Features of the care and reproduction of gloxinia at home
Gloxinia, a representative of the Genseriev family, came to Europe in the 18th century from tropical America and immediately attracted flower growers due to its original bell-shaped flowers. Nowadays, many flower growers want to get this plant, the benefit of breeding it is quite simple. Gloxinia breed in a variety of ways. The nuances of each method will be discussed in the article. Did you know? In the XVIII century, the Swedish king Charles II proposed the use of the original language of flowers. On it, gloxinia signified: " love at first sight . "
The basic rules for growing gloxinia
A tropical flower in its natural habitat is used to living according to a specific biorhythm, so that at home he feels great, you need to follow some rules for growing it:
- Indoor flower gloxinia has distinct periods of wakefulness and dormancy. At rest, its tuber should be placed in a dark place at a temperature of about 10 ° C, not lower.
- Gloxinia should be awakened gradually. For this, it is planted in fresh land and well irrigated.
- The earth must be loose, nutritious, drained.
- During the growing season, the flower is in great need of weekly top dressing.
- Watering is done only through the pan, since gloxinia does not like when its roots are bridged.
- After the end of the first phase of flowering, the plant needs to be pruned, leaving several lower leaves, so that the second phase of flowering begins.
- In autumn, when the last leaf dies, gloxinia is hidden in a dark place for the winter.
Methods of plant propagation at home
At home, gloxinia propagated by cuttings, leaves, peduncles, tubers and seeds. Which way to choose, each grower decides for himself, as some methods require special skills.
You will also be interested to read about the features of care and reproduction of royal geraniums at home.
Leaf propagation is the easiest and most common way. Even the most inexperienced florist can handle it.
- First you need to select a leaf on the plant and cut it along the thick veins. The sheet must not be selected the largest and not the smallest; Moreover, the plant should not be faded. It is better to cut the gloxinia during the formation of the buds. Important! The selected sheet must be cut with the sharpest object, best with a blade, so that its parts do not rot.
- A leaf stalk is partially cut off; two centimeters are left.
- If during these manipulations the leaflet has lost its elasticity, it must be immersed in boiled water at a temperature of 25 ° C.
- Then each fragment should be put in a glass with earth and sprinkled a little at the base.
- From above, the fragments are covered with cups for a month until the roots appear.
Video: Propagation of gloxinia with leafy cuttings
This is a rather disadvantageous method, since the appearance of the sprouts needs to wait much longer than in the previous case. Usually, breeders, or those who wish to preserve all the species qualities of a flower, propagate gloxinia seeds.
Seeds can be purchased at the flower shop. It is advisable to give preference to granular seed. Together with it, you can purchase special greenhouses if you do not want to do them yourself.
It’s easy to build them yourself:
- Need a deep container with a lid. Moistened peat tablets are laid out in it, onto which granules are poured.
- Holes are made in the lid for ventilation.
- The tank goes to a bright warm place with a temperature of 23 ° C. Humidification is carried out as needed.
Video: How to plant gloxinia seeds
Tuber propagation should be resorted to only as a last resort, when there are no other options, or the plant urgently needs to be saved, since this method is extremely traumatic for the flower.
The step-by-step recipe for this procedure is as follows:
- A tuber is selected: elastic, large (d≈6 cm), whole.
- Carefully inspected for illness and rot. Affected areas are removed.
- It is cut into two parts and each is treated with coal (disinfection). Each part of the tuber must necessarily have a shoot of about 2 cm and a kidney.
- Tubers are planted in a cup with moistened soil.
This method is similar in simplicity and effectiveness to leaf propagation. Usually it is used when there are few leaves on gloxinia, and the plant needs to be propagated. A flower stalk with freshly withered flowers is cut from the plant. He should have a stalk 5-6 cm in length. It is immersed in water, 1 cm, and waiting for the appearance of roots. Then transplanted into the prepared land.
Did you know? The genus gloxinia got its name in honor of the German botanist Benjamin Peter Gloxin, who studied the plants of this family.
For propagation, you can cut off the top of the plant with several leaves and a three-centimeter petiole. It is better to cut it off from a healthy bush, for which there was good care.
- The resulting stalk is planted in a pot with a diameter of 9 centimeters, filled with a loose substrate. At the bottom of the tank, it is necessary to pour a layer of drainage.
- The future flower deepens into the moist earth by two centimeters.
- The soil is slightly compacted so that the stalk can be in a pot in an upright position.
- From above, the pot is covered with a glass or bag, and sent to a warm, illuminated place.
- From time to time the sapling is aired and irrigated from the spray gun.
