Features of growing apple varieties Carpet
Dwarf apple trees have recently become widespread in farms due to a more economical consumption of useful space and less labor-intensive tree care. One of the best representatives of this species is the Kovrovy apple tree.
The dwarf apple tree was obtained by free pollination of the German Elise Ratke, also called Vydubetskaya weeping, in the South Ural Research Institute of Horticulture, so the West Siberian and Ural regions are most suitable for cultivation.
With proper care, trees grow well and bear fruit in other areas, but in arid areas they need regular additional irrigation.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The apple-tree of the Carpet variety belongs to the dwarf species, the care of which does not require special efforts. Due to the low growth of the tree, the formation of its crown, spraying and harvesting apples is much easier to carry out compared to taller species.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of Carpet include:
- regular fruiting;
- large fruit size;
- excellent consumer properties;
- high winter hardiness;
- compact tree size;
- lack of need for additional equipment when leaving and harvesting.
- Among the shortcomings of the apple tree:
- does not tolerate drought;
- fruiting regularity worsens with the age of the tree.
Description of the tree and fruits
Dwarf trees of the Kovrovy variety grow on average up to 1.2–1.5 m in height, occasionally reaching two meters. The slightly drooping crown is horizontal.
Branches of young trees often descend to the ground. The bark of the trunk and branches is painted in a uniform brown color. Large pubescent bright green leaves have an oblong shape.
Did you know? In the wild Berry apple tree growing in Siberia, the fruits are similar to rowan berries and have only 1 cm in diameter.
Taste and color
Yellow-green apples with a bright red blush are covered with an oily shiny skin, smooth to the touch. Creamy flesh, moderately aromatic, has a dry, granular structure and excellent sweet and sour taste.
Carpet has a high yield - up to 60 kg of fruits from a tree. It bears fruiting in the 3-4th year of life and by the age of 6-7 yields a full crop. At the beginning, regular fruiting gradually becomes periodic with the age of the tree.
The quality of growing apples is greatly influenced by the number of irrigations in dry periods.
Variety Kovrovy belongs to self-infertile species and needs pollination with flowers of self-fruiting apple trees. The optimal pollinators are Sokolovskoye, Snowdrop and Prizemleznoe.
They are planted at a distance of about 5 meters from the trees of Kovrovoy. The best result is obtained if there are two different pollinators at the same time.
The resistance of the apple tree to low temperatures is quite high, the tree tolerates frosts well to -40 ° C and has the ability to recover after freezing .
Did you know? The most amazing varieties of dwarf apple trees are red meat, their fruits, both outside and inside, are painted in intense red color, which persists after heat treatment.
Disease and pest resistance
The Carpet variety has medium resistance to scab and is slightly susceptible to fungal diseases. Among other infections, powdery mildew and tinder fungus most often affect it.
It is important to identify the first signs of the disease in time, remove the damaged parts of the plant and treat it with copper-containing preparations.
To protect against insects, it is necessary to spray with systemic insecticides. For the winter, apple trees need to build shelters so that rodents do not eat up the bark and low-growing branches.
Features of preparation for landing
For planting, seedlings of 1–2 years of age with a well-developed root system are purchased, provided that they are grown in a nursery in the area of future growth.
The northern slopes, lowlands, in which melt or storm waters can stagnate, and also places purged by strong winds, are not suitable for landing.
The traditionally suitable time for planting apple seedlings is the end of April or the beginning of October, although if necessary, you can plant Kovrovy apple trees throughout the warm season.
Wells with a diameter of 70 cm and a depth of 60 cm are prepared a month before planting. Dig them up at a distance of 3-4 m from each other. If the soil in the site is heavy, a drainage layer of broken brick or fine gravel is poured into the bottom of the pits.
Learn more about the features of planting an apple tree.
Part of the dug up earth is mixed in equal parts with rotted manure, adding 250 g of ash, superphosphate and 150 g of calcium nitrate for each tree. Wells are filled with the prepared mixture to two-thirds of the depth and spilled abundantly with water.
They pour the remaining soil, leaving about 8 cm to the vaccination site, taking into account subsidence, carefully tamp, tie the tree in two places to the support and pour 2-3 buckets of water on it. The surface of the soil is mulched with sawdust or humus.
After planting, the top of one-year-old seedlings is cut off, and in two-year-olds, all branches are shortened by about 15–20%. If flowers appear, they should be removed.
Important! During the first three years after planting, fruiting varieties are not allowed.
During the season, young seedlings are regularly watered, weeds are removed and the soil is loosened in the near-stem circle to improve air access to the roots.
In the future, the trees of the Kovrovy variety also need to provide additional moisture, since in hot dry periods with a lack of water, the quality of the crop deteriorates.
Depending on weather conditions, up to 50 l of water is applied 3-5 times per season under each tree. Watering is mandatory during flowering, the formation and growth of the ovaries.
Fertilizing for dwarf apple trees is much more important than for tall varieties. The main part of the root system of Kovrovy trees is located in the upper layers of the soil and quickly depletes the soil. Young seedlings must be fed every 2 weeks with liquid infusion of mullein or chicken droppings.
To prepare the solution, manure with water in a ratio of 1: 1 or litter with water in a ratio of 1: 4 is insisted for 10 days, then 1 liter of the resulting liquid is diluted in a bucket of water and used for feeding.
1-2 buckets of such fertilizer are introduced under each tree, then they loosen and mulch the trunk circle. Adult trees are fed annually at least 2 times a season with organic or complex mineral fertilizers.
When forming crowns, they strive for a uniform arrangement of tree branches, avoiding thickening or exposure in separate places. After the onset of abundant fruiting, the growth is cut off more strongly so that the apples do not become smaller.
Important! The surface root system of Kovrovy can freeze easily in a snowless winter, so the layer of mulch should be at least 30 cm.
For the prevention of diseases and pest attacks in early spring and before wintering, whitewashing trunks and spraying the branches with copper sulfate or systemic drugs is done.
To protect the trunks from being bitten by mice and hares, they are wrapped in burlap, paper or other material and wrapped in lapnik. The constructed shelter is securely fixed with a twine.
After heavy snowfall during the thawing period, the lower branches of the dwarf Kovrovoy need to be freed from snowdrifts and from adhering snow in order to avoid breaking them off.
Collection and storage of fruits
Harvested in the stage of technical ripeness in early September, trying not to damage the wax coating. Fruits are sorted by size, discarding damaged and rotten fruits.
For storage, apples are placed in wooden crates or wicker baskets, covered with paper to improve durability. Storage is carried out in cellars and cellars at a temperature of 0 ... + 1 ° C with a relative humidity of 85–95% on average until the month of November.
Proper care and compliance with agricultural technology will allow you to collect the same crop from a dwarf Carpet in less time the tree grows that tall varieties give for a longer fruiting period.