Features of cultivation and characteristics of the Malvina strawberry variety
It is pleasant to please yourself and loved ones, perhaps, with the most beloved summer berry - strawberries, as early as possible, in late May - early June. But no less attractive is the prospect of extending the fruiting season for as long as possible, ideally, until August. Recently, such a desire for gardeners is quite feasible, thanks to the efforts of specialists from Germany.
Malvina Strawberry Description
Malvina's strawberry variety was bred in 2010 by German breeder Peter Stoppel. Malvina is considered the latest of all non-repairing (fruiting once per season) varieties. Did you know? In the botanical classification, there is no type of Strawberry. This berry is correctly called, from the point of view of botany, the Strawberry is the musky genus of the Strawberry.
The bushes are strong and powerful, can reach 50 cm in height, have abundant foliage, which can have a diameter of more than 55 cm. It forms many stepsons during the growing season, their number can reach up to 10. Seedlings planted in the summer, on average, 5 stepsons planted in the spring - 8–10. A leaf plate of a bright emerald hue, large size and rounded in shape with a serrated contour.
During flowering, a strong aroma is exuded. The flowers are bisexual, so Malvina does not need pollinators.
The fruits are beautiful, regular conical shape. The average weight is 50 g. The pulp is very juicy, with a pleasant dense texture, ruby hue. The color deserves special attention. In the stage of technical maturity, it is the same as in other varieties, but after the berry is poured, an incomparable cherry hue appears.
Malvina ripens, depending on the region, from late June to the second decade of July. Fruiting can last 15–20 days, depending on climatic conditions. If the weather is sunny, and the air temperature is constantly kept at a high level, the crop ripens faster.
Disease and pest resistance
It has good resistance to most diseases and pests . Of the pests, elephants and vesicles can be a danger - it is better to process the plant from these insects.
In addition, preventive measures such as observing crop rotation rules and timely weeding significantly reduce the risk of developing diseases.
Drought and winter hardiness
The winter hardiness of the variety is average or lower than average, in areas where winters are usually frosty or little snow, you will have to make shelter from agrofiber, film, mulch the beds with straw, peat, lapnik.
The tolerance of drought is much better; a powerful bush can do without watering for quite a while . However, this does not mean that Malvina does not require watering at all.
Timing of flowering and ripening
Flowering begins at about the same time when the fruiting of most other varieties ends - in the first half of June. Usually, Malvina matures in the second half of June . With the skillful use of agricultural techniques, it is possible to achieve both small shifts in the fruiting period and an increase in its duration.
Productivity and Transportability
Using medium-level agricultural technology, you can get from one bush up to 800 g of strawberries, respectively, using advanced cultivation methods, productivity can be increased by almost 2 times.
A nice feature of the variety is the fact that the fruits of a later wave practically do not differ in mass from the first. If they are inferior to the first, then no more than 1/10 of the weight.
The fruits have a universal purpose : in addition to eating fresh (just eating several berries, sprinkling with sugar or making a dessert with whipped cream or ice cream), from Malvina they make jam, jams, jams, grind with fresh sugar, and cook compotes.
You can freeze it and use it in the winter as a filling for pies or dumplings (in the same way, of course, you can use it fresh), or make stewed fruit. Strawberries make wonderful mousses and jellies. Used for the preparation of liquors and tinctures, as well as as raw materials for cosmetic masks. And, of course, the classic combination of berries with dairy products - yogurt and various desserts.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Among the main advantages of Malvina, it is necessary to say about the following:
- excellent taste and marketability;
- undemanding in leaving;
- resistant to a large number of diseases;
- well transported.
- We should also mention the disadvantages:
- poorly tolerates frosts;
- quite vulnerable to fungal diseases and some pests;
- It requires a lot of space for landing.
Did you know? Strawberries cannot be called a “ berry ” with good reason. What we used to call a “ berry ” is, in fact, a hypertrophied receptacle, and the fruits are small seeds that dot the ripe strawberries.
Agrotechnics cultivation and care
As already mentioned, Malvina is the latest of all varieties that bear fruit once a season, respectively, its breeding has some nuances, which will be discussed in more detail below.
