Features apricot variety Alyosha
The traditional southern apricot culture, thanks to the work of breeders, is moving further and further to the northern regions. Gardeners got the opportunity to grow this fruit tree in the Central European part and get early harvests. This sort of apricot Alyosha will be discussed in this material.
Apricot variety Alyosha was obtained as a result of self-pollination of several generations of its own species. Authors - Skvortsov A.K. and Kramarenko L.A. brought him in 1988. In 2004, he passed state tests and was included in the State Register of the Russian Federation. The initiator is the Main Botanical Garden of Moscow.
Description and characteristics of fruits and tree
The diameter of the stem is up to 40 cm, which allows it to maintain the volume of the crown and the abundant yield of fruits. Bark on adult branches and brown trunk with longitudinal cracking. The leaves are green ovate, on a long stalk, 5–9 cm long and 4–8 cm wide, with a rounded base, pointed tip and a finely serrated edge. Did you know? Drawing ink is made from burnt apricot kernels, and musical instruments, such as the Armenian duduk, are made from wood wood.
Flower buds are laid on the growth of the current year on shoots of different lengths (5-50 cm). The flowers are large - up to 4 cm, five-petalled on short pedicels, single, fragrant, white with pale pink veins, sepals are red-pink . Flowers appear and bloom before the leaves. Surface roots are distributed at a depth of 30-60 cm, and the main part goes deep into 4-5 m.
Drupe fruits are small-fruited, one-dimensional, roundish, slightly flattened . Two halves are separated by a longitudinal groove. Weight 13–20 g. The diameter of the fruit is 3-4 cm. The main color of the fruit is yellow. On the side most exposed to the sun, with a touch of red. The pulp is yellow, cartilaginous - dense and elastic. The skin is velvety, dense. The stone is large (20% of the weight of the fetus), thick-walled, rough, easily separated from the pulp. The core is bitter.
Crown Height and Density
The fruit tree is fast-growing and medium-sized - height 3.5–4 m . Branching is average. Crohn at the beginning of growth panicled elevated, dense and well leafy. With age, the tree becomes rounded and spreading due to branchy shoots and the slope of the branches under the weight of the fruit.
Young growths are shiny, smooth and straight, reddish-brown, with numerous small tubercles. Shoots begin to grow very early and quickly - in a year, the growth of shoots is 50-60 cm.
Taste qualities of fruits
The taste is inferior to southern varieties, but it is moderately sweet and sour and juicy.
- dry matter - 13.2%;
- acids - 2%;
- sucrose - 8%.
Frost and drought resistance
Alyosha is a winter-hardy and frost-hardy variety and is recommended for cultivation in the Central European part of Russia, including the Moscow Region. In tolerance zones, he reveals to the maximum all his productive functions. In frosty winters (up to -30 ... -35 ° C), only 50% of the generative buds are damaged, which ensures the harvest in the next season.
Harvest of apricots in the middle lane depends not so much on minus winter temperatures, but on a sharp change in late thaw to a quick return to the regime with minus indicators, the so-called “swing”. These are the conditions that Alesha variety can withstand. Apricot can be considered a drought-tolerant crop - it tolerates well the lack of moisture in the soil and atmosphere.
Read about the features of the beneficial and unhealthy properties of apricot.
Pollinators and productivity
The variety is self-fertile . Pollen from other trees is not required for ovary formation. The variety itself is a good pollinator for other varieties simultaneously flowering with it.
The first seedling will bring the first crop in the third year. At first it can be only a few fruits, but with good agricultural technology during the period of full fruiting (from 5-6 years), 30-50 kg can be obtained from each tree. Fruiting is regular.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- early ripening;
- winter hardiness;
- mixed fruiting (ovaries form on all types of shoots);
- a variety of early, self-fertile and fruitful;
- dry fruit separation;
- does not require complex agricultural activities;
- adapted for cultivation in difficult soil and climatic conditions;
- keeping quality up to 2 weeks while maintaining commercial qualities;
- universal use;
- due to dense pulp withstands transportation.
- large bone;
- low taste;
- shedding of fruit during ripening;
- low resistance to harmful lesions.
Features of planting apricot
Apricot seedlings are often sold in the fall, but planting is better to do in the spring. Seedlings bought in the fall can be stored in the basement or greenhouse, after tearing off all the leaves and placing the roots in moist soil or sand. The soil is kept in a wet state, avoiding waterlogging.
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Recommended pick-up dates
Apricot is a heat-loving culture and it is better to plant seedlings in the spring before the buds swell, so that during the vegetation period, which lasts 6 months, the tree has managed to take root and strengthen. Already in August, the apricot leaves in a period of deep dormancy. Autumn planting is possible only in regions with mild winters and should be carried out no later than October and provided that the soil is not frost-bitten. In this case, the seedling must be provided with additional protection against frost.
