Features of cultivation and botanical description of the Svarog pear variety
Svarog pears are popular among gardeners and consumers who choose early ripening from autumn varieties. What is their relevance, what are the features of this type of pears and how to get a decent harvest - you can learn in more detail from the article.
Description of Svarog pear variety
Svarog appeared in the late 60s as a result of the efforts of Siberian breeders to cross the Ussuri pear and the French variety Bere Bosk. The variety in question is autumn, it can be harvested at the very beginning of the season.
The pear tree does not grow very tall, although on average its height reaches 3–3.5 m. The dense crown in the upper part is slightly rounded. The bark of the tree has a gray-brown color and a characteristic permanent peeling. Shoots of an arcuate shape, since their ends are slightly lowered, they are painted in brown, shades of chestnut color.
The sheet plate is in the form of a small ellipse with helical sections at the top of the sheet. The surface has slight wrinkled areas and slight pubescence. The flowering is self-infertile, on the flowers of medium size with 5 petals there are no anthers, the ovary is fused. Fruits of a conical shape have an average size, their mass is about 80 g.
The peel is glossy, matte. The color of the fruits is green at the time of ripe maturity, and the fruits are ready to be consumed when they turn yellow with a slight touch of red. Seeds of large size, dark, closed in the chamber. The peduncle has an average size.
The taste of the fruit is pleasant, sweet and sour. However, this characteristic of the crop largely depends on the growing conditions: in hot summer pears become sweeter, and if the growing season was rainy, the fruits become watery and become more fresh. The pulp has a cream color. Excellent presentation makes the variety popular and its choice for growing for sale.
- The advantages of Svarog include:
- resistance to very cold and early winters that occur in the region where the variety was bred - in Siberia;
- regular and plentiful harvest;
- presentation and the possibility of long-term storage - up to 3 months from the date of removal from the tree;
- pleasant taste;
- the variety is not prone to shedding, rotting or deterioration.
- The disadvantages of Svarog include:
- strong thickening of the crown, which makes it necessary to carry out regular trimming;
- not very large fruit size;
- self-fertility, and therefore, dependence on pollinating trees;
- sensitivity to drought and excessive moisture.
Did you know? Despite the fact that most varieties of pears have juicy flesh, their use in food helps strengthen tooth enamel. The thing is that the fruits contain a large number of such trace elements useful for teeth as phosphorus and calcium.
Svarog has resistance to a large number of pests, as well as to fungal diseases and pathogenic bacteria. The variety is characterized by stable crops, the average volume of which, subject to agricultural cultivation techniques, averages 19 kg per tree and 10.9 tons per hectare.
Harvested from 4-5 years after planting a pear tree. The collection season falls on the end of September - mid-October, because in the northern regions where Svarog was bred, frosts can already begin at this time. Then the fruits should lie down a bit and reach maturity. You can store them for up to 3 months in a cool room or refrigerator.
How to plant a tree on the site
In order for the landing to succeed, it must be carried out correctly - while paying attention to such points:
- choosing a place where the fruit tree will grow;
- selection of quality and suitable seedlings.
Site selection and land preparation
For growing pears, secluded and hidden from the wind sections of the garden with a sufficient amount of sunlight are suitable. It is optimal to arrange trees near the house or utility room, the walls of which can protect the tree from strong gusts of wind.
Important! You can not plant pears in places with a close occurrence of groundwater.
In the place of planting, groundwater should not be closer than 2-3 m to the surface, since the soil can be too wet, which can negatively affect the root system and even lead to its decay. Svarog can be grown in any region, but it is worth noting that this variety is successfully cultivated in the northern regions.
How to choose the right seedlings
The choice of planting material is an important point in the process of which it is necessary to pay attention to such qualities of seedlings:
- The size of the root system - it should be dense and well developed, which will contribute to good tree growth.
- Height - the optimal size can be called 70 cm or more.
- Age - should be no more than 2 years.
- When viewed on its surface, there should be no damage, deformation, spots that may indicate damage by pests or diseases.
How to prepare and plant seedlings on the site
Before proceeding directly to the planting process, it is recommended that seedlings be prepared, which involves:
- removal of damaged rhizomes;
- soaking them in a talker made on heteroauxin.
Read more about how to plant pear seedlings in the fall.
Next, you should prepare the landing pit. This process must be attended to in advance, a few weeks before planting a seedling, which will contribute to the compaction of the topsoil.
A hole is dug with a size of about 80-100 cm in diameter and 60-80 cm deep. Organic fertilizers are added to the soil - at the rate of about 8 kg per 1 tree.
Agricultural technology planting pears:
- In the landing pit, it is necessary to form an earthen hill from prepared and fertilized soil.
- A seedling is placed on an earthen embankment and its rootstock is straightened.
- A peg is driven into the landing pit, which will serve as a support for the tree. Its height should be about 40 cm.
- The root neck should be 6 cm above the ground.
- The rhizome is covered with earth, which is then lightly compacted.
- It is necessary to organize a hole for watering (40 cm in diameter) - this will make it possible to moisturize in a more gentle way for the tree. After planting, 4–5 buckets of water are poured into it.
- After watering, it is necessary to fertilize the seedling with humus and mulch the planting site with peat to preserve moisture.
Features of further care
After planting, the seedling needs care, the features of which are watering, fertilizing and pruning the tree. After 2 weeks after the planting procedure, you need to repeat watering.
Important! With insufficient watering and the absence of regular fertilizer application, the crop may turn out to be of lower quality, since the taste of pears will not be so good.
Pruning is done for sanitary and decorative purposes. First of all, dry and damaged branches are removed, and a strongly thickened crown is thinned out.
Within a year after planting a seedling, it needs a large amount of moisture. Accordingly, watering is carried out every week, not allowing the soil to dry out. Further, the root system can already independently receive moisture from the lower layers of the soil.
Take a closer look
When the tree enters the fruiting phase, it needs phosphorus-potassium top dressing, which will help improve the taste of the fruits and their juiciness.
At the end of fruiting, the plant needs to restore strength - the soil is fertilized with ammonium nitrate. It will also help prepare the pear for the winter season.
Pest and Disease Control
The preservation of the tree from the influence of pests and diseases significantly affects its healthy growth and productivity. To protect the pear from insects, it is necessary to apply a layer of lime mortar on its trunk, as well as to produce its earthing up.
Pear Svarog is influenced by:
- pear butterfly moths . To remove it is necessary to remove dead bark and set traps;
- aphids, which are used to control such chemicals as Rovikurt, Karbofos, Nitrofen;
- Weevil beetle, the struggle with which is to collect and burn damaged foliage twisted into a tube, and then treat the tree with Nitrofen solution.
Svarog can suffer from a disease such as viral bacteriosis, in which the color of the trunk and leaves of the tree changes.
The process of preparing this winter-hardy variety for cold weather is not very complicated.
It is important to remember the need:
- to spud a tree to maintain heat;
- fertilizing under the root. For these purposes, it is recommended to use ammonium nitrate, which will positively affect the root system and prepare it for frosts.
Did you know? Pear is an excellent natural remedy for motion sickness. Since ancient times, seafarers absorbed slices of these fruits during heavy rolling at sea, and their well-being improved.
It should be noted that the variety Svarog is able to tolerate a decrease in temperature well to the level of –30 ° C. Thus, Svarog is an excellent option for growing in the northern regions, but can also be successfully grown everywhere. Pear has excellent taste and good presentation, long shelf life, which, of course, is the key to its relevance.