Features of growing tobacco
Fans of cigarettes often prefer farm tobacco - it is much nicer and more aromatic than cigarettes or purchased raw materials. Connoisseurs even plant small plantations at home. A number of questions immediately arise: is it possible to grow tobacco in the country, how to plant a plant, when to plant it, how to grow it and how to properly care for it, how to collect leaves and seeds, and whether it is difficult to do it yourself. The cultivation of tobacco bushes is really different from the cultivation of other garden plants. The farmer should definitely figure out how to plant and how to grow bushes.
General information about the tobacco plant
The birthplace of the plant is North and South America. French traveler Andre Teveu brought tobacco to Europe in 1556. The plant was called Nicotiana in honor of the Frenchman Jean Nico, who brought snuff to France. This name is still listed in the botanical classification, hence the name nicotine. Initially, the Europeans grew it as a decorative bush, but since 1565 they tried to smoke the leaves. People liked this use of the plant. Since the beginning of the 17th century, the fashion for tobacco plantations has spread. In the XVIII century. tobacco was already known in Europe, Asia and Africa.
Common tobacco is grown mainly for smoking. On an industrial scale, cigarettes, cigars and cigarettes are made from it. In addition to smoking, there are 3 more types: snuff, chewing and peritoneal. Using each of them leads to addiction. The reason for this is nicotine, which in a dry leaf contains up to 5% of the total mass.
Leaves are the main value and yield of tobacco plantations. The crop yield is high - 2-3 tons are harvested from 1 ha of plantings.
Did you know? Tobacco is the most common type of smoking. According to WHO, one in three adult men in the world smokes tobacco.
Choosing the Best Tobacco
People smoke only 2 types of tobacco from 75: ordinary and shag.
The demand for smoking products is very high, so scientists are constantly studying and improving raw materials. In Russia, the Research Institute of Tobacco, Shag, and Tobacco Products deals with this issue.
When deciding which variety to grow, farmers pay attention to zoned varieties. This means that domestic scientists tested them for compliance with climate standards or acclimatized.
In the middle zone of the CIS countries it is better to grow the following varieties:
- Holly 316;
- Samsun 85;
- Trapezond 92;
- Anniversary New 142;
- Trapezond Kubanets;
- Virginia 202;
- Virginia Gold;
- Herzegovina Flor;
- Ducat of Crimea;
- Kentucky Barley;
- Turkish Trapezond.
Optimal growing time
Seeds are sown in containers in late winter or early spring. Within 2 months, seedlings grow at home. Bushes are ready for planting in open ground at the turn of April and May.
By this time they will get stronger and will have the following parameters:
- the presence of 3-4 sheets;
- height - 15–16 cm;
- stem thickness - 0.4-0.5 cm.
Did you know? At the beginning of the XX century, American obstetricians advised pregnant women to smoke tobacco for normal health.
The basic rules of growing
Plant growth is largely dependent on growing technology. Planting of tobacco takes place in 4 main stages: preparing seeds, sowing, preparing soil for seedlings and planting seedlings in an open area.
The plant can be grown in seedlings and seedlings. The second for the middle band is not suitable because of the timing of landing. At the beginning of spring it is too cold, the seeds die in frozen ground. This method is preferred for a more unpretentious shag. Tobacco seeds are first sown on seedlings, and then transplanted into the open ground. The plant is suitable for summer residents: seeds can be sown in the apartment from the end of winter, and seedlings can be planted in the country or in the village.
Seed selection and preparation
Experienced farmers collect seeds from the fruit boxes of past crops. Beginner tobacco users buy material in stores. The main seed criterion is compliance with the selected variety.
Seeds are prepared as follows.
- 2-3 days before sowing, place the grains for a day in a solution of tartaric acid. For 1 g of material, use 3 ml of solution. Keep the container with seeds indoors at a temperature of +25 ... + 30 ° С.
- Place the soaked grains on a damp cloth in a container in an even layer and dry.
- Leave the seed for 2-3 days at a temperature of +26 ... + 28 ° С. Every day, moisten the seeds from the spray bottle and mix 5 times a day.
- When the sprouts sprout from the seeds, dry them. Such material is ready to land in the soil.
Growing and caring for seedlings
To plant germinated seeds, you must select a container. The plant does not tolerate picking, so it is better to choose individual containers. Tobacco seedlings are conveniently grown in pots, glasses or cassettes.
The optimal soil for seedlings is a mixture of sand and humus in a ratio of 1: 3.
Landing is as follows:
- Lay out the substrate in containers for planting.
- Mix the grains with dry sand and sprinkle them with soil.
- Cover them with a layer of the remaining substrate 0.7-0.8 cm thick.
- Moisten the soil from the spray gun. Can be irrigated with water through a sieve.
- Cover the containers with polyethylene.
- Place them on a windowsill where there is no direct sunlight.
Read also about the features of storing tobacco at home. Before the appearance of 2-3 leaves, seedlings are contained in such conditions:
- bright diffused lighting;
- temperature +23 ... + 28 ° С;
- daily not very plentiful moistening of the soil from a spray bottle.
