Features of feeding cucumbers with folk remedies
Cucumber makes high demands on growing conditions. This is especially true of nutrition, so providing cucumber plantings with the necessary nutrients is a guarantee of a stable yield. Read more about top dressing of cucumbers with folk remedies.
Did you know? The fruits of cucumbers of the Chinese Miracle variety can reach a length of 100-120 cm. When grown on trellises, the fruits become long and even, and without garter - they are folded into fancy rings and spirals.
What do cucumbers love
The need for cucumber dressing is associated with the structure of the roots of this plant (extensive, but shallow) and rapid growth of mass . At the beginning of cultivation, when intensive construction of leaves and stems occurs, the culture absorbs mainly nitrogen. However, in the phase of ovary formation, mass gain and maturation, he requires potash and phosphorus fertilizers. The soil for growing this plant should be slightly acidic or neutral - pH 6.0–7.2.
What substances do cucumbers need
Cucumber requires intensive phosphorus fertilizer (preferably in the form of triple superphosphate), and the lack or inaccessibility of an element due to too acidic soil inhibits the formation and growth of fruits, while not manifesting itself as obvious symptoms on the leaves and other parts of the plant.
As a source of potassium for cucumbers, only the sulfate form of this ingredient can be used (due to the high sensitivity of the cucumber to chlorides). A slightly lower dose can be used if a high dose of manure was previously administered. An insufficient supply of this component causes fetal deformation, bending and narrowing, especially on the stem. The old leaves of the cucumber turn dark green, and yellow discoloration and dying tissue are visible at the ends of the leaf plates. In addition, a lack of potassium leads to a decrease in the suitability of cucumbers for use in pickling and marinades due to the small amount of sugar in the fruits.
Video: food for cucumbers
The main value for cucumber plantings is nitrogen, which guarantees a good harvest. However, this element should be used very sparingly, because its excess leads to a decrease in the quality of the fruit, and the drawback is to limit the development of cucumber bushes.
Cucumbers need magnesium and boron . Sometimes it is possible to observe a shortage of boron during planting, especially on beds without manure or when any kind of cabbage was grown as a precursor culture. Cucumbers also respond favorably to foliar application, especially under stress (a sharp decrease or increase in air temperature). For this purpose, you can spray the cucumber plantings with fertilizers “Florovit” or “Miedzian” - in addition they protect plants from diseases, for example, from cucumber mosaic. In the leaf form of nutrition, dressings are immediately absorbed and delivered directly to the tissues.
When it is necessary to feed cucumber bushes
Culture requires nutrition in the most important periods of its development: shortly after planting, as well as in the phase of flowering and fruit formation.
Nitrogen supplements should be about 0.100 g per hundred parts in divided doses. Half of this amount, for example, in the form of ammonium nitrate, should be applied to the soil 10-14 days before sowing seeds or planting seedlings, thoroughly mixing fertilizers with the soil. The remaining amount should be divided into 2-3 doses and used as top dressing during the growing season of cucumbers. Important! Nitrogen dressing is not recommended for cucumbers after the beginning of mass fruiting, since too late use of this element affects the quality of the crop: the fruits become unsuitable for processing.
The first nitrogen fertilizing should be done at the moment when the plants have 3-4 adult leaves, and the last - when the plants begin to bloom. Doses of nitrogen can be increased to 0.150 g per hundred square meters, if cucumbers are grown in the second or third year after introducing manure into the garden.
However, in itself, organic fertilizer does not fully satisfy the nutritional needs of a cucumber, therefore, based on a chemical analysis of the soil, it is supplemented with mineral fertilizers, which are initially applied to the bed no later than 2-3 weeks before planting or planting. Approximate doses of fertilizers are: 0.80–0.100 g of phosphorus and 0.20–0.25 g of potash per one hundredth, which are applied on top of the beds before soil treatment in spring. During digging, mineral fertilizers should be well mixed with the soil.
After landing in open ground
Cucumber seedlings in the garden are fed 10-14 days after planting . If there is a need for feeding young cucumbers grown by direct sowing in the soil, the plants should have at least two real, well-developed leaves.
