Features of planting and care of the apple variety Verbnoe
Verbnoe apple-tree belongs to the winter varieties. Promising for growing on an industrial scale and in private farms. Read more about the characteristics of the apple tree, as well as the rules for its cultivation - read below.
Variety breeding history
The variety was bred by Belarusian breeders at the Fruit Research Institute on the basis of Babushkino and Lovefam.
- Kovalenko V.G .;
- Kovalenko G.K .;
- Grakovich A.V.
The exact date for breeding the variety is not known. Selection work was carried out taking into account the climate of Belarus and the middle zone of the Russian Federation. Trees are not afraid of return frosts; therefore, they take root well throughout Ukraine, Belarus, and are also distributed throughout the entire central zone of Russia. More precise information is not available, because the variety is still under state testing.
Did you know? Due to the large amount of antioxidants, 1 apple fruit can replace a cup of coffee .
Description and characteristics of wood
The variety refers to spruce type trees. In such instances, internodes are shortened, due to which the crown is compact and practically does not require trimming. This feature gives an advantage when growing trees in small areas and on an industrial scale, since they can be planted at a small distance from each other, thus increasing yield from 1 m².
Without clipping the growth point, the Verbnoe apple tree grows up to 5 m. The shoots differ in average growth force, are located relative to the trunk at an angle of 60–80 °. Fruits are formed on the gloves. The crown is oval, neat. Midwifery is average. Flowering is plentiful. It is observed in the middle-end of May.
Trees are undemanding in care. Resistant genetically to scab. Do not become infected, even if in neighboring areas the trees are sick with scab. In relation to other diseases, the plant has medium resistance, therefore, annual preventive measures must be taken to prevent them.
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Pollination, fruiting, ripening period
Verbnoe apple-tree belongs to self-infertile species, therefore, it needs pollinators. To increase productivity, it is recommended to plant several such trees nearby or any varieties with a similar flowering period. Plants enter the fruiting phase from the 2nd to 3rd year on a dwarf rootstock and from the 4th to 5th year on a tall one. The tree gives stable crops annually.
The fruits ripen in mid-September. They are flat-round in shape. Each apple has its own size. The weight of fruits collected from one tree per season can vary from 150 to 300 g. The skin on them is thin. During the period of removable maturity, the fruits are painted in a light green or yellowish color with an integumentary red blush.
Verbnoe apples reach consumer maturity after 2–4 weeks. They retain their qualities until May. The flesh of apples is light with a greenish tint. The structure is tender, fine-grained, very juicy. It tastes sweet and sour.
The yield level of these trees is estimated as very high. From 1 ha, 300 tons of fruits are harvested.
Did you know? One tree produces 113 kg of oxygen per year.
Pros and cons of Verbnoe
To optimize the work on the site and increase the efficiency of their implementation, it is necessary to adequately assess the positive and negative qualities of the culture.
- Pluses of the apple variety Verbnoe:
- long shelf life and high crop quality;
- spuriness of plants;
- undemanding care;
- early maturity;
- stable regular fruiting without periods of downtime;
- high productivity;
- genetic scab resistance.
- The minuses include:
- non-uniformity of the fruits;
- medium frost resistance (not suitable for cultivation in the north);
In terms of winter hardiness, the plant is characterized as relatively tolerant. It is intended for cultivation in a temperate climate. It tolerates temperature extremes during return frosts. To increase frost resistance, an appropriate stock is required.
Features of planting Apple Verbnoe
The main event that determines the quality of fruiting in the future is planting. The main attention should be paid to preparatory work and the creation of favorable conditions for the growth of the apple tree and its survival in a new place.
Important! When buying seedlings, give preference to one or two year old specimens. They adapt better and take root in areas than five-year ones.
Favorable conditions for growing
The variety gives the best yield results on highly fertile soils, in open, windless terrain. Fruits well on loam and sandstone. If the soil is heavy, it will need to be lightened in advance by applying peat and sand of 10 kg per 1 m².
It is worth paying special attention to the location of groundwater. The distance to them should be at least 2 m. If they are closer, then the tree needs to be planted on a hill or form a hill artificially.
In regions with a temperate climate, planting is best done in April, so that the tree has time to grow stronger to the first frosts, in the southern - in April or early October. Regardless of the time of planting, you need to start preparing the site in six months. To begin with, it should be cleaned of vegetation and dug to a depth of 30 cm. Check out more
This can be done using a solution of 3% concentration of copper sulphate or a preparation diluted in a proportion of 5:10 based on the Fitosporin biologically active microorganisms.
7-10 days after disinfection, 20 kg of fresh manure and 400 g of superphosphate are added to each 1 m². If the soil is heavy, then sand and peat are introduced along with fertilizers, as described above.
Immediately after this, the plot is again cultivated to a depth of 20-30 cm. A month before planting, the second stage of preparation is carried out, which involves adding 20 kg of compost for every 1 m² in combination with 400 g of wood ash for digging to a depth of 30 cm.
Step-by-step landing process:
- A week before the manipulation, prepare a landing pit: scheme - 5 × 3 m, pit depth - 60 cm, width - 80 cm. Choose 30 cm of soil from the hole and mix it with 20 kg of compost + 300 g of superphosphate. Remove the bottom 30 cm from the pit altogether - this soil is not required. Fill the pit with a fertilized substrate by a third, drive in a stake and pour 20 liters of water.
