Features of the cultivation of Startovaya plums
Plum is one of the most common and beloved fruit trees in many countries of the world. Plum trees have been cultivated for many centuries, while constant selection work is underway to produce new varieties that are more attractive from the point of view of agricultural technology. This article is about the Startova plum variety.
Description of the plum variety Start
Plum variety Startovaya is the result of breeding work by scientists of the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after I.V. Michurin, and was placed in the State Register in 2006. Parent trees - plums Volga beauty and Eurasia 21.
Territory of distribution of the variety:
- Black Earth region of the Russian Federation;
- Republic of Belarus;
It grows well in countries with a temperate continental climate, where there is a mild winter.
Did you know? In the fruits of plums, there is a large amount of vitamin P, which reduces blood pressure, strengthens the walls of blood vessels. It is noteworthy that it is practically not destroyed during fruit processing.
The starting plum is distinguished by large, rounded fruits with an oval top and an elongated base, the average weight of which is 45-50 g, with a hard skin of burgundy color with a purple tint. No subcutaneous freckles. Fruits are well separated from the stalk, but do not crumble. Amber-colored fruit pulp, characterized by high juiciness, has a sweet and sour taste.
Starting plum trees - with a spreading crown and an abundant number of leaves (small in size, with pointed edges and an uneven surface). Stipules fall early. The branches are curved, wide, burgundy with a silver coating.
Petioles are a little pigmented. The glands are the colors of amber, located in two pieces on each petiole. The flowers are large, bright white, the cup is bell-shaped, and the anthers of the flower are below the stigma of the pestle.
Did you know? As a medicinal raw material in folk medicine, not only fruits, but also leaves of plum tree are used. After grinding, they are used as a healing agent for skin lesions.
Characterization and chemical composition
This variety is high-yielding (about 610 kg / ha), with very early ripening. It is distinguished by transportability over long distances. Shelf life of fruits is small - about three weeks, provided that they are in cool rooms.
The sugar content in the fruit ranges from 8.4% to 8.52%, solids - 16.1-16.23%, organic acids - from 2% to 2.45%.
Vitamins - P, A, K, E, PP, a group of vitamins B, ascorbic acid. Trace elements - Fe, Ca, K, P, Mg. In 100 grams of plum, approximately 6.2 mg of vitamin C and 205 mg of P-active catechins.
Fruits are used in households and in industrial production as raw materials for juices, jams, wine, compotes, etc. Plums do not lose their taste after thawing. It is often added as topping in ice cream.
Important! Startovy plum trees are resistant to both low temperatures and heat.
Plum Starta is a self-fertile culture, therefore, pollinating trees are needed to obtain a guaranteed crop, which are suitable parent trees or varieties of home plum, the flowering period of which coincides with the same period at Starta.
Planting and Care Rules
When choosing a site where plum trees are planned to be planted, it is necessary to take into account such criteria as:
- good illumination during the day;
- lack of drafts;
- planting soil should be moisture and breathable, preferably loamy;
- soil acidity - neutral or close to neutral;
- optimal occurrence of groundwater - 150-200 cm.
Plum planting can be done with seed or seedling.
In the case when the choice fell on the bone as planting material, the algorithm of actions is as follows:
- The internal seed is extracted from the seeds, after which the future seed is kept in warm water for three to five days.
- The next step - the seeds are dried to such a state that during subsequent storage (glass container) until the seeds are planted in the soil, the seeds will not rot.
- Six months before the expected planting date, stratification is carried out - the seeds are kept in raw sand at a temperature of + 1 ° C to -10 ° C.
A plant that has reached the age of two years can be moved to another place of further growth.
Plant the seed material (from the seeds) after the appearance of the roots during the stratification process either in the pots or in the soil on the site . Next, make a recess in which a small amount of a fertile layer is poured in the form of a mound, in the center of which a seed with roots is placed, and then it is sprinkled on top with drained and fertilized soil.
Important! As planting material for “Startovaya” plum varieties with plant specialists, seedlings are recommended , not seeds. Fruitful trees are guaranteed to grow from young plants. When planting seedlings in the spring, planting pits are prepared in the fall . During the same period, experts advise to acquire young plants for subsequent planting, which they store in the cellar or basement during the winter months, after having previously dug up the root system (boxes with soil, dense cloth bags, etc.). If planting is planned in the fall, pits are prepared a month before planting.