Malvina, due to its late fruiting, is planted at a time different from the usual for this species. The most reasonable landing in the spring . A plentiful harvest should not be expected in the first season, but from the second year, when the bush grows 6–8 mustaches in the summer, be prepared for the appearance of a large number of berries.
For Malvina, autumn planting is the third decade of August. This is done so that the young growth can take root before the onset of frost, otherwise the cold can adversely affect the seedlings.
If you hope to get any meaningful harvest in the first season, select bushes for planting whose stepchildren take root until the end of September. In addition, these bushes should be in time with the formation of flower rosettes, otherwise, do not count on a good result.
Important! Malvina bushes are very large, take a lot of nitrogen from the substrate. So it is recommended, when preparing the beds, to add a good amount of mullein or bird droppings to the ground.
Site selection and well preparation
For strawberries, an open place with a small slope, preferably on the south or south-west side of your site, is considered to be the best in sunlit. The minimum groundwater depth is 70 cm or more.
If the soil has an alkaline reaction, it is acidified. The best soil for cultivation is black earth and a dark gray forest light substrate. Sandstones, clay and peat soil must first be prepared.
An excellent option for growing Malvina, is a mixture in equal parts of turf, humus and peat with the addition of a small amount of sand.
Fertilizers and chalk with lime are added to clay soil. It is more difficult with sandstones: they are prepared a couple of years before the intended planting by adding oat-bean mixture. Potash and phosphorus top dressing are added to peat bogs.
Such soils are not suitable for growing strawberries:
- salt marshes;
- highly acidic (pH <4.0);
- with increased moisture.
Culture grows best where it grew before:
Important! Growing strawberries next to solanaceous plants may not have the best effect on resistance to diseases and pests, and yield indicators. Separately, it should be said about siderates. If earlier rapeseed was grown on the landing site, the soil will be rich in organic matter and phosphorus. Mustard prevents the development of late blight, promotes the formation of humus. The root system of the wiki and lupine increase the concentration of nitrogen. Buckwheat increases the content of three major minerals - nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Phacelia makes the pH of the soil close to neutral, reducing acidity.
Malvina requires a lot of space, the minimum distance between two adjacent bushes should be 0.6 m, the row spacing is 0.7 m. A two-row planting scheme should not be used, since the abundance of greenery on the plant will be an obstacle.
Although Malvina can safely be called a drought tolerant variety, a lack of moisture does not affect the crop in the best way - the berries will be born small and not juicy enough. In addition, moisture deficiency leads to degeneration of the variety.
On average, 2-3 waterings per month will be enough, starting in May, you should focus on the following norm: 1 bucket per 1 m². Loamy soils require more water than light soils. An excellent solution for strawberries is the organization of drip irrigation.
Malvina, although not capricious, reacts painfully to nitrogen deficiency. In order to avoid such events, two foliar top dressings with nitrogen (for example, nitrate) are performed for the entire growing season. The concentration of the solution for fertilizer should be 2 times less than for root top dressing. Perform the procedure during the growth of green mass and peduncles.
Important! Foliar top dressing is not done before rain or in sunny weather. The sun's rays, combined with fertilizer on a leaf plate, can cause burns, and rain will simply wash away the solution. Malvina well accepts top dressing with organic matter, supplemented with ash and superphosphate. Since nitrogen from organic fertilizers enters the soil and, accordingly, into the plant gradually, in the right concentration it is enough for a long time.
Potassium is also crucial for the normal development of a plant. A good option is potassium sulfate, you can also other potash fertilizers, the main thing is that they do not contain chlorine. Such fertilizers are used in the very initial period of the growing season.
Pest and Disease Control
Diseases representing the greatest danger to Malvina:
- Fusarium The disease primarily affects the roots, then the leaves wither and stems rot.
- Late blight. The bush ceases to grow, leaves and inflorescences wither, the root system turns red, and then dies.
- Late blight leathery rot. The stem darkens at the base, the ovaries dry out, and the fruits become bitter. As a preventative measure to prevent this and the two diseases listed above, before planting, “Gliocladin” is poured into the wells, according to the instructions. For treatment, the drug Trichoderma Veride is used.
