Features of cultivation and rules for the care of potatoes of the Nikulinsky variety
Potato Nikulinsky has gained popularity among gardeners with a good balance of taste and disease resistance. You will learn about the characteristic features of the variety and the basics of its agricultural technology from this article.
Variety Origin History
Potato Nikulinsky is a Russian variety obtained at the Moscow Research Institute of Potato Management named after A. G. Lorch in the early 1990s by crossing the Mavka and Peresvet varieties. Already in 1996, he was included in the State Register.
Did you know? It is believed that the time of the ancient Incas was the time period that occupied the cooking of potatoes.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Nikulinsky belongs to the group of medium late potato varieties, whose growing season is in the range from 115 to 120 days.
Description of plant and fruit
The bush and tuber of this variety demonstrate such features:
- bush height - up to 80 cm;
- the sheet is elongated, jagged;
- upright stalk, many lateral branches;
- tuber weight - 70–135 g, on 1 bush - 8–12 pcs.;
- round tubers;
- peel of mesh texture, light, yellowish-beige;
- the pulp is white, does not darken;
- small eyes, in large numbers;
- tastes good, type boiled.
Important! Experienced gardeners recommend starting planting potatoes only after the opening of birch buds.
The stability of the culture allows you to get a sufficient mass of tubers, even in the bad season. The variety is resistant to cancer, but is affected by a black leg and a scab. The vegetable has an average susceptibility to late blight (the disease has a stronger effect on tubers), resistance to viruses, and immunity to the Y virus. Originators promise relative resistance to the Colorado potato beetle. Attractiveness to the variety is added by good marketability (71–95%) and excellent keeping quality (95%).
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- The described variety is distinguished by such advantages:
- stable productivity;
- good taste;
- unpretentiousness to growing conditions;
- excellent keeping quality.
- Sometimes among the disadvantages of the variety indicate:
- fresh taste and problems when growing in the rainy season.
Landing and care
To obtain maximum productivity of the variety, it is necessary to plant tubers correctly and provide plant care throughout the entire growing season.
The exact term of Nikulinsky’s landing varies depending on the climate of the region and the specific weather in the spring season. For germination, potatoes need a soil temperature of + 8 ... + 10 ° C at a depth of 10 cm. On average, such conditions occur in late April.
However, for this culture is harmful not only too early landing, but also delaying it. If the temperature in the soil rises to + 28 ° C, and at night the air does not cool below + 20 ° C, the laying of tubers is stopped.
Choosing a place and preparing the garden
Potato beds should be located in a sunny and dry area, where there is no cold gusty wind. Compliance with the principle of crop rotation is the prevention of various diseases:
- it is best to plant a crop after cabbage, pumpkin and legumes, garlic and onions;
- do not plant potatoes after solanaceous - tomatoes, peppers and eggplant.
Learn how to choose the best green manure for potatoes.
A good crop can be obtained on any soil, but it is advisable to plant potatoes in fertile soil with an acidity of 5.1-6 pH. There are several ways to increase the fertility of a potato bed:
- during autumn digging, fertilizer should be applied to the depth of the shovel (1 kg of rotted manure, 35 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate are needed per 1 m²);
- sow in the autumn a row of green manure, whose seedlings after spring mowing should be planted 10 cm deep.
It is also recommended that you further disinfect the soil using one of the following recipes:
- pre-spray (in autumn) soil with bleach (100-200 g per 1 m²);
- immediately before planting, spill the garden with formalin (1 cup of 40% solution per 10 liters of water);
- during the planting of each tuber in the hole add 40-60 g of Iprodion.
Important! To protect the tubers from rot, it is recommended to dust them with lime, chalk or zeolite at the rate of 2 kg per 1 t.
Presowing treatment of tubers
To get strong seedlings and healthy plants, planting material must be carefully selected and subjected to special treatments. First of all, potatoes are carefully sorted, and only fully healthy specimens are recognized as fit. Then germination is performed, which can be combined with the use of growth stimulants:
- place the tubers in a bright place at + 12 ... + 15 ° C and leave for 2–4 weeks;
- if there is no such time in stock, it is necessary to wait for the first shoots to appear, which will take about 5-6 days.
