Features planting and care for cherries Revna

Thinking about planting new cherry trees, even experienced gardeners find it difficult to not get confused in the variety of varieties - I would like the cherry to not cause much trouble, and the harvest be tasty and rich. Jealousy refers to varieties whose characteristics will satisfy even the most demanding summer residents. In addition, the variety is ideally suited for climatic conditions of the middle lane, which means it is not afraid of cold weather and easily tolerates drought.

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Description and characteristics of the variety of sweet cherry Revna

Variety of cherries Revna was obtained thanks to the fruitful work of breeders VNII Lupin in the city of Berdyansk at the end of the twentieth century. Revna belongs to medium-sized and fast-growing varieties - the height of an adult tree is 3-4 m, has a pyramidal crown and is characterized by almost vertical branching from the trunk. Berries of this variety are medium in size, weighing from 4 to 6 g and are flat-round.

The peel of the fruit is dense, dark red in color, and when it reaches full maturity it is almost black.

The pulp is dense and juicy. Taste characteristics are very high - 4.7-4.8 points out of a possible 5. The bone separates well from the pulp. The leaves of the tree are quite large, as well as a wide, egg-shaped, with small serrations at the edges. The color is dark green. Inflorescences are white, medium in size and saucer-shaped.

Did you know? Cherry is often used as a food coloring. Color, at the same time, turns out not red, but green.

Productivity, fruiting

Jealousy belongs to medium-late varieties and does not differ in early maturity. The first crop can be harvested only in the fifth year of the plant's life. At the same time, despite the small size, these berries are very appreciated, because they have a high presentation and, thanks to the thick peel, perfectly tolerate transportation .

However, starting to bear fruit, this variety shows a high yield - the average figure is 73 kg / ha, but can reach 112 kg / ha.

Drought tolerance, winter hardiness

Resistance to cold was a priority property in the cultivation of the Revna variety and the result exceeded itself - winter frosts, at which the air temperature drops to –25 ° C, the cherry can withstand easily.

In addition, the buds of the tree are well tolerated by low temperatures, which plays an important role in the cultivation of cherries in regions whose climate is characterized by frequent cases of frost return.

Also high are the drought tolerance of Revna. However, a systematic watering of this tree is still required, and especially during the formation and ripening of berries.

The best pollinators, flowering period and ripening period

The flowering period of Revna cherries falls in mid-May, but may vary slightly, depending on climatic and weather conditions in different regions. Relating to medium-late varieties, cherries fully ripen after 2.5–3 months from the moment of flowering, but a sufficient amount of sunlight can slightly speed up the process.

Rhubarb is only partially self-fertile, but without the close proximity of pollinating trees, the yield will be minimal (no more than 5% of the potential yield), and even less will ripen.

That is why such a variety can only be planted as a group - pollinators of this variety can be Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka or Iput. The distance between the trees should be about 3 m.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

  • Among the many advantages of this variety are especially distinguished:
    • resistance to fungal diseases;
    • high flavoring characteristics of berries;
    • frost resistance;
    • high level of transportability;
    • plentiful harvest.

  • The main disadvantages are:
    • low rate of early maturity;
    • self-infertility.

Features of planting and growing

The process of selecting seedlings and their further preparation for planting is one of the main stages, the correct passage of which guarantees a rich and stable crop in the future. That is why it is so important to familiarize yourself with the basic rules of this procedure and provide in advance all the conditions for the healthy growth and development of sweet cherry tree in the garden.

Dates and landing place

The timing of planting seedlings may vary slightly depending on the climatic and weather conditions of different regions. Given the conditions of the temperate climate of the middle zone, the best time for planting young trees will be the end of March - beginning of April, in the period when the soil has already thawed, but the process of swelling of the buds has not yet begun. During this period, the plants are at rest and easily tolerate the stress caused by transplantation. It is undesirable to plant seedlings in the autumn period, since there is a possibility of their freezing in the winter.