Important! Flowers die off at temperatures below zero, so if there is a threat of late frost in your area, it is advisable to choose late flowering varieties.
Selection and preparation of a site for landing
Apricot prefers drained soil with moderate moisture. It develops well on chernozem, sandy loam and loamy soils with a well-permeable structure. Such soils warm well and are moisture- and breathable. The permeability of the soil is important throughout the depth of root germination. The presence of heavy clay layers prevents the development of deep roots and inhibits plant growth. In addition, stagnation of water is observed in such soils, which leads to browning and death of the cortex at the root neck.
Soil composition can be adjusted independently by adding organic fertilizers to infertile sandy soil, and heavy soil can be lightened with a large amount of sand or foliage. The soil should be well cultivated and loose; dig the area allocated for landing twice. Remove all perennial weeds that may compete with apricot for nutrients. Apricot trees do not feel well in swampy and excessively moist soil.
The site should be selected well-lit by the sun during the day (increased lighting requirements). The southern and southwestern slopes and elevated locations are well suited. In shaded areas, growing branches with fruit buds may die - trees grow old, the quantity and quality of the crop decreases. The risk of pathogenic diseases is increased. Find out why the apricot tree does not bear fruit. The place must be protected from the north winds, which dry out the wood, which entails the appearance of frost holes and a decrease in winter hardiness. Apricots can be planted under the protection of buildings, fences or trees of barriers.
Planting apricots is a snap if you follow the following instructions:
- Prepare a planting pit large enough so that the tree can take root. Apricots grow vigorously and have a larger root system than other trees. The diameter of surface soil roots is 2 times the crown projection.
- On the eve of the planned planting, the dug pit should be well moistened and dug in the center of the stake to garter the seedling. This will provide stability in high winds.
- Set the seedling to the same depth at which it grew in the nursery. Carefully spread the roots.
- Fill the pit with a mixture of garden soil, peat and humus.
- Position the root neck 5–10 cm above the ground, taking into account the subsidence of the earth after irrigation. The roots should be covered with a layer of soil of at least 5 cm.
- Water the tree. This will lead to subsidence of the soil around the roots, displace any air pockets and ensure close contact of the roots with the soil.
- On the edge of the seat, make a side out of the ground (water ring) so that water is kept near the tree during irrigation.
- It is desirable to mulch the trunk circle to preserve moisture, which is especially valuable for apricots. This will protect against possible frosts and reduce weed growth.
- The distance between seedlings should be 3.5–4 m, row spacing - 5-6 m.
Further tree care
Caring for an apricot tree is not too complicated and consists of timely watering, top dressing, soil care and prevention of harmful lesions. To increase the quality and size of fruits, thinning of fruits and ovaries can be carried out. Thinning fruits at a distance of 3.5-5 cm from each other, which guarantees an increase in the size of apricots.
Apricot does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, but with a lack of moisture, absorbent roots are poorly formed, shoots grow poorly and the tree discards the ovaries. Therefore, the watering regime should be optimal and is carried out depending on the precipitation. Important! During irrigation, the crowns of trees should not be wetted to prevent the spread of fungal infections .
Despite the fact that Alyosha is considered a drought-tolerant species, it responds well to irrigation in the following development phases in the absence of precipitation and melt water:
- before flowering (10-12 days);
- during the period of hardening of the seeds and active growth of the fruit;
- after harvesting in mid-August in the phase of formation of fruit buds of the future crop (one irrigation).
After irrigation, the soil moisture should reach 75%, at a depth of 60 cm, which corresponds to the norms of water consumption - 50 l per 1 m². Excessive irrigation or heavy rainfall during the ripening period causes cracking of the fruit. 2 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped. Watering in the fall in preparation for winter increases the frost resistance of wood and flower buds.
Apricot trees require nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus for good growth and fruiting. They usually get these substances from the soil, while it provides nutrition to apricot trees.
The fertilizer application is as follows:
- in the spring, under the digging of tree trunks, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied;
- during the formation of ovaries and fruit pouring - complex (NPK), potash fertilizers (potassium salts, superphosphate), water-soluble fertilizers are combined with irrigation;
- in the fall, in preparation for winter - phosphate fertilizers for digging, compost in trunks;
- organic fertilizing in the form of uncomposted manure (5-6 kg per 1 m²) is done every 3-4 years, taking into account the existing level of nutrients in the soil.
The use of too much nitrogen (number "N") causes an abundant increase in leaf mass to the detriment of the formation of fruits. It is necessary to increase the application rate of organic fertilizers on less fertile soils with a light structure (sandy loamy sand).
The preservation of the bark on the stem and skeletal branches is important for the fruit tree. To this end, trees are whitened in spring and autumn. Spring whitewashing will protect the trees from awakening insects in the spring and wanting to settle in the bark of the tree from pests - from ants, flower beetles.
