Features of care and cultivation of cherries Orlovskaya amber
Many gardeners would like to grow Orlovskaya amber cherry. To do this, you should familiarize yourself with the history of its selection, the description and the main characteristics of the variety, the peculiarities of the purchase of seedlings, as well as their planting and further care.
At the beginning of the XXI century, in 2001, scientists-breeders from Ukraine decided to develop a new variety that bears fruit in the early stages. They became a hybrid of cherries, which was called "Oryol Amber." Research work on the cultivation of yellow cherries with large berries was carried out in Ukraine (National Botanical Garden named after Grishko of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev).
Did you know? He brought cherries to Europe in 680 BC. e. general Lucullus. Earlier, the berries were grown in the city of Giresun, located on the peninsula of Asia Minor.
For crossing, they took already known varieties - Gaucher black and Drogana yellow. The purpose of the scientific experiment and research is to obtain a hybrid of a new variety of cherries of this variety (high-yielding, winter-hardy fruit and berry culture). As a result of the experiment, gardeners were able to plant and obtain high yields of a new variety of yellow cherries.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Sweet cherry Orlovskaya amber is an early ripe fruit crop, the height of an adult tree of which reaches 4 meters. The peculiarity of this variety is the color of the berries. So, the usual cherry color is pinkish or red, and this variety has an amber-yellow hue.
From around June 10, gardeners can already harvest. It is quite well adapted to weather changes. Berries successfully ripen both in hot dry season and in rainy season. The peel is not prone to cracking. Exposure to moisture is almost zero.
The crown of this variety is a fruit tree of medium density, sprawling and slightly elevated. Its size is slightly larger than average. The shape of the crown is pyramidal and raised upward, thickening is medium, and the branches are slightly drooping. The main shoots are of medium length, bare, straight, not pubescent.
Important! Such cherries do not tolerate loneliness and its productivity requires the presence of nearby pollinating trees. Nearby should grow other fruit flowering and at the same time self-fertile varieties.
The bark on the trunk and main branches is dull, grayish in color. Oval leaf, emerald. Petioles are 4.5–5 mm long and 2.8 mm thick. It blooms with lush white inflorescences. Fruits in the so-called "bouquet" branches and fruit twigs.
Ripe amber-yellow berries, heart-shaped in shape, weighing approximately 3.6 g with a pointed tip. Near the petiole, the shape is slightly rounded. The pulp is dense, juicy, sweet, without sourness. Sugar content in ripe berries is not more than 10%, and acid - not more than 0.5%. The smell is aromatic, the juice is light. The berry is slightly larger than average and weighs approximately 5.5–6 g.
The advantage of yellow cherries is that its fruits do not attract birds. They do not peck ripe berries, which allows you to save the crop. The bone mass is 0.2 g (average size), which is 5.6% of the specific gravity of the fetus. In ripe berries, it is quite well separated from the pulp.
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From mid-June, gardeners begin to harvest. Approximately 33–35 kg of ripe berries can be obtained annually from one tree. Thus, the yield will be 80–120 kg / ha. On the 4th season, after the seedlings are planted in the ground at a permanent place, the tree begins to bear fruit. Already in the second half of May, buds appear on the branches. Harvesting falls on the period from the second half of June to the second half of July.
This sweet cherry variety has maximum frost resistance and a high biological potential for winter hardiness. Generative kidneys are not damaged by frost at -20 ° C. This variety can be grown in many regions with different climates (short summers, cold winters). However, wintering a tree can be bad and give shoots higher than the vaccination, so it will not be superfluous to fall asleep in the roots of trees in frost with snow.
Important! The most harmful effect on the stability of the Oryol Amber Cherry is caused by severe frosts in the middle of winter, as well as spring frosts after thaws.
Each gardener would like to regularly receive a good harvest of Orlovskaya amber cherries. Observing the rules of its landing and taking into account the technology of further care, you can get the desired result.
How to choose the best seedlings when buying
Before purchasing a cherry seedling, check with the seller if this variety is suitable for growing in your area. 2-3-year-old seedlings are worth buying, it is they who are able to adapt to new growth conditions. The root system of planting material should not have physical damage and signs of dryness. It is necessary to give preference to seedlings with a large number of branches, making it easier to form a tree crown in the future.
Preparatory work before landing
To root the growth of young seedlings, it is imperative to carry out preliminary work, which consists of choosing the place of planting of the plant in the soil and preparing the material itself.
Did you know? The calorie content of 100 g of sweet cherry is 52 kcal. But after you weld it, this indicator will increase to 87 kcal.
Preparation and site selection
Sweet cherry loves sunny places and fertile soils. Young plants do not need to be placed on windy areas of the garden and clay soils. But if you still have to plant the plant in clay soil, then it is recommended to add sand to it, and a small amount of humus in the planting pit.
