Features of apricot cultivation Polessky large-fruited and caring for it

When choosing an apricot variety for planting on his own personal plot, the owner usually tries to find the most successful compromise between unpretentiousness and ease of care, yield and taste characteristics of fruits. An excellent choice in this regard can be the Polessky Krupnoplodny variety, which will be discussed in this review, however, we make a reservation right away, this tree is not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions.

Description apricot variety Polessky large-fruited

Apricot Polessky large-fruited was bred in 1964 by a group of scientists from the Institute of Horticulture of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences (the village of Novosyolki, Kiev region) by crossing two parent lines:

  • Polessky harvest, also related to the achievements of the Kiev selection;
  • high-grade 4345.

It is interesting that initially the new variety, which later became one of the most popular in Ukraine, was given the name Kitaevsky or variety No. 5528. However, in 1985 this apricot was included in the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Growing in Ukraine under its current name.

Did you know? Despite the fact that Polesie is strongly associated with Belarus, in reality this historical and geographical region is located on the territory of four states - Ukraine, Poland, Russia and Belarus.

Frost resistance of Polesye large-fruited corresponds to zones 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a and 7b. This means that the tree is able to withstand a temperature drop of -28.9ºС, so, from the point of view of regionalization, it is perfectly suitable for all regions of Ukraine - from Transcarpathia to Lugansk and from Chernigov to Odessa and Crimea.

Apricot tree Polessky large-fruited is distinguished by such characteristics:

  • growth force - high in the early years and gradually decreasing from the moment it enters the phase of active fruiting;
  • crown height and diameter - 4–5 m;
  • crown - spherical or round-elongated, strongly thickened and spreading;
  • barrel thickness - medium;
  • the bark is gray in color, with pronounced tuberosity, on the skeletal branches and trunk is darker than on younger branches;
  • shoots of the current year - brown or green with the presence of subcutaneous dots, cranked type;
  • buds - beige, located at an angle to the branch, large, grow in bunches of three pieces;
  • the leaves are large (6–9 cm), oval with a tapering tip and small teeth along the perimeter, the plate is smooth and thin, dark green on the front side, and whitish on the back;
  • petioles are long, dark green with a red tint;
  • flowers - light pink in size, large sizes (diameter up to 4 cm), with closed oval petals, a cup in the shape of a glass and a short green peduncle;
  • type of fruiting - on spears, bouquet branches and annual shoots.

The description of the fruits of the Polissya large-fruited variety is given in the table:

DimensionsVery large, weighing 35–55 g, sometimes up to 70–80 g
The formOval or round, slightly flattened, in some cases, a beak-like outgrowth is present in the upper part
SkinGolden orange with a pronounced blush, smooth, with a slight pubescence
PulpOrange or yellow, with a high content of juice, dense, cracking slightly when cracked, easily moves away from the bone
BoneSmall or medium sized, ribbed, flat and almost round; edible sweet core
TasteSweet and sour, tender
ScentPronounced, fruity
Tasting score on a five-point scale4.0–4.25
The content of sugar, acid and solids, %11.8 / 2.2 / 16.6

Large-fruited Polessky begins to bloom in April, earlier than many other fruit trees, the duration of the flowering period is 10 days. The period of mass harvesting begins in late July or early August.

The yield of the variety is very high: entering the fruiting phase in the third year of life, the seedling first gives a small amount of fruit, but after 3-4 years you can collect from 10 to 15 kg of fruit from one tree, after which these indicators gradually increase, reaching a few more years 50–55 kg, which for the apricot is a very worthy result.

Did you know? The word "apricot" has a complex etymology, rooted in ancient Rome, from where it fell into the Arabic language and only then - into the European and then into Russian, where it has been used since the XVIII century.

Another important characteristic of Polesie large-fruited is its high ability to self-pollination. The lack of need for additional planting of pollinators is especially attractive for owners of small household plots. Nevertheless, as experienced gardeners note, the presence on the site of well-selected varieties, flowering at the same time as Polessky large-fruited, can increase apricot productivity by a factor of two, and sometimes even three.