Top dressing is carried out with liquid solutions under the root. Add 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 15 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, as well as 1 l of liquid mullein solution (5 kg of cow manure 10 l of water) to a bucket of water.
During flowering and ovary formation
When the cucumber plantations bloom, the time comes for a second feeding. Usually between them takes about 14 days. You can buy special fertilizer for flowering cucumbers, which contain boron, potassium, manganese and phosphorus. The introduction of trace elements is favorable for the growth and rapid development of cucumber bushes. For every 10 liters of water, 0.5 g of boric acid and 0.3 g of manganese sulfate are added to mineral fertilizers.
Plantings of cucumbers are also sprayed on the leaves with a mixture of water and boric acid (0.5 teaspoon per 10 liters of water). Processing is carried out twice during the fruiting season, the interval between procedures is 14 days.
When the fruits of the cucumber begin to form and gain mass, they need to be fed with potassium, magnesium, as well as a small amount of nitrogen. During the appearance of the first cucumbers, the plants are fed with a solution consisting of 10 l of water, 30 g of potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. tablespoons nitrofoski. In August, in order to prolong the flowering and fruiting period, an aqueous nutrient solution (10 l of water, 50 g of urea and wood ash) can be introduced into the root zone.
Approximately in the middle of fruiting, one more top dressing is carried out: during this procedure, the gardener chooses top dressing solutions based on the state of planting. In case of poor ovary formation, a concentrated urea solution (1 l per 10 l of water) is used. If the plant bears fruit normally, cucumbers form correctly, have the desired density and taste, planting is fed with ash solution or liquid fermented organics based on grass raw materials or bird droppings.
Did you know? If you put the intact gherkins in a sterilized dry jar, put a small lighted candle there, and then roll the jar with a tin lid, then the fruits can be kept fresh for a long time. Some vegetable growers explain this phenomenon by the fact that oxygen is burned out in the bank and the process of decay cannot begin.
Top dressing for cucumbers in the open ground with folk remedies
Cucumber plantings can be fed not only with mineral substances, but also with natural fertilizers, such as wood ash, onion husks, yeast, manure, humus, fermented green fertilizer. All these substances have a positive effect on the growth of the root system, the aerial parts of plants and on the formation of fruits. Here are 5 working recipes for biologically pure and very effective top dressing.
As a result of using a wood stove, in addition to the heat in the house, people get a by-product in the form of wood ash - it is an excellent fertilizer for cucumbers. Wood ash contains many minerals, such as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, silicon and a number of trace elements. It does not contain nitrogen, which is released into the atmosphere during the combustion of wood. Ash from coniferous trees contains less useful mineral components than ash obtained from deciduous trees.
Wood ash has a fragmented structure, so plants have no problems getting minerals from this substance. Ash fertilizer works slowly and, unlike other mineral fertilizers, has a fairly balanced composition. The ash reaction ranges from 11 to 13 pH, so it perfectly dehydrates the soil. Due to its natural composition, wood ash can be used in the ecological cultivation of vegetable crops.
Important! Useful is only wood ash obtained by burning unpainted wood. Coal or wood ash with the addition of cardboard, paper coated with printing ink, fabrics and plastics is not suitable for fertilizing plants.
Dry ash can be poured into the root zone of plants directly on top of the soil or pollinated with leaves. In this case, about 100 g of ash is scattered on each m² of cucumber beds. You can also make a solution of 10 liters of water and 250 ml of wood ash. The solution is prepared immediately before the start of root dressing of cucumbers. 400-500 ml of nutrient fluid are poured under the root of each bush.
Manure, bird droppings, green manure
Cucumbers are very fond of organics, so experienced gardeners use pet manure, fermented green manure or liquid feeding on bird droppings to top them.
Making manure for cucumbers during the growing season:
- Parallel to a number of cucumbers, but observing a distance of 20–25 cm from the stems of the plants, a shallow trench is laid (depth and width up to 20 cm). The length of the recess is equal to the length of the cucumber row. To dig a longitudinal recess, you can use a conventional bayonet shovel or garden chopper.
- Manure is laid in the finished trench. Organics are abundantly watered and covered with soil so that the surface of the feeding trench is even with the general surface of the bed.