- Gray rot. Fruits and ovaries are covered with rusty spots with a gray coating. As a prophylaxis, foliar treatment with Alirin is used. The first time - before the buds open, the second - after the harvest.
- All kinds of spotting. The leaf plate is covered with spots corresponding in color to the name of the disease (brown, white, brown), after which parts of the leaf die at the spot. For prevention, Bordeaux fluid is used; for treatment, the same fluid and Chorus are used.
- Viruses (mosaic, twisting, wrinkling, etc.). Characteristic signs of virus damage - normal development and growth of the bush ceases, leaves turn yellow. There are no effective remedies for treating viruses on strawberries - the affected bushes are removed from the beds outside the plot and burned.
Pests that could be a threat to Malvina:
- Weevil. A small bug (2-3 mm) with a long proboscis, affects the buds. As preventive measures, plantings are sprayed with infusion of wormwood or tansy. To kill an insect, they use Karbofos, Aliot, before the buds begin to set.
- Strawberry transparent tick. It is difficult to discern a tick, because of its small size, it sucks moisture from the leaves, after which the sheet wrinkles and withers.
For prophylaxis, planting material is dipped for 15 minutes in warm water (+ 46 ° C), then immediately placed in cold water, after which it is planted in wells. As an effective measure against the parasite, the foliar treatment with Fitoverm or Akarin has proven itself well four times during the growing season.
- Nematodes. Small (up to 1 mm) worms feeding on the sap of a plant. They are afraid of marigolds and marigold growing next to strawberries.
- Sawmills, elephants, vesicles, aphids, cicadas, whiteflies, spider mites. The foliage of plants suffers from the listed pests. To protect them from planting strawberries, before budding and after harvesting, the bushes are treated with "Alatar". In addition, “Fitoverm” and “Kleschevit” are used, according to the instructions.
- Larvae of the May beetle, wireworm, bear, scoop on potatoes, root weevil, marsh centipede . Pests that destroy the root system. “Karbofos” is used to combat them, and the “Fenaxin plus” bait helps well from the bear.
Preparing landings for winter
Malvin needs shelter for the winter. They do this in late autumn, just before the onset of frost. The easiest way to shelter is hilling a bush. You can spud the same ground in which the bush grows, but it is better to use peat or humus.
The material for mulch can be the litter of needles, foliage of infertile trees and shrubs (so as not to cause parasites), dry flower greens, hay, sawdust, dry grass, peat.
In addition, the necessary protection will create additional snow piled on the bushes. In the event that the winter is very frosty or there is no snow at all, you can use a non-woven fabric, agrofibre (spanbond, agrospan). In the case of fiber, it’s nice to use wireframes, although you can do without them. The fiber should be removed as soon as the first spring thaw sets in, otherwise the plants will be blocked.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Harvesting strawberries is best a couple of days before full maturity - in this case, you will have the opportunity to save it at least for some time. Better stored berries that are infrequently watered - juicy large fruits for fresh storage are generally unsuitable. Those berries that you want to set aside for storage are removed with the stem.
The fruits are stored in a wooden or plastic box, lined with paper, in one layer, without sorting. This should be done (sorted out) before eating, because the strawberry is so tender that the slightest violation of its surface can spoil it right there.
Collected fruits should be cooled to 0 ... + 2 ° C, as soon as possible after collection. The further safety of the crop depends on how quickly you succeed. A correctly harvested crop, dry with a solid surface, can lie in the refrigerator or cellar for up to four days. If the ambient temperature is + 20 ° C, the berry will deteriorate in a day.
Wash the berries in small portions, slightly rinsing with a thin stream of water from all sides. Then the berries are laid out for complete drying, after which they are frozen in small portions in plastic containers.
Did you know? The largest ever recorded strawberry fruit , of which it is known for certain, weighed more than 245 g, and its diameter exceeded 28.5 cm.
Malvina is a wonderful variety of beloved summer berries. It has excellent taste, original appearance and, most importantly, is able to please strawberry lovers when all other varieties have already been fruited.