Among the best pollinators for the variety are:

  • Golden anniversary;
  • Pineapple;
  • Khabarovsk;
  • Amur;
  • Polessky is productive.

Advantages and disadvantages of the variety

  • In Polesie large-fruited apricot, Ukrainian breeders managed to consolidate such undeniable advantages as:
  • early maturity (earlier entry into the fruiting phase);
  • very high yields and regularity;
  • large-fruited (of all apricots of Ukrainian selection, this particular variety produces the largest fruits);
  • high commodity characteristics of fruits, good indicators of shelf life and transportability;
  • resistance to return frosts even if they found a tree in the flowering phase;
  • the ability of wood to quickly recover in case of frostbite;
  • resistance of reproductive kidneys to freezing;
  • lack of tendency of fruits to crack, even in conditions of high humidity;
  • rather early ripening periods (the fruits of Polessky large-fruited reach biological ripeness almost 2 weeks earlier than the popular Krasnoshchechka in Ukraine);
  • drought tolerance and tolerance to stagnation of water on the surface of the earth (for apricots - a rarity);
  • universal purpose of the fruit;
  • good immunity in fruit rot, holey spotting and moniliosis, relative resistance to moth.

  • Varieties have a few flaws. These may include:
  • a tendency to form tops (vertically growing shoots), which requires regular and time-consuming pruning;
  • there are serious restrictions in regionalization - for cultivation in the middle lane of the European part of the Russian Federation and especially in regions with a colder climate, the winter hardiness of Polessky apricot is large too low.

Apricot planting requirements

Apricot should be planted in the brightest and warmest place that can be found on the site. In addition, you need to try to arrange protection for the tree from the winds, especially of the northern direction, since a young seedling can suffer from them.

The drought of the Polessky large-fruited is not so terrible as waterlogging, which also needs to be considered when choosing a place for planting.

Important! The winter hardiness of a variety depends heavily on the topography of the area on which the tree is grown: if a seedling is planted on a gentle or even mountain slope with low groundwater, it tolerates even severe frosts quite well, but when planted on the banks of rivers or other water bodies, the tree often freezes with seemingly mild winters.

It is interesting that the resistance of the tree to sunburns also decreases in the wetlands and increases in the hilly areas.

Partially solve this problem helps the purchase of seedlings grafted on a more winter-hardy and burn-resistant variety, in which case the zoning zone of Polesye large-fruited significantly expanded.

Video: Apricot Planting Instructions

Landing time

All fruit trees can be planted either in late autumn or early spring. The first option has a number of undeniable advantages, but it is not suitable for regions with harsh winters, where severe frosts can destroy a fragile tree. Since Polessky large-fruited is not intended for cultivation in such climatic conditions, you can not think about choosing the optimal planting period - this is definitely autumn.

In relation to a more specific time, it is necessary to focus on observing two conditions:

  1. After planting, the aerial part of the seedling should not start growing, otherwise the young shoots will inevitably freeze out, and this will automatically sharply reduce the viability of the plant and increase the likelihood that it will not survive the winter.
  2. The root system must have time to gain a foothold in a new place before the onset of frost, then cooling the tree will not bring harm.

Important! The gardener needs to try to plant an apricot about 3-4 weeks before the first frost.

In Ukraine, where the Polessky large-fruited variety is zoned, this period can fluctuate from mid-October to mid-November, depending on the region and current weather conditions, which may vary from year to year.

Preparing a pit for a seedling

One of the important conditions for the normal development of the fruit tree is the proper preparation of the pit. It is important to do this work in advance so that the soil inside the pit has time to “acquire” the necessary microorganisms for the plant and settle down. It is good if the pit is dug in the spring, but the minimum acceptable time is two weeks before landing.

The dimensions of the pit (depth and diameter) are inversely proportional to the original soil composition: the closer it is to the parameters that apricot needs, the smaller the pit can be and vice versa

Polesye large-fruited is less demanding on the soil than many other apricot varieties, however, it is still preferable to a light, loose and fertile substrate with a neutral reaction (pH in the range of 6.7–7.0), for example, sandstone or loam. In such soil, it is enough to dig a hole measuring 70x70 cm.