Important! When moistening the cuttings, moisture should not fall on its foliage.
Features breeding gloxinia
Existing features in flower breeding are associated with periods of growth and dormancy of the plant.
Summer and spring is the time when the plant wakes up from hibernation and begins to grow actively. During this period, it blooms, actively building up green mass. Therefore, if you decide to propagate gloxinia, it is best to do this at a given time interval. Then the rooting and emergence of young shoots will occur as quickly as possible.
With the advent of autumn, the flower hibernates. All its processes are slowed down, so you do not need to disturb it. You should remove the foliage, leaving a stump, and put it in a cool place. All other manipulations must be postponed.
At the end of winter, around January-February, the flower wakes up, the first shoots appear. The tuber should be immediately planted in fresh soil, placed in a bright, warm place and watered abundantly. With the beginning of the growing season, you can carry out the division of the plant tubers.
Two weeks after the flower has been planted, it is fed for the first time with nitrogen and potassium-phosphorus mixtures.
Learn also how and how to feed indoor plants at home.
Preparing for a flower transplant
Usually, when young shoots appear from the planted fragment, the “mother” leaf disappears. This indicates that the plant can be transplanted to a permanent place. It happens that the leaf does not fall off, then it needs to be cut off when transplanted. In other cases, the appearance of young shoots also signals that it is time to transplant the flower.
Gloxinia can grow in soil intended for violets, only it will need to add a baking powder like perlite. It is possible to prepare suitable soil on your own. For it, you will need three parts of leafy land (but not oak), three parts of peat and two parts of sand. The addition of humus (200 g per 5 l) will not hurt.
The pot is needed low, but wide, because the root system of the flower grows more to the sides than down. There must be drainage holes at its bottom.
Read more on how to plant indoor flowers in a pot.
A planted young flower needs careful care. First of all, it must be placed in a well-lit place. A flower needs daylight at 14 hours; the abundance of light will be indicated by the horizontally foliage of the plant.
In the room where gloxinia is located, there should be no drafts, it needs to provide heat and high humidity. During the rest period, the temperature should be lowered to 10 ° C and stop watering and fertilizing.
In the spring-summer period, you need to moisten the plant through a pallet, or water it along the edge of the pot. Water needs to use room temperature. A flower is irrigated only when the topsoil has dried up. At the end of summer, the frequency of watering should be reduced so that the plant goes into a dormant state.
Fertilizers are applied once a week and a half; A special complex for decorative flowering plants is used.
Every spring, a flower needs a transplant. Tubers need only be half deepened.
We recommend reading how to properly and when to transplant indoor plants.
Possible breeding difficulties
Gloxinia is often attacked by various diseases and pests.
The most common are:
- Gray rot. It occurs due to non-compliance with the rules of care, manifests itself as brown spots on the foliage. Before starting the fight against misfortune, the affected leaves are removed, and then fungicides are treated.
- Root rot. The roots affected by the disease acquire a brown color, and the stem in the basal zone begins to rot. This is due to an excess of moisture or the use of cold water for irrigation. The fight is conducted similarly to the previous case.
- Powdery mildew, black skin, late blight. This group of diseases is better to prevent than to combat them. For prophylactic purposes, Phytosporin treatment is performed. If the disease has already attacked, then "Fundazol" is used.
- Cyclamen mites. These pests are difficult to detect; to guess their presence is possible only by changing the appearance of the plant. Its leaves begin to deform and thicken, the tops of the shoots dry out, the buds wither prematurely. You can save a flower like this: remove all damaged parts and immerse it in water with a temperature of 40–45 ° С for a quarter of an hour. You need to submerge the entire gloxinia in the water, along with the pot. Then, for two or three days, the flower hides in a dimly lit warm place.
- Thrips. Their presence is indicated by bright spots on the foliage. Such a plant urgently needs to be transplanted into fresh soil and a new pot, having previously removed all diseased leaves. Then treat with insecticides.
In addition to diseases and pests, such situations can cause problems for gardeners with the growth of gloxinia:
- foliage turned yellow and opal (most likely, the plant is watered too often and there is not enough nitrogen in the soil);
- leaves curl up (low humidity);
- foliage is folded and flowers appear on small pedicels (humidity is too high);
- leaves darken and fade during active growth (the root system rots due to active watering);
- the plant does not bloom (insufficient lighting, low temperature, a lot of nitrogen in the soil).
It is not difficult to propagate gloxinia: in one growing season, you can turn your windowsill into a blooming greenhouse. The main thing in the process of reproduction is to act carefully and according to the rules. Then the young plant will not only take root, but will soon delight you with a beautiful color.