Important! If necessary, replanting seedlings is permissible before the onset of heat, but exclusively with a closed root system. Starting to choose the place of growth of the future tree, several factors should be taken into account:

  • the land should be located on a small elevation, which excludes the possibility of a close occurrence of aquifers (at least 2 m);
  • the place should be sufficiently lit by the sun and protected from the north wind.
Also close proximity to other fruit trees should be considered . Undesirable neighborhood with apple trees, pears and plums, which will prevent cross-pollination, but other varieties of cherries or cherries get along well together. Often, as a prophylaxis of an aphid attack, black elderberry shrubs are planted next to the cherries.

As for the soil, the best option would be sandy and loamy soils.

However, in the absence of such an opportunity, the structure of the earth can be improved by the application of various fertilizers (both mineral and organic).

Choosing the Right Seedlings

Choosing the most suitable seedlings, it is recommended to purchase annual plants, however, cherries have an overdeveloped root system, and therefore two-year-olds are practically not realized. Therefore, the main factors that should be considered when choosing are:

  1. The presence of a place of budding, which is usually located at a distance of 7-15 cm from the root neck of the seedling and has the form of a certain curvature of the trunk (in this area it begins to grow slightly to the side). In the absence of this sign, there is a high probability that you have a seedling in front of which there will be no varietal signs in the future.
  2. The height of a one-year-old cherry is approximately 1.5 m, and the seedling itself has 2–4 branches (the absence of branching is also considered a norm).

According to GOST, foliage should be completely absent on seedlings. It is also worth paying attention to the appearance of the plant - the rhizome should be moist, but without rot, and the aerial part without growths and damage. If the roots are slightly dried, they can be put into water for 5-6 hours.

Important! As a test of the seedling for dryness, part of the root or shoot is bent into a ring. At the same time, there should be no crunch, the ring should be flexible and elastic, and the bark at the bend site should be gathered accordion, but not peel off.

It should also be noted that seedlings are often purchased in the autumn period, due to a wider selection of planting material. But how to keep them right until spring? In order for the seedlings not to suffer from low winter temperatures and not be damaged by rodents, a digging is carried out:

  • a shallow groove (depth 40-50 cm) is excavated, located in the direction from east to west;
  • the walls of the south side are formed with a slope of 50, and from the north they are left steep;
  • seedlings are laid in prepared recesses in such a way that their crowns are located above the surface of the earth and are directed south (to protect the young bark from sunburn);
  • the roots of seedlings are covered with moist soil, which is well compacted and watered;
  • the borders of the prikop are covered with spruce branches.

In addition, it is recommended to use poisoned bait from rodents, as well as sheltering seedlings with snow in the winter.

Site preparation

The soil on the site is prepared in the fall - the soil is dug up to a depth of about 30 cm, and also fertilized with manure, rotted compost and any complex mineral fertilizing.

Subject to acidified soil, lime is added.

Harvesting of the planting pit for a young tree also occurs in the autumn, which gives the soil time to sag well and evenly moisten. The size is determined by the rhizome of the seedling, with a depth of 60–80 cm and a diameter of about 80–90 cm.

Direct landing

The main landing process consists of several main stages:

  1. In the process of preparing the seat, the upper and lower soil layers are placed separately from each other - the soil from the upper layer is mixed with fertilizer (you can use humus, superphosphate, wood ash or potassium chloride), which will allow the seedling to take root more easily and develop faster.
  2. An inspection of the root system is carried out, during which damaged fragments are removed. If the rhizome is dry, the seedling is placed in water for several hours. Immediately before planting, the root is dipped in a solution of clay or manure.
  3. A peg is hammered into the planting pit, which is filled with a prepared mixture of the top layer of soil and fertilizers, and then 10 cm with the bottom layer of soil, until a small mound is formed.
  4. When planting, it must be remembered that the root neck of the seedling should rise 5-7 cm above the ground.
  5. The seedling is gently shaken to spread the roots, and placed on a knoll. Then the rhizome is half sprinkled with earth.
  6. 1 bucket of water is poured under the seedling and completely covered with soil.
  7. The seedling is firmly tied to a peg and gently tamped the ground. A near-trunk hole is formed nearby.
  8. Another bucket of water is poured under the root, and the trunk shaft is mulched with sawdust.

