Kemifos”, etc. will help prevent the appearance of the codling moth on the cherry;
- Bears “Regent” is used against it (50 g per 10 l of water), and for pest prevention, you need to dig a garden 2-3 times a year to destroy the nests and larvae of the bear.
If the pests have already wound up on the cherry, then the tree must be treated with a suitable method with a frequency of 10-14 days, until the result is achieved. The main danger for the Summit variety is moniliosis and bacteriosis - diseases that cannot be cured.
We recommend that you learn how to deal with cherry diseases.
Only the eradication of the infected tree, the subsequent disinfection of the soil and the 2-year quarantine of the site will help to get rid of them; therefore, it is better to carry out timely prevention with a solution of colloidal salt (10 g per 1 liter of water). Spraying them is carried out in 3-4 stages with an interval of 10 days.
Harvesting and storage
Summit berries are harvested as the crop ripens. Sweet cherries of this variety are sung in 2-3 waves, therefore, fruit collection is carried out gradually. The first batch is usually ready for use or processing within 40-60 days after flowering. If the summer turned out to be dry, then the cherries are able to hang on the tree for up to 3 weeks, without losing their taste and aesthetic qualities. But rainy weather negatively affects the berries, causing them to crack and further rot.