Features of the cultivation and care of cherries Chermashnaya
Cherries Chermashnaya - a variety with an unusual type of berries and many advantages. For this reason, it is very popular among Russian gardeners. If you decide to plant this type of cherry on the site, first study the subtleties of its cultivation. About the rules of planting and tree care, read below.
Breeding History and Breeding Region
Chermashnaya cherries were bred by the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. Maternal grade - Leningrad yellow. Chermashnaya was bred by seeding from free pollination. The list of originators includes Kh. K. Enikeev, A. I. Evstratov and N. G. Morozova.
Did you know? In Latin, the cherry is called Prunus avium, which translates as "bird plum". The variety was zoned in 2004 for cultivation in the Central region of the Russian Federation.
Chermashnaya cherry has a remarkable appearance of fruits. Before planting, you need to know about the yield and pollinators of the variety.
Appearance Chermashnaya cherries
Trees grow 4.5–5 m high. The crown is elongated-rounded, the main branches grow at right angles to the trunk. The foliage of the tree is average. The leaf plates have a green color with a glossy sheen. The shape of the leaves is oval-pointed.
The fruits are distinguished by a yellow color. The weight of one berry is 3-5 g. The pulp is soft and juicy in structure. The skin is thin. The stone is round; it is easily separated from the pulp. The taste is sweet, with a slight acidity.
Fruiting begins 3-4 years after planting a tree. In the early years, farmers harvest 11–13 kg of fruit from a single plant. The crop yield during mass cultivation is 15–23 tons per 1 ha of plantings.
The variety refers to self-infertile. Without pollination, trees will not bear fruit. To obtain a crop near the plantations, it is necessary to plant pollinating varieties. These include:
- Chocolate girl;
- Bryansk pink;
- Leningrad black;
Advantages and disadvantages
Chermashnaya sweet cherry has both advantages and disadvantages.
- Among the advantages of the variety:
- cold resistance;
- fast ripening;
- profuse bearing;
- high taste;
- resistance to moniliosis and coccomycosis.
- The disadvantages of gardeners are:
- the need for pollination;
- cracking of the peel with waterlogging;
- poor keeping quality.
Features of cultivation and care
Depending on the climate and the desire of the farmer, cherries can be planted in April or October. In addition, pay attention to the following details of planting and caring for the crop.
Choosing a place and planting material
Before planting, select the site suitable for the variety, the optimal indicators of which are:
- a small hill so that during the rainy season there is no stagnation of water;
- loamy or sandy loamy soil;
- soil acidity of about 6.5 pH;
- groundwater location not higher than 1.5 m to the ground level.
- Dig a plot to a depth of 20 cm.
- When digging, add 20 kg of compost, 180 g of phosphorus and 120 g of potash top dressing.
- Dig a landing pit 1 m wide and 0.9 m deep.
- Mix the top layer of the soil from the pit with a bucket of compost, 80 g of potash and 200 g of phosphate top dressing.
- Pour the resulting nutrient mixture into the landing pit and tamp.
- Prepare a solution of 450 g of lime and a bucket of water.
- Pour the mortar into the bottom of the planting pit.
An important stage when planting cherries is the choice of a seedling. Planting material must meet the following criteria:
- age 1 or 2 years;
- straight trunk;
- the bark is not damaged, without rot and plaque;
- 3-4 branches are present;
- holistic rhizome 30–35 cm long;
- in the root system, 3-4 basic roots;
- root processes on a section are white.
Agricultural technology planting a seedling consists of the following steps:
- Form a small mound at the bottom of the landing pit.
- Drive a wooden stake up to 1.5 m high at a distance of 15 cm from the center point of the pit.
- Place the seedling in the hole and spread the roots on the knoll.
- Fill the hole with soil so that the root neck is 5 cm above the ground.
- Form a trunk circle with a diameter of 0.5 m.
- Pour the plant with 3 buckets of water under the trunk.
- Mulch the soil with sawdust or peat.
- Tie the barrel to the stake.
Watering and feeding
In the first year after planting, the seedling is watered every 2 weeks. In subsequent years, the plant is irrigated four times during the growing season:
- at the time of opening of the kidneys;
- 2 weeks after flowering;
- 14-21 days before mass bearing;
- Before the onset of frost, conduct pre-winter water-loading irrigation.
The first 2 years to fertilize the plant is not necessary. Sweet cherry enough replenishment made during landing. Further, before the fruiting begins, the trees are fed twice: in May and June. Both times urea is added to the soil in an amount of 20 g per 1 m² of soil.
After the beginning of fruiting, the culture is fertilized three times a year. Under one trunk make:
- at the beginning of the growing season in the spring - 150 g of urea;
- in September - 100 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g of superphosphate;
- in November - 4 buckets of compost and 500 g of ash.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The formation of the crown and preventive pruning is carried out in the spring before the start of the growing season. Skeletal branches are formed in three tiers according to the following principle:
- In the second year of the tree’s life, 4–5 skeletal branches of the lower tier are left. They should be at the level of 0.6-0.7 m from the ground. The optimal distance between the branches is 20 cm. The remaining branches are shortened by half the length so that the conductor trunk is 15 cm above them.
- In the third year, the skeletal branches of the lower tier are left and 2–3 skeletal branches of the second tier are determined. A distance of 0.9 m should be maintained between the tiers. Non-skeletal shoots are cut a third of the length so that the conductor trunk is 20 cm above them.
- In the fourth year, two lower skeletal tiers are left and the upper one is formed. It should rise 0.9 m above the middle tier. The conductor trunk should be shortened so that it is no higher than 20 cm from the upper tier.
- In the fifth year, the conductor is cut into a ring, non-skeletal growths cut to half length.
Chermashnaya cherries are cold-resistant, but trees should be prepared for winter. At the end of autumn, gardeners:
- lime trunks;
- the stubs are wrapped with spruce branches or netting to protect against rodents;
- cover plants with burlap or agrofiber.
Pest and Disease Control
Chermashnaya sweet cherry is subject to a number of diseases and pests. To save the tree, the disease should be identified in time and resort to the necessary measures.
Among the common diseases are:
- Cystoporosis From the disease helps the drug "Abiga-Peak." For processing, 75 g of the concentrate is diluted in 8 l of water.
- Kleasterosporiosis . For treatment, two treatments are carried out with Bordeaux liquid at a concentration of 1% - immediately after flowering and after 21 days.
- Bacteriosis The disease is not treatable. The plant should be uprooted and burned. Dig the trunk circle and disinfect with a 1% manganese solution.
Of the pests for culture are dangerous:
- slimy sawfly ;
- pipe driver ;
- aphids .
Harvesting and storage of crops, transportability
Technical ripeness of the fruit occurs by the end of June. Harvest can be harvested when the berries become yellow, and the stalk remains green.
You will be interested to know how to distinguish cherries from cherries.
Among the characteristics of berries - juicy pulp and thin peel. Such fruits are unsuitable for long-distance transportation. Long storage is also undesirable.
The popularity of Chermashnaya is justified by many of its advantages. In order to consistently receive a large number of crops, put into practice the agrotechnical recommendations mentioned above.