Plum seedlings are placed among themselves so that the distance between the plants is about three to four meters, and the row spacing is five to six meters.
Early plum varieties also include:
Frost-resistant seedlings in the Far East and Siberia are planted at shorter intervals from each other - two to three meters, and between rows are left three to five meters.
- Sizes of landing pits: depth - 0.7 m; diameter - 0.7–0.8 m.
- If the soil composition is peaty or sandy, the lower layer should consist of clay (0.1 m).
- Fertilizer before planting fruit seedlings is preferably carried out with the following mixture: peat, compost - 2 buckets, potassium sulfate, urea - 3 tbsp. l., superphosphate - 1 tbsp. l In case of increased soil pH, it is neutralized with dolomite flour.
Video: Plum planting and fertilizer
- At the bottom of the pit, strictly vertically, a supporting meter rail is installed.
- Further, the volume of the pit is 75% covered with a mixture of earth and fertilizer composition.
- Place the plant with spreading roots and fill the remaining volume of the pit with ordinary soil (without fertilizer), carefully tamping the top layer (to avoid contact of the roots with air).
- For better preservation of soil moisture around Startovaya, a low embankment is made, after which the seedling is tied to a support and watered abundantly.
The pruning procedure for the Start plum ensures the correct formation of the crown, which will allow you to get decent crops:
- First-year plants are pruned to a level of 100-120 cm.
- To two-year-old plums, the skeletal branches are cut so that a length of about 0.3 m remains.
- In the third year, apical growth is shortened by a third of a meter, and lateral shoots - by 0.15 m.
- It is necessary to form the Start Plum tree in such a way that the crown consists of five to six branches growing at an angle of 50 °. Avoid thickening of branches, as insufficient sunlight will negatively affect the formation of fruits.
Trees of this variety prefer well-moistened soil, therefore it is necessary to water the plants on an ongoing basis, especially young seedlings in the warm season, as the soil dries out quickly enough. On average, five buckets of water are brought under one tree, and during fruiting period - 10. In autumn days, especially with sparse rainfall, watering of trees is continued.
Important! It is necessary to exclude stagnation of water in the near-stem area. This can lead to putrefactive processes and cause the death of the plant.
Top dressing - three times a year : in the spring, in the summer, immediately after harvesting the fruits. As fertilizers, it is recommended to use complex mineral and organic (ash, rotted compost) compounds.
Particular attention should be paid to preparing plums for the winter period in the northern regions.
The main manipulations:
- Drawing a protective layer of whitewash on the trunk and the lower part of the branches.
- Spread several layers of burlap around the fruit tree and sprinkle with earth on top or mulch with a layer of humus.
- If the tree is young, it is recommended to close the tree trunk circle with plastic wrap. This will reduce the damage from excessive rainfall.
- Subsequently, the snow is placed around the trunk in the form of a small snowdrift.
- If the snowfall is too heavy, you should carefully knock down the snow from the branches, avoiding damage.
Diseases and Pests
Plum of the Startovaya variety is highly resistant to diseases and pests, so there is no need for annual chemical treatments.
As a preventive measure against rodents, it is advised to use a netting net, which is placed around the trunk and buried in the ground by half a meter. The diameter of the ground space bounded by the grid should be 0.6–0.7 m. Traps placed around fruit trees and poisoned baits left on the garden plot have proven themselves well.
We advise you to learn more about plum diseases and the fight against them.
Methods of collection and storage of plum varieties Startovaya
The fruits of plums are removed from the branches upon reaching marketable ripeness, when the stem is easily separated from the fruit. Ripening occurs gradually, so harvesting is carried out in several stages to avoid softening of most of the fruits. The process itself is carried out in dry weather, first of all removing plums from the lower branches, gradually moving to the upper part of the crown, starting the collection process from the outer part of the branch to the trunk.
Plum Start, unfortunately, has a short shelf life of about three weeks in rooms with a temperature of about 0 ° C and a humidity of 85%. To increase the shelf life, it is advised to place the fruits in boxes or trays with paper coated bottom in one layer.
Despite the relative novelty of the variety, Startovaya plum has proven itself among gardeners in many regions as an unpretentious fruit tree in the care and cultivation, capable of stably bearing fruit for 10-15 years, subject to the rules of agricultural technology.