When purchasing a seedling in a nursery, it must be taken into account that its length should not exceed 1 m. If the roots are overdried, it is recommended to put it in a container with water before planting.
Read the rules for planting cherry seedlings in spring.
After examining the root system, make sure that all dry roots and damage are repaired. Next, the seedling is lowered into the solution from clay and water for several days, after which it is taken out and waiting to dry. Next, spreading the roots of the plant, it is necessary to place it in the planting pit, then sprinkle with soil and compact.
Direct cherry planting
Before planting a seedling in the ground at the bottom of the planting pit, the support column should be strengthened. In the center of the pit, the depth of which is 90 cm and the width is 75 cm, a hill should be made and the root system of the young seedling should be carefully straightened. After that, it is necessary to attach the young tree to the support and fill the seedling with soil, tamp it lightly.
Features of seasonal care
Variety Orlovskaya amber does not require special care, like all cherry. If you adhere to all the rules of agricultural farming, then you can get the maximum yield. It should be remembered that the variety is self-fertile, i.e., it is necessary to plant pollinating trees nearby. For this, varieties such as Vityaz, Severnaya and others are suitable.
Did you know? Cherry berries have a laxative effect on the human body. However, if you drink tea made from the branches and leaves of this tree, then you can quickly get rid of this symptom.
Sweet cherry negatively refers to weeds, therefore, the near-stem circle should be made with a diameter of 90 cm or more. The soil must be periodically weeded and weed control. Not in the third year of growth of a young tree, the near-stem circle is expanded by another 30-50 cm, while the soil should be mulched.
All fertilizers applied during planting will be enough for a young plant for the first time of growth. Top dressing should begin at the 4th year of plant life. In the spring, 60–80 g of urea must be added under each tree. As fertilizer should be used humus, diluted with water, in a ratio of 1: 8.
Read also about how to plant cherries on a cherry in the spring and in the summer.
In addition, it is recommended to introduce a special complex fertilizer for fruit trees in a proportion of 100 g per 1 bucket of warm water, as well as wood ash in a proportion of 1:10. Trees should be fed in a circle around the trunk, and not just under the trunk. Organics feed the soil every 3-4 years. In the first years of growth, the norm is 5–6 kg per 1 m², and during heavy fruiting - 8–10 kg 1 m².
In winter, the plant can be protected by a special artificial shelter, the frame of which is sheathed with special material (agrofibre, burlap). The lower part of the structure must be covered with soil. A protective frame protects the tree from small rodents and hares, and also retains heat inside the plant.
If the tree was still damaged by frost, then it should be treated with a 5% solution of iron sulfate or 3% copper. After treatment, all “wounds” are lubricated with garden var.
Cropping and shaping the crown
In order to avoid thickening of the crown, it is recommended to trim it, since a thick one gives insignificant yields. Pruning the garden is carried out before the swelling of the kidneys. Also, in the spring, all dried and broken branches of the tree are removed, while the cuts are necessarily treated with wound treatment products or garden varieties, which will protect the trees from various fungal diseases. In order to avoid cracking of the tree bark in the spring and winter, it must be whitened.
Preventive treatment for diseases and pests
Fruit tree is susceptible to disease and insect attack. Thus, not only the entire crop may suffer, but also the trunk itself. The tree has a relatively normal degree of adaptation to fungal diseases (moniliosis and coccomycosis). Variety of cherries Orlovskaya amber is affected by white rust or cylindrosporiosis. It can also be attacked by a cherry fly.
Important! Despite the resistance to fungal diseases, it is necessary to timely process and treat winter damage to the bark, branches and the stem. They weaken the cherry, serve as a source for infections and can lead to infertility and death of the tree.
As preventive measures, the plant should be treated with special preparations. The first is carried out in the spring, before the juice begins to move, and the second - in the autumn. Urea is used for processing. To do this, dilute 700 g of fertilizer in 10 l of water. One adult tree is sprayed with this solution.
Harvesting and storage of crops
For better keeping quality and transportability of the crop, the fruits are picked at the stage of optimal ripeness, not bringing them to full ripening. Cherries for better storage are torn off with stalks. These fruits should be carefully placed in a container for storage, which can be used as boxes, containers, cans and other containers. The fruits deteriorate quickly, so they are stored only from a few days to two weeks.
Learn how to distinguish cherries from cherries.
Heat treatment of the berry does not allow it to save most vitamins, so it is better to eat it raw. This variety is suitable for freezing, drying, making candied fruit, stewed fruit, filling and jam. Each gardener would like to regularly receive a good harvest of Orlovskaya amber cherries. Observing the rules of its landing and taking into account the technology of further care, you can get the desired result.