Cherry Care Rules

As in the case of planting, adherence to the basic rules of nursing procedures is one of the main conditions for the growth and healthy development of the tree. Performing simple procedures, you can easily achieve a quick and rich harvest.

Watering and fertilizer

The amount of moisture introduced into the soil should be such that the soil of the trunk circle is moistened to a depth of about 50 cm, but not sour. Immediately after planting, the young tree requires frequent watering, which is carried out every 2-3 weeks, and with the onset of heat more often - weekly. Adult plants are watered three times throughout the season:

  • first time immediately after flowering;
  • the second time during the ripening period of berries;
  • the third time in mid-autumn, after falling leaves.

At the same time, in the spring-summer period, irrigation contains from 3 to 6 buckets of water under one tree (depending on weather conditions, air temperature and frequency of rains), and in the autumn the soil is moistened more intensively - the water should penetrate the soil to a depth of about 70 cm, which significantly increase the winter hardiness of the plant and slow down the freezing of the soil. Before each watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil, and after - to fertilize and mulch. Fertilizing fruit trees is an important stage of agricultural activities and provides the opportunity for intensive growth and abundant harvest.

Throughout the year, fertilizers are applied three times:

  1. The first top dressing is carried out in May and consists of 150–200 g of urea, 300–400 g of superphosphate and 100–120 g of potassium sulfate.
  2. The second - in July, after harvesting. As top dressing, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used.
  3. The third top dressing is carried out in late summer - early autumn using organic fertilizers (solutions from mullein or chicken droppings).

Cropping and shaping

Sweet cherries can easily tolerate any kind of pruning, subject to proper further care. Otherwise, injured areas of the tree will not overgrow, which can cause gum disease. Usually, pruning is carried out in the spring and autumn periods (before the start of sap flow and after the end of the growing season). However, systematic spring pruning will be enough.

The first time pruning is carried out on a two-year-old plant, and the process itself includes all spoiled, frost-beaten and other unwanted processes and branches, as well as the formation of a crown. At the same time, it is worth considering that the branches, which are located horizontally, give the earliest crop in large quantities.

Important! The places of cuts are best treated with garden varieties, which contribute to early overgrowing.

Winter preparations

Preparation for sheltering the tree for the winter should begin in mid-autumn, namely in October. Before the onset of cold weather, the cherry branches are bent to the ground and covered with a film, with a spruce thrown on top. However, snow will act as the main insulation, and therefore it should be carefully monitored so that its layer is not less than 30–40 cm. Despite the high winter hardiness, young Revny trees can freeze at temperatures below –25 ° С.

The sheltering process begins with the cleaning of the bark from damaged areas and the formation of an embankment (height 20-30 cm) at the base of the trunk, consisting of earth, humus and sawdust (can be replaced by needles). Further, the trunk is wrapped with dense breathing material (a burlap or agrofibre is suitable), while leaving a small space between the tree and the covering material, which will make it possible to easily circulate the air mass. Otherwise, a lack of oxygen can lead to the development of various diseases.

Video: how to cover young seedlings for the winter

With the beginning of spring, the material must be removed immediately to avoid damage to the cherry by the accumulated condensate. Such a shelter also acts as a defense against attacks by rodents that feed on the bark of cherries. For the same purposes, the trunk can be whitened, and drive low pegs around.

