Features of growing peaches Collins
Collins peaches are popular with gardeners in the southern regions. Many farmers prefer to grow this variety of fruit, while others do not dare to plant a crop on their site. The variety really has many advantages, however, there are some nuances in growing a tree. Read more about the characteristics of the plant, the rules of planting and agricultural technology care in the article.
Description and characterization of Collins
The Peach Collins variety was bred by U.S. breeders at the New Jersey Experimental Station in 1955. To obtain the variety, the originators crossed the hybrid form and the Jersey Island variety.
Did you know? In 1565, in Florida, farmers planted the first peach orchard in the Americas.
Collins peach trees grow up to 3 m in height. The crown has a spherical shape, leafy - medium. Bark of brown color, shoots differ in color closer to green. Leaves are elongated, lanceolate. The upper part of the leaf plate is narrow. The color of the leaves is dark green. There is a small glossy tint. The average parameters of a leaf plate are 16 cm long and 5 cm wide. During budding, flowers of a goblet shape with five light pink petals are formed. The average diameter of a blossoming flower is 2.8 cm.
Fruits ripen large. The shape of the fruit is spherical. The average weight of one specimen is 130 g. The peduncle is small, strong. The skin of the fruit is velvety to the touch, orange in color, with a pronounced blush. The pulp is yellow, aromatic. The taste is sweet and sour. The bone is separated from the pulp with medium effort.
Resistance to diseases and pests, drought resistance and winter hardiness
Peaches Collins are highly resistant to powdery mildew. Culture is not sufficiently protected from other diseases and pests. Trees tolerate drought very well. However, prolonged exposure to high temperatures can harm the plant.
The variety can withstand temperatures down to –20 ° C, but with more extreme cold, the plant is likely to die.
Pollination, timing of flowering and ripening
Collins refers to self-fertile plants. Pollinators for tying the crop are not needed. Peach of this variety belongs to early ripe. Flowering occurs in the second half of April. Technical ripeness of fruits occurs in early July. Fruiting - extended, lasts until the end of July - beginning of August.
Productivity, Transportability and Application
Productivity is high. At the age of active fruiting, in the absence of watering, gardeners take up to 150 centners of fruit from 1 hectare of plantings. With regular irrigation of the soil, a crop on 1 hectare gives a yield of up to 200 centners. Fruits perfectly tolerate transportation over long distances. Peaches Collins belong to table varieties.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The Collins peach variety has both advantages and disadvantages.
- Among the advantages are:
- lack of need for pollinators;
- high commercial quality of fruits;
- resistance to long transportation;
- drought tolerance;
- immunity to powdery mildew.
- However, the variety has several disadvantages:
- the bone is separated from the pulp with medium effort;
- winter hardiness not lower than –20 ° С;
- lack of immunity to many diseases.
Optimal conditions for growing
Variety Collins zoned in the North Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. Perhaps growing in the Lower Volga region, central Ukraine and the Crimea. In these areas, the conditions for crop growth are most optimal. For the cultivation of peach, chernozem soils are best suited. Considering the thermophilicity of trees, the garden is placed on flat open areas. It also seems to be the south side of a small hill.
Important! In lowlands, culture cannot be planted, since much moisture accumulates in such areas after precipitation. Such conditions increase the likelihood of developing fungal diseases.
You can plant a peach in spring or autumn:
- in late September - early October;
- in late March - early April (until the kidneys open).
In regions where the Collins variety is zoned, both planting seasons are acceptable. In more northern latitudes, for example, in the central regions of Ukraine, gardeners prefer spring planting. The minimum air temperature by this time should be + 5 ° C.
Before planting a seedling, dig the soil 20 cm. Planting is carried out according to the following instructions.
- Dig a hole with a diameter and depth of 0.6–0.7 m, respectively. When digging, divide the substrate from the lower and upper parts of the pit into two piles.
- Drive a wooden stake to the bottom of the pit at a distance of 15 cm from the center.
- Mix the top layer of the dug up earth with 10 kg of humus.
- Pour nutrient soil with humus to the bottom of the pit and form a low hill.
- Place the seedling in the planting pit, while smoothing out the root system.
- Fill the empty space with the remaining soil so that the root neck is 3-5 cm above the ground.
- Tie the barrel to a wooden stake.
- Water the tree with 20 liters of water.
When planting peaches, maintain a distance of 3 m between trees and 4 m between rows.
You will be interested to learn about the features of growing and caring for the Kremlin peach variety.
Landing Care Features
Agricultural technology for the cultivation of Collins includes regular watering, top dressing, cultivation, weeding, crown formation and preparation for the winter season.
Watering, fertilizing, soil care
Plants are watered 2-3 times from the beginning of spring to mid-summer. 2-3 m² buckets of water are usually consumed per 1 m² of near-trunk territory. Fertilizers are applied annually when digging the soil in early spring.
For one square meter of soil it is necessary to make:
- 35 g of ammonium nitrate;
- 65 g of superphosphate;
- 35 g of potassium sulfate.
After each watering and rain, the soil should be loosened. If you do not carry out loosening, the soil will be taken crust. The root system of the plant will not be able to get enough oxygen, and as a result, the crop will suffer. Weeds are removed as they appear. Planting is conveniently weed after loosening, but the rest of the time weeding is only welcome.
Did you know? The name "peach" has a Latin etymology. The word comes from "malum persicum" and means "Persian apple."
Pruning of any kind is best done in the spring. The first 3-5 years, the tree is subjected to forming pruning. As a result, a cup-shaped crown should form. The stamp is formed with a height of not more than 0.6 m. The lower tier should be composed of 4–5 skeletal branches, on which there should be 2 semi-skeletal branches. The remaining shoots are cut off under the base. Between branches leave a distance of 20-25 cm.
When the crown is formed, it is thinned annually for the purpose of sanitary pruning. This is necessary for better yield and resistance of the tree to external influences. In the process of sanitary formation, sick, dried and broken shoots are removed. Also, under the base should be cut fat and growing deep into the trunk branches.
Important! Slices remaining after trimming, process garden varieties or varnish based on varnish.
Anti-aging pruning is carried out every 3-4 years, when the growth of the tree slows down and fruiting becomes less active. With a rejuvenating formation, old shoots are removed, thereby contributing to the development of new stems. If the tree is too neglected, anti-aging pruning is carried out for several years until the plant is completely updated.
For the winter, peaches are covered by gardeners from regions where frosts drop below –20 ° С. Warming is also necessary in areas with long winters. Prepare for winter as follows.
- Dig the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm.
- The trunk circle is mulched with sawdust, leaves or straw.
- Insulate the trunk with agrofibre or burlap.
One and two year old seedlings can be covered completely with plastic wrap, together with the crown.
Video: how to warm young peach seedlings
Harvesting and storage of crops
The variety is characterized by long-term fruiting, so the fruits are harvested in stages over the course of a month. Harvested fruits are stored for up to 3 weeks at a temperature of + 2 ° C and a humidity of 80–90%. For longer storage, peaches are frozen or dried.
Learn about the features of the beneficial and unhealthy properties of peach.
If you decide to plant a Collins variety in your garden, carefully study the characteristics of the variety. Before planting, read the rules for growing crops, so that in the process of caring for plants there are no problems. Only in this case it is possible to ensure a rich harvest of juicy fruits.