Now they need:
- temperature + 20 ° С;
- more plentiful watering;
- regular top dressing.
- Organic top dressing. Dilute 1 kg of chicken droppings in 10 l of water. Leave the mixture for 1.5 weeks, stir occasionally. Filter the finished product and mix in 5 liters of water.
- Mineral fertilizer. Add 1 g of water to 3 g of ammonium nitrate, 2 g of potassium salt and 5 g of superphosphate.
Land preparation for landing
Tobacco grows well on light and loose soils. Pebble-gravel structure will serve the plant as drainage. The optimum acidity of the soil is pH 5.8. It is good if in the summer cottage podzolic, gray-earth or gray podzolized land with a low humus content. Farmers with gardens in Chernozemye invariably face difficulties.
Crop rotation is also important.
Tobacco grows well after:
- sugar beets;
- winter bread;
- perennial grasses.
- last year's tobacco plantings.
For proper planting of seedlings, follow these steps:
- Dig holes at a distance of at least 0.5 m from each other.
- Pour 0.5 l of water into each hole.
- Place the seedlings in the wells.
- Dig to the base of the stem with soil.
Features of plant care
Before growing tobacco, the gardener should familiarize himself with the features of caring for this crop.
Watering has three conditions: water temperature, humidification time and frequency.
Tobacco bushes perceive warm water well. Cold water from a hose only harms the plant.
Irrigation is carried out in the morning or in the evening. If you moisten the plant during the day, drops of water remain on the foliage, which creates the effect of a lens: the sun's rays pass through the drops and can burn the leaves. For this reason, watering during the active sun is unacceptable.
The frequency of watering depends on the age of the bush:
- The first month the bushes are watered every week.
- Tobacco at the age of 1 to 2 months is moistened 2 times a week.
- After 2 months of growth and before harvesting, irrigation is necessary as the soil dries.
As top dressings, 2 types of agents are used:
- mineral complex fertilizers;
- organic matter from chicken manure (1 liter of manure per 10 liters of water).
- 3-4 days after planting in the soil;
- 14-21 days after the first;
- 14-21 days after the second.
Loosening and weeding
Loosening makes the soil breathable, which positively affects the growth of rhizomes. The soil is loosened as necessary. Along with this, weeds are removed. The soil is also raked to the base of the trunk, hilling bushes. Loosening is mandatory in the first month.
After the fourth week of growth, the effect on the bushes is limited. Weeds are still removed from the soil as they appear, but by hand.
Pest and Disease Control
Diseases of tobacco plantations can be prevented by adhering to the rules of growing and caring for bushes. An important role in prevention is played by the disinfection of seeds and substrate before planting. Many tobacco users use formalin solution for these purposes.
Among the fungal diseases of tobacco, the following can be noted:
- black root rot;
- dry root rot;
- powdery mildew;
Viral diseases are more dangerous than fungal.
The plant can affect:
- tobacco mosaic;
- cucumber mosaic;
- apical chlorosis;
- white speck.
If a virus is detected, diseased bushes should be removed and burned.
Pests also destroy plantings.
Of these, the following are most often found on tobacco bushes:
- aphids - the drug “Rogor-S” is used for treatment;
- wireworm - farmers usually find a pest in the soil before planting, and Hexachloran and Metaphos are used to remove the worm;
- tobacco thrips - use Fitoverm to remove them.
Important! All drugs must be diluted strictly according to the instructions. When applying them, use hand protection in the form of gloves.
Collection and storage rules
Even during the time when the tobacco blossoms, it is necessary to prepare for the collection of seeds. This is important for further cultivation. Seeds are in the fruit box. After the box matures, it is cut and left to dry for 2 weeks. After that, you can get seeds from it.
Leaves can be removed when they turn yellow. Begin harvesting from the lower rows, and continue as the upper tiers mature. Remove as much as you can collect. The main thing is that each sheet is whole. After planting in open soil, the bushes ripen 1.5 months. This means that the first leaves are harvested from mid-June.
After harvesting, the leaves are dried and fermented.
After assembly, the tobacco leaves are dried.
Dry in this way:
- Fold the torn sheets in a stack and leave them for 11–13 hours in a dark room.
- Pass through the sheets of rope.
- Leave the material to dry until autumn, hanging in a dark room with ventilation. Keep the temperature regime within +25 ... + 30 ° С.
It must be carried out according to the following instructions:
- Spray dry leaves with water, stack and cover with cellophane.
- After 24 hours, cut the central veins from the sheets.
- Chop the leaves.
- Place them in glass jars at 2/3 and tightly close the lids.
- Soak jars with sliced sheets in the oven at a temperature of + 50 ... + 55ºC for a week.
Video: Tobacco Fermentation
The main thing in growing tobacco is to follow planting technologies and provide competent care. The farmer who has studied all the subtleties will receive a fragrant quality crop.
- tobacco mosaic;