Technology and landing pattern
The optimal planting scheme is considered to be 25-30 × 60–70 cm, while the depth of planting will depend on the type of soil:
- on a bed with heavy soil, the tubers should go 5-7 cm underground;
- for light soils, a depth of 8–10 cm should be maintained.
Read more about growing and planting potatoes under straw.
The plant should receive the first moisture as soon as the height of the shoots is 10 cm (if the soil is dry). Watering is necessary for potatoes when such signs appear:
- lightening and lethargy of foliage and stems;
- the dying off of small stems;
- the bush reduces the growth rate, and flower buds do not open.
With a lack of natural precipitation, especially on sandy soils, each plant will require at least 4 liters of water heated in the sun.
Waterlogging harms the culture, and its signs are:
- rotting of small tubers;
- the leaves on the bush darken, and then begin to fade;
- weeping spots and plaque form in the lower part of the stem.
Learn how to water potatoes with your own hands.
Fertilizing and Hilling
If the bed is properly prepared for planting in the fall or a fertilizer mixture has been added to the hole for each tuber, additional feeding may not be necessary. Otherwise, you should use one of the proposed recipes:
- For root dressing, mix 1 part of potassium and phosphorus and 2 parts of nitrogen, and then dilute 25 g of the mixture in 10 l of water. You can take a urea solution (1 tbsp.spoon for every 10 liters of water, pour 0.5 l under 1 bush).
- For spraying, a humate solution (2 g per 10 l of water, based on 3 l of the mixture per 1 hundredth of the earth) or a mixture based on urea (100 g of urea, 150 g of monophosphate and 5 g of boric acid should be diluted in 5 l of water) is suitable. Processing the last mixture to perform twice, and for the first time it must be diluted in half.
Important! If the plant has been exposed to frost, then foliar top dressing should be delayed for 2-3 days.
Protection against diseases and pests
The first stage of plant protection is preplant planting. The most dangerous pests waiting for a potato bed during the growing season include:
- The Colorado potato beetle, the fight against which in a small cultivation area can be reduced to the collection and destruction of beetles and larvae. Spraying bushes with infusion of wormwood, celandine, bitter pepper, and other folk remedies can be effective. If over a large area there are already more than 5 larvae per bush, it is necessary to use insecticides.
- Wireworms and pseudowires affect stems and tubers. The best prevention is considered crop rotation and early planting.
- The smallest worms of the stem nematode live in soil and tubers, and infected plants are indistinguishable from healthy plants. For protection, seed tubers should be carefully monitored, digging in the garden in the fall, and plant debris and weeds destroyed.
As mentioned above, the Nikulinsky variety is sensitive to late blight, which leads to rotting of tubers both during growth and during further storage. The disease is especially rampant in wet and warm weather. For prevention, you can use infusions according to popular recipes, antifungal mixtures, as well as high hilling. If the landing is infected with a Colorado potato beetle, you can prepare a tank mixture with the addition of insecticides in order to provide comprehensive protection for 1 treatment.
Did you know? When danger is detected, the Colorado beetles fall down and pretend to be dead.
To prevent infection of tubers with late blight and black leg, you should mow the tops and remove it from the site 7-10 days before harvesting. This variety is susceptible to infection with scab, which forms on the skin of the tuber and causes growths similar to warts. It is possible to reduce the pathogenicity of the pathogen by feeding manganese sulfate (based on 6 g per 1 m²).
Harvesting and Storage
When digging up tubers, care should be taken not to damage them. The potatoes are dried for 3-4 hours in the open air in dry weather. If the days are rainy, they will arrange temporary shelter and dry the vegetables there for 2-3 weeks. Then the crop should be sorted out and the best quality potatoes removed for long-term storage.
You will be interested to know when it is better to dig potatoes for storage.
Storage takes place at a temperature of + 1 ... + 5 ° C and an air humidity of 85–90%, and the room must be equipped with exhaust ventilation. Potatoes can be stored in bags made of natural materials that will allow air to pass through, or in wooden boxes. Often, the crop is simply folded in a slide on the floor, always leaving free space to the ceiling (at least 0.5 m).