- Immediately before planting, inspect the seedling, cut dried roots to healthy living areas (the roots should be white on the cut). Soak the rhizome for 2 hours in a solution of Fitosporin. Add 5 g of powder preparation to 5 l of water.
- In the center of the pit form a hill.
- Place the seedling in the hole on the south side of the stake, straighten the roots over the entire area of the hole and align the root neck so that it rises 5 cm above the soil level.
- Fill the hole with fertilized soil, periodically shaking the seedling to avoid the formation of air voids.
- Seal the trunk circle, which is equal to the crown projection. Pour 20 liters of water.
- After soil subsidence, add the missing layer, mulch with compost to a height of 5 cm.
- To shorten the stem to 80 cm from the soil surface, as well as pinch skeletal shoots by 5 cm.
Important! If the depth of groundwater is less than 1.5 m, before planting a tree, you need to build an earthen mound and lay a 3 cm high claydite drainage layer on the bottom of the hole.
Features of apple care
Verbnoye apple-tree is undemanding in care. Conducting standard agricultural activities will be enough for her.
Young specimens are watered every 1-2 weeks to 5 years. In the first year after planting, 20 liters of water are applied to each plant. Each year, this amount is increased by 1 bucket, i.e., at the age of five, the trees are given 60 liters of liquid at a time. In the future, watering is carried out from 3 to 5 times for the entire season, focusing on the temperature regime and rainfall.
The irrigation scheme looks something like this:
- before flowering - April;
- after flowering - early June;
- after harvesting.
Due to the structural features, Verbnoye apple tree does not need to be formed. The bulk of this work is carried out at the landing stage. In the future, only sanitary pruning is carried out. It involves the removal of damaged branches and pinching of the main conductor with skeletal branches. The gap in the length of the main branch and skeletal should always be maintained at 20 cm.
Feeding trees begins at the age of three. Do this in accordance with the phases of vegetation. In early spring, when there is an active build-up of greenery, nitrogen fertilizers are needed. They are introduced in parallel with the first watering, before the buds open. At this stage, nitrophoska is suitable - add 8 tbsp to 40 liters of water. l A year later, organic matter is used instead of the mineral composition - 5 l of liquid mullein is added to 40 liters of water.
Did you know? Until 1948, in Germany and France, New Year trees were decorated with real apples. Later it was necessary to invent glass balls that mimic the fruits, because a crop failure occurred.
The second top dressing is applied immediately after flowering. During this period, potassium and phosphorus are required to optimize fruit setting. You can apply compost ash infusion. 10 kg of fresh grass (preferably nettle) + 5 banana skins + 1 kg of wood ash are laid in 30 liters of water.
To speed up the fermentation add 2 tbsp. l Sahara. The container with the composition is exposed in the sun and covered with a lid. The fluid is stirred occasionally. After a week, the composition is filtered off, diluted in a ratio of 1: 1 with water and irrigated.
The remains of greens and banana skins are used as compost for mulching. Instead of this composition, you can use 6 tbsp. l nitrofoski in combination with 30 g of superphosphate in 40 l of water. The last time the trees are fed after the harvest. For digging to a depth of 10 cm make rotted manure in combination with 90 g of superphosphate.
Diseases of the tree and the fight against them
The tree is resistant to most characteristic diseases for apple trees. Extremely rarely affected by fruit rot and cancer, the scab does not become infected at all. From fungal ailments can be exposed to mildew and rust.
To eliminate the first use the drug Fitoverm, for the second - Mancozeb. Dilute the funds according to the instructions. Before starting treatment, all infected parts of the crown are preliminarily removed and burned outside the site.
Did you know? The name of the capital of Kazakhstan, Alma-Ata, in translation means "father of apples." This is not a coincidence - the territory of the state is considered the birthplace of apple trees.
Among the pests for Palm trees, the most dangerous are:
- aphid - easily eliminated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate (they spray trees and soil in the near-stem circle);
- shield - Fytoverm will help to cope with it;
- codling moth - you can quickly discourage it from plants by dusting the crown and soil with tobacco dust.
To prevent diseases and pests, the following measures must be taken:
- After each humidification and rain carry out loosening, followed by mulching.
- Make fertilizing on time.
- Before swelling of the kidneys, spray with copper-containing preparations according to the instructions (copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid).
- Clean all foliage and fallen fruit after harvesting.
- Spray with copper-containing or biological products (Fitosporin, Emochka Fertility, Fitoverm) after harvesting.
Read more about the features of processing apple trees from pests and diseases.
Harvesting, storage and transportability of the crop
Verbny harvest begins in mid-September, when the fruits reach technical maturity. Remove apples from the trees along with the stalks. Immediately sorted and laid out in several layers on the boxes. Leave for a couple of weeks in a dark place so that the fruits reach consumer maturity at room temperature.
Further stored in the absence of light, at a temperature of +3 ... + 10 ° C and relative humidity of 65%. Fruits well tolerate transportation over long distances, which makes it possible to use them in commercial activities.
Find out in more detail how long to keep apples fresh at home for the winter.
Verbnoe apple-tree is an ideal option for cultivation in a temperate climate, and when using a frost-resistant stock, it adapts even in northern regions. The tree gives a rich harvest and is undemanding in care. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, the apple tree does not even need formative pruning.