Autumn whitewashing of a tree to a height of 1–1.5 m with lime mortars or white quick-drying, non-caustic paint protects trees from the cold and from strong heating in bright sunlight in spring in February-March. The cause of damage to the cortex during this period can be burns. Whitewashing can also delay the flowering of apricot, reducing the heating of the trunk and branches, and thereby protect the flowers from spring cooling.
Cropping and shaping
The purpose of forming the skeleton of an apricot tree is to create a strong and balanced crown that can hold high yields of fruits without damage. To do this, start cutting seedlings from the first years of growth. It is advisable to prune a newly planted apricot tree immediately after planting. The main conductor should be shortened by about a third of its current length, and only three side shoots should be left. This contributes to the formation of a crown of sufficient density.
In subsequent seasons, pruning is based on stimulating new strong fruiting and growth branches, where the fruit buds of the future crop are laid. To do this, shorten and cut the side shoots by 7-10 cm.
Spring pruning is done in early spring, given that the apricot juice movement begins immediately after the snow melts. Delay and pruning after the start of the growing season can lead to the active outflow of gum and, as a result, to the aging of the tree. Important! Apricot pruning in autumn should be done with caution in order to inflict as little damage to the tree as the slices during this period do not form a callus and do not have time to tighten, which means they remain open for infections. Pruning is carried out over the active growth of the shoot, focusing on creating a aligned crown and limiting the growth of the tree. Remove thickened areas, dried up and damaged by bad weather, increasing air circulation in the crown. The growth of slices during spring pruning is faster and better at the beginning of sap flow.
During autumn pruning, broken off during the summer are removed and the problematic (with signs of disease) branches are cut to healthy wood.
Diseases and Pests
Like most fruit trees, apricot trees are susceptible to many diseases and parasites that can damage the crop or completely destroy it. Alyosha variety has moderate resistance to kleasterosporiosis, and aphids were damaged up to 1%. There is no resistance to other lesions.
It is necessary to carefully examine not only apricot trees for damage, but also other fruit crops growing nearby. This is especially important during wet periods. For prophylaxis, planting preparations against fungal infections should be treated twice a season. The defeat of fungal infections, for example, moniliosis, can be confused with frostbite, but when frozen, the flowers fall, and with pathogenic lesions, flowers, leaves and fruits remain on the branches.
To prevent the disease, moniliosis and other fungal infections in spring, trees are sprayed with fungicides - a solution of Bordeaux fluid (1%), urea, iron and copper sulfate. Against harmful insects in the phase of kidney swelling and budding, insecticides are used - Fufafon, BI-58, Ditox, Pyrimix and others.
Preparations in accordance with the attached instructions should be applied to a dry crown and soil near a tree. They should be left without rinsing for several hours for maximum effectiveness. Processing is best done in the morning, not forgetting the precautions. Biostimulants (Zircon, Tsitovit, Epin) and timely nutrition with nutrients will help increase vitality and immunity to diseases . Only a strong and healthy tree can withstand diseases and pests.
For prevention, it is used:
- whitewashing of boles with lime solutions;
- installation of traps and glue belts;
- cleaning the territory of the garden and near-stem soil from weeds, young shoots and plant debris;
- cleaning of the bark, timely trimming of problem branches and treatment of wood damage;
- sowing plants that can protect fruit trees from chives and pests - chives, mullein, clover, mint, garlic, marigolds, fennel, red currants, etc.
When diseases and pests are detected, trees and soil are treated with insecticides and fungicides in accordance with the attached instructions.
Harvesting and storage
Harvested as it ripens in July-August . The removal is carried out upon reaching the fruits of consumer maturity. Overripe fruits fall off, so you should not miss the optimal time for harvesting. We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of apricot kernel application. For transportation, it is better to collect apricots 2-3 days before consumer maturity - the fruits remain dense, which improves the quality of transportation, and are able to ripen over time.
The best collection time is the morning after the dew has dried and the evening after 17 hours. Fruits harvested by dew and midday heat are worse stored. Fresh Alesha fruits are not intended for long-term storage. The shelf life of ripe fruits is 2–4 days at room temperature or 5–7 days in the refrigerator. Up to 2 weeks, you can save apricots in a room with a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° C and a humidity of 50-60% with moderate air circulation.
Did you know? Apricot has several names - “Armenian plum”, “fruit of health”. In India, he is considered a symbol of longevity, because the apricot tree lives more than 100 years.
Apricot Alyosha is perfect for growing in difficult climatic conditions, which makes it attractive for beginners and inexperienced gardeners. Apricot farming requires minimal knowledge, and an early harvest of wonderful sunny fruits will delight you and your loved ones.