Diseases and Pests

Despite the stable immunity of Revna cherries to various diseases, nevertheless, every summer clerk may require knowledge of diseases and basic methods of control and prevention:

  1. Hole spotting ( kleasterosporiosis ) - affects both individual fragments and the whole tree and has the appearance of small (up to 5 mm in diameter) brown spots. Over the course of a few days, the spots dry out and crumble, destroying and causing the death of the foliage. Also, one of the manifestations may be the formation of dark red spots on the berries, subsequently leading to their drying out. At the first signs of the disease, the foliage is removed from the tree, and the plant itself is treated with Bordeaux liquid according to the scheme 2 times every 10 days.
  2. Coccomycosis - manifests itself in the form of bright red spots on the berries and leaves of the tree, which, first of all, leads to falling leaves and a general decrease in resistance to cold. In the future, without proper treatment, the plant may die. To avoid this disease, Bordeaux liquid treatment and preventive measures are used in the form of removing fallen leaves from the site and digging the soil in the spring and autumn.
  3. Fruit rot (moniliosis) - the initial stage manifests itself in the form of a small spot on the berry, which in just 1-2 days leads to blackening of the cherry and its drying out. As a treatment and prevention, all infected fruits are removed and sprayed with fungicidal preparations.

  4. Brown rot - expressed in the form of small, but rapidly growing spots with a dark maroon border on the outside of the leaves and the presence of black specks on the back side. Affected by the disease, the leaves quickly dry and fall. To combat the disease and its prevention, treatment of Bordeaux fluid is used.
  5. Scab is one of the most common diseases, which manifests itself in the form of greenish-brown spots, subsequently leading to cracking of the berry, its drying and decay. Treatment consists of treating the plant with a solution of cuprosan.
  6. Cherry sawflies are pests that eat a leaf plate and completely destroy it. To combat them, trichograms are released in June-July, and at other times they use chemical preparations.
  7. Leaf aphids are insects that feed on leaf juice, which destroys it. As a treatment, chemical treatment or folk remedies are used, for example, infusion of soap and tobacco.
  8. Fruit moth - caterpillars, whose population in attempts to feed, is able to destroy all the foliage on the tree. The treatment consists in the chemical treatment of a fruit tree or the use of alternative methods of pest control: 2 cups of wood ash is infused for 3 days in 3 liters of water, after which soap chips and 40 ml of vinegar are added. The mixture is poured into a 10 liter bucket and topped up with water. Processing with a solution is carried out for the first time in mid-spring, and the second after flowering.

In addition to diseases and pests, many birds love sweet and juicy cherries, which can cause great damage to the crop . To scare them away, experienced gardeners hang old CDs, plastic bags and even fur hats on trees that are perceived by birds as hunting animals.

Harvesting and storage of crops

There are two main methods for picking berries:

  • стрижка — метод, который подразумевает срезание ягод вместе с частью плодоножки, что помогает несколько увеличить срок хранения и транспортабельность черешни;
  • дойка — используя этот способ, черешни собираются в непромокаемые фартуки, а после пересыпают в ёмкости, выстеленные бумагой.

Did you know? У самой высокой зарегистрированной черешни высота дерева достигала 30 м. Приступая к сбору черешни, следует помнить, что замедление может привести к осыпанию ягод и привлечению на участок насекомых и птиц. Подождать можно максимум несколько дней, при условии дождливой погоды, поскольку сбор мокрых ягод приведёт к их быстрой порче. Также нет смысла собирать не доспевшую черешню — эти ягоды не дозревают. Оптимальным временем для сбора урожая является утро, но после высыхания росы.Лёжкость у Ревны, как и у остальных сортов черешни, невелика.

При условии сбора вместе с плодоножками, ягоды могут храниться максимум 2 недели в условиях прохладных температур погреба или холодильника и около недели при комнатной температуре.

Несколько повысить лёжкость может хранение ягод в пластиковых контейнерах или герметичных пакетах. Для более же длительного хранения единственным выходом может стать заморозка. При этом следует знать, что при разморозке и повторной заморозке, ягоды потеряют и вид, и вкус.

Черешня Ревна пользуется широкой популярностью среди владельцев дачных участков и вполне заслуженно — высокие вкусовые качества ягод и абсолютная неприхотливость в уходе делают этот сорт незаменимым. А качественный и богатый урожай, даже при минимальных усилиях, постоянно привлекает как профессиональных садоводов, так и новичков-любителей.

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