Features of the cultivation and care of hippeastrum at home
There are many beautiful types of flowers, including hippeastrum. This plant is from the Amaryllis genus, has a bulbous structure and is extremely popular due to its unusual appearance. But in order to grow such an exotic and unique look, you need to know: how to plant, care and feed the plant, what features you need to consider.
Short description of hippeastrum
Hippeastrum flower is a bulbous plant native to South America, so planting is possible only in areas with a warm climate and very moist soil. In total, about 80 varieties are distinguished, each of which has its own individual color and size.
The bulb of the plant is large enough, can reach 18 cm. The foliage is wedge-shaped, saturated green. The flowers are located on the longest shoot, about 3 on one, the very shape of the flower resembles a bell.
The color of the petals can be completely different: from pure white to maroon. In this case, there may be yellow and other shades depending on the type. Hippeastrum, both indoor flower and planted in open ground, does not bloom for very long, about a month.
When and in what conditions should a plant be planted
The planting season does not matter at all, you can plant even in winter, if all the necessary conditions for cultivation are observed. First of all, you need to pay attention to the selected bulb, it should be: healthy, without cracks, red stains, with good roots.
Did you know? From the Greek, the name " hippeastrum " is translated as "the rider's stars."
Ideal lighting options are bright sunlight or warm artificial light. Temperature - from 16 ° C. The landing site is a plastic pot with great depth, but small width.
Any planting soil is suitable, but ideally it is necessary to combine: humus, peat, sand, turf. Deepen the bulb only half its size so that it can take root. The location for planting can be selected based on the amount of light, an ideal option is a window on the sunny side of the house.
How to plant hippeastrum from seeds at home
Many people want to know how to plant a hippeastrum not with the help of bulbs, but with the help of seeds, despite the fact that the second method is considered much more time-consuming and complicated.
Choosing a pot for planting
The ideal option is considered to be a plastic pot, because:
- wooden will lead to problems with watering;
- the ceramic will overheat in sunlight, and the plant may steam and rot.
The size should be optimal for the number of plants that are planned to be planted.
The fundamental factor in good cultivation is the soil, so care must be taken in advance to disinfect it. Since the remains of other plants, harmful insects can be directly in the ground itself.
There are several ways to do this:
- using purchased chemicals, use according to the instructions;
- baking the earth at high temperatures for 15 minutes on a baking sheet;
- for 3-4 days, remove the earth to cold, more than -25 ° C;
- spraying a solution of potassium permanganate with water.
Using these methods, fungal diseases and the appearance of spider mites can be prevented.
Preparing seeds for sowing
You also need to know how to properly prepare seeds for planting. It is necessary to process them in the same way as their soil, for this they are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes, after that they are dried, this will help get rid of unwanted diseases.
The seeds themselves need to be sorted out and discarded if they have spots or cracks, since they not only will not germinate, but can also be a source of fungal diseases, as well as aphids, spider mites, and mealybugs.
Did you know? Hippeastrum is a very old flower, its hybrid "Hippeastrum x Johnsonii" was introduced back in 1799.
Another feature is artificial pollination, for this you need to cut pollen from a flower into seeds. After that, a box is formed in which they ripen and feed on vitamins and minerals, after 2 months of ripening, they need to be removed and can be planted.
On moistened and disinfected soil it is necessary to lay out seeds at a distance of 2 cm without deepening, then sprinkle with earth and use a flat object (piece of wood, tile) to trample the earth, then moisten it again from the spray gun.
Growing and caring for a plant
It is very important to know how to care for a growing flower so that it blooms, and after that, new plants could be grown from its seeds.
Find out why hippeastrum doesn't bloom and what to do at home.
Temperature and humidity
Since these flowers come from warm countries, the temperature must be maintained at 22 ° C. Hippeastrum can survive wintering at such temperatures.
The air humidity level in room conditions without special means is difficult enough to determine and control, therefore for this type it will be enough to use a spray gun to humidify the air as necessary.
Watering and feeding
These two processes depend on the process of vegetation and flowering. During vegetation, watering is lower and not plentiful, fertilizer with mineral fertilizers, or humus once every 2-3 weeks. When flowering, watering is also lower, but plentiful, you need to fertilize with special tools for flowering plants. They can also be cleaned with a damp sponge from dust and to moisturize.
Many are interested in the question of when to prune a plant, and whether to prune it at all. It is necessary to prune both the leaves and the flower stalk of the plant, but in both cases it must be done as carefully as possible and with complete dryness of the parts of the flower.
Important! Premature cutting of the leaves of the hippeastrum can lead to depletion of the bulb and the plant will dry out.
To do this, you can use any scissors, or a knife of a suitable size.
It is necessary to transplant the flower every 3-4 years, immediately before the dormant period. One of the key factors is the pot, you need to choose the right size so that from the end of the bulb to the walls is no more than 2 cm.
To transplant the plant, you can use transhipment technology - the plant, together with leaves and a lump of earth, is pulled out by turning the pot over and then placed in a new larger pot.
The earth must be disinfected and fertilized, it is necessary to make drainage and combine: sand, earth and humus.
The reproduction of these flowers occurs in several ways, each of which has its own characteristics.
For propagation by seeds, it is necessary to conduct pollination as described above in the article, after which standard seed planting can be carried out.
Important! Artificial pollination of seeds is mandatory for the formation of a plant in the future; without it, it cannot germinate.
In order to divide the onion it is necessary:
- cut leaves with the top of the bulb;
- divide the onion into 4 parts;
- stick 6-7 cm long plastic knitting needles in it, this is done so that the bulb does not grow back together.
After watering and feeding the bulb as a normal plant. A year later, in the spring, you can divide the bulb and plant its parts in different pots.
When and how to send hippeastrum to rest?
From September to early January, there comes a time called peace for the flower. If the plant was on the street, then it is brought into the house, if it was in the house, then placed in a darker place. Gradually reduce the watering until the plants completely dry, after they cut the stem, turn the plant on its side and leave it for a period of rest in a dark place, without touching.
Features of care during flowering
Hyperastrum may not bloom if:
- the pot is small for him;
- the bulb is planted very deep;
- after the previous flowering, the peduncle remained;
- there was no rest period.
There are several tricks that the plant still bloomed:
- before planting, it is necessary to lower the bulb into the water for several hours at a temperature of 40 ° C;
- in August, stop completely watering before the beginning of January, after a period of rest, the plant will bloom;
- in July, it is necessary to remove all leaves and not deprive of watering for a month, after watering with mineral fertilizer.
After flowering, it is imperative to provide the plant with a period of rest.
Pests and diseases
In general, these flowers are not particularly susceptible to diseases, as well as various pests, but there are 2 most popular problems:
- Spider mite . It must be removed manually with a sponge, which will be moistened in a solution of Karbofos, or alcohol.
- Red rot on the bulbs . It is necessary to pay special attention when buying bulbs, since even slight red stripes are already dangerous for the plant. Upon detection, it is necessary to cut off all the infected parts of the bulb and roots, and then, using the “Fundazole” solution, treat all the “wounds” of the flower. You can also use "Fludioxonil", in a solution of which the whole bulb is soaked.
If you cultivate the soil and seeds of the plant, then these problems can be avoided.