To prepare fermented top dressings based on bird droppings or grass, the gardener will need some time. Such top dressing is very concentrated, so they need to be diluted with water before use as directed. The main plus of liquid concentrated top dressing is that for a regular summer cottage plot of 5 acres of concentrate, prepared in a 200 liter barrel, enough for the entire summer season. Also, liquid top dressing is quite simple to apply to the culture, for example, combining with watering.
Preparation of concentrated concentrated feed:
- A large empty tank, for example, a 200 liter plastic or iron barrel, is installed in a sunny place. The place should be secluded and protected from the wind.
- Capacity up to half the volume is filled with bird droppings or fresh nettles. Instead of nettles, you can use other fresh herbs: dandelions, knotweed, timothy, wheat grass. The main thing when filling the barrel with green raw materials is to make it as dense as possible. To put as much grass as possible into the container, it is cut into pieces of 15-30 cm.
- On top of the organic substances, water is poured into the barrel so that about 20 cm remains from the edge of the container. This gap is necessary so that during fermentation the liquid does not overflow over the edge of the barrel.
- The contents of the container are mixed with a strong long stick, after which they close the barrel with a lid. The lid is needed to prevent nitrogen loss during fermentation.
- An organic filled and closed barrel is left for 7-10 days for fermentation. Every day, the gardener will need to mix the contents of the container. Concentrated top dressing is considered ready when bubbles no longer appear on the surface of the liquid.
- Before starting work on feeding cucumbers, it is necessary to dilute the concentrate with water, using 500 ml of concentrated top dressing for each bucket of clean water.
For several decades, yeast top dressing of cucumbers has been popular among gardeners. It is carried out both on the leaf and under the root of the plants. Fresh baker's yeast contains a large number of active yeast bacteria, which, entering the plant cells, begin to work as a powerful growth stimulator.
Important! For the manufacture of yeast dressing, only fresh (live) yeast is used: dry (granular or powder) are not suitable. How to cook with yeast:
- A concentrated solution is prepared by mixing 3 liters of warm water, 100 g of fresh yeast and 5–7 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar. The solution is set in a warm place for about 3 days to insist and the fermentation process.
- Before feeding, the fermented concentrated solution is diluted in water. About 1/4 liter of concentrate is added to each bucket of liquid, mixed well and used for top dressing.
For root dressing, at least 0.5 l of liquid yeast fertilizer is poured under each plant. If the gardener decided to carry out foliar application, the liquid fertilizer diluted in the same proportion is poured into the pump sprayer and the cucumber plantings are treated by spraying. For the procedure, choose morning time and a day without precipitation. Both root and foliar top dressing with yeast solution is carried out no more than 3 times for the entire season of cucumber vegetation.
Onion peel contains substances that not only stimulate the growth of cucumbers, but also protect it from leaf-sucking pests, such as red spider mites and aphids.
To prepare a solution for feeding:
- Peel off 10 large onions - about 2 handfuls are obtained.
- Pour dry husk with freshly boiled water (1.5 l), set the mixture on fire and bring to a boil.
- After the onion husk solution boils, the fire is reduced to a minimum heat, the mixture is boiled for 7-10 minutes.
- The finished mixture is turned off and left to insist under the lid until it cools completely, after which it is diluted with clean water, bringing the volume of the working fluid to 6 liters.
A broth of onion husks is poured into a garden sprayer and cucumber plants are processed on it with a leaf.
Technology of top dressing folk remedies
Gardeners carry out foliar top dressing of a cucumber directly on the leaf and only in the morning . It is important that the moisture on the leaves dry well before evening, otherwise drops can serve as a breeding ground for the development of pathogenic fungal spores.
All root dressings are carried out directly in the root zone: liquid solutions are poured under the root of the plants, and dry fertilizers are laid in the recesses located near the roots of the cucumber. Liquid top dressing on organics must be insisted in order for the nutrient solution to acquire more beneficial properties.
Signs of nutritional deficiencies
Lack of nutrients weakens and delays the development of plants, they manifest symptoms of deficiency of beneficial elements. Listed below are the main signs of malnutrition in cucumbers and the measures that need to be taken to correct this situation.
Lack of nitrogen
Cucumbers need nitrogen in the early stages of growth. With its deficiency, the growth of the bush is delayed, and the older leaves turn yellow-green. If the nutrient deficiency continues, the same symptoms will appear throughout the plant. With critical nitrogen deficiency, the size of the leaves on the plant decreases, and a purple color appears on the veins of the leaves, contrasting with the pale green leaf. At the same time, flower buds turn yellow and fall. Due to a deficiency of this element, chlorosis occurs on the cucumber bushes. The situation is corrected by introducing nitrogen, preferably in the form of nitrates, under the root or on a leaf culture.
Conditions predisposing to nitrogen deficiency:
- lack of nitrogen fertilizers;
- low levels of organic matter;
- a high level of poorly decomposing organic matter in the soil;
- molybdenum deficiency;
- soil compaction;
- intensive soil leaching;
- prolonged drought.
This is the nutrient most required by plants. A lack of potassium slows down the growth of the cucumber: the width of the new leaf blades narrows, and on the old leaves yellowing appears from the edges to the center, gradually becoming brown and drying out. Sometimes the appearance of bright orange areas on the leaves is observed.
Insufficient fruit density is also often associated with a lack of potassium . The situation can be corrected by applying fertilizers in the form of potassium chloride or potassium sulfate and combine top dressing with another basal irrigation.
The availability of potassium for cucumbers depends on:
- the content of this element in the soil;
- leaching rates;
- excessive liming;
- the presence of high levels of calcium, magnesium and ammonia in the soil.
Дефицит фосфора часто наблюдается на плохо удобренных грунтах и в почвах с высокой скоростью вымывания этого питательного вещества. Скорость роста огуречных посадок снижается, начиная с ранних стадий развития. Более старые листья становятся пурпурными из-за накопления пигмента антоциана.
На более поздних стадиях развития на листьях появляются пурпурно-коричневые области, которые через некоторое время превращаются в некротические пятна. Такие листья преждевременно опадают, а начало плодоношения на растении значительно задерживается. Разумнее всего не допустить недостатка элемента на огуречных грядках и внести фосфорные удобрения в целях профилактики, непосредственно перед посадкой.
На поглощение фосфора огурцом главным образом влияют:
- концентрация фосфора в почвенном растворе;
- кислотность или щёлочность грунта;
- преобладающий тип грунта и количество глины в нём;
- содержание влаги и уплотнение почвы;
- fertilizer application;
- низкие температуры на стадии появления всходов.
Признаки нехватки микроэлементов
Из-за нехватки питания у кустов огурца возникают различные нарушения роста и развития. Зачастую симптомы дефицита одного микроэлемента весьма похожи на симптомы недостатка другого.
- На недостаток микроэлементов растения реагируют:
- появлением пятен на листьях;
- усыханием краёв листьев;
- изменением цвета листовой пластины;
- некрозом листьев и стеблей;
- остановкой в развитии;
- появлением уродливых и деформированных плодов;
- недостаточной плотностью или полным размягчением плодов;
- опадением цветков и завязей;
- появлением пустоцвета.
Tips from experienced gardeners
Чтобы уменьшить необходимость в защите огурцов от вредных насекомых, следует по периметру огуречной грядки высадить растения, испускающие фитонциды и отпугивающие вредителей своим запахом. Это могут быть зонтики укропа, фенхель, бархатцы, ноготки.
Для отпугивания тли, красного паутинного клеща и других листососущих вредителей овощеводы опрыскивают листья огурца натуральными, но весьма неприятными для насекомых растворами. Отлично справляется с задачей настой листьев табака (100 г сухих листьев на 10 л воды) или острого перца (2–3 стручка на 5 л воды). Проводя любую обработку листьев, в холодные жидкие настои, растворы или отвары обязательно добавляют хозяйственное мыло в качестве прилипателя. На 10 л жидкости достаточно 50 г натёртого на мелкой тёрке такого мыла.
Подкормки огурца очень важны для получения обильного и качественного урожая вкусных плодов. Помимо внесения минеральных составов, огородникам стоит обратить внимание на биологически чистые натуральные удобрения, которые можно найти во многих приусадебных хозяйствах.