If the soil is heavy, acidified, salty or alkaline, these parameters should be increased by 30–40% and, when preparing the soil mixture, make appropriate adjustments to it (acidity can be reduced with limestone, chalk or even eggshells, raised with peat, sphagnum or wood ash, heavy soils are easiest to lighten by diluting them with sand).

Important! As a basis for preparing a nutritious soil mixture, it is best to use not all the land that was removed from the pit, but only its upper layer, since the lower one is infertile.

Regardless of whether any of the additional components described above were added to the ground, it must be enriched with organic and mineral fertilizers. However, in order not to burn the roots of a young seedling, not all prepared land is used for this purpose, but only a part of it (about half). You need to add to it:

  • compost, rotted manure or humus - 2-3 buckets;
  • vermicompost - 300-400 g;
  • superphosphate - 200-300 g;
  • potassium sulfate - 100–150 g (if ash was introduced into the soil to acidify the soil, the amount of potash fertilizers should be reduced, since the ash contains enough “own” potassium).

The resulting nutrient mixture is poured into the pit and left to stand, and the rest of the earth is left on the surface before planting

How to plant

The classical planting technique of Polesye large-fruited is standard, however, in order for the seedling to take root better, some experts recommend a little preliminary preparation:

  • immerse the tree in water at 1/3 of the height and leave to soak for 24–48 hours;
  • prepare a liquid slurry from clay, manure and water, lower the roots of the seedling into it, then extract and allow to dry a little;
  • trim the tips of each root process to stimulate their growth.

Important! When planting an apricot, be sure to ensure that the root neck is not deepened.

The landing procedure is as follows:

  1. The nutrient soil mixture at the bottom of the pit is raked to the center to form a small hill that coincides in height with the size of the root system of the seedling.
  2. Sprinkle the hill with a small layer of the earth remaining during the preparation of the pit (without fertilizers).
  3. Stepping back a little from the center of the hill, drive a wooden pole or other support into the pit, to which you can subsequently tie a seedling for stability.
  4. Place the seedling in the pit with the vaccination site to the south, spread the root processes along the slopes of the mound.
  5. Holding the tree, begin to fill the hole with the remaining soil, constantly tamping it to avoid the formation of internal voids.
  6. When the ground level reaches the root neck (the place where the root goes into the trunk), stop the digging and tamp the surface again.
  7. Tie a seedling to a support (you can not use a wire in this case, it can damage the delicate bark).
  8. Water the tree abundantly.

Apricots are much more sensitive to stagnation of moisture in the roots than most other fruit trees, so you should not make boards around the circumference around the planting pit to hold water. Moreover, many experienced gardeners recommend planting these trees not in a pit, but on a hill so that the water does not just stagnate around the trunk, but flows down from a gentle slope. This technique is not widespread, but it is still worth knowing about its existence.

Read more about the features of planting apricot and care for it.

Features of tree care

Caring for apricot varieties Polessky large-fruited is not particularly difficult. Perhaps the main and most complex element of this process is regular pruning, it is also important to timely process the tree from diseases and pests, all other procedures are important, but not so critical.

Video: Apricot Care

Pruning

To ensure the variety of yield indicators declared by the authors, the apricot must be correctly formed and then pruned every year - thinning, sanitary, and when the fruiting level of the tree begins to decline, it is rejuvenating. The stronger the apricot, the better it will bear fruit and the larger the fruit will form.

Important! In order for the crown to form sparse, and the branches grow away from the trunk and, thus, are better illuminated, they should always be cut above the external kidney, and not above the internal one.

A feature of the apricot tree Polessky large-fruited is a very large number of branches directed almost vertically upwards. Fruits are not formed on such shoots, however, they take away excess forces from the plant and, in addition, obscure the crown, therefore they should be constantly removed by cutting “into a ring” (at the very junction of the branch with the trunk, without leaving a stump).

In addition to tops, it is necessary to remove damaged, frozen, diseased branches, as well as those shoots that grow too close to each other, intersect or are directed to the center of the crown

The best time for pruning is the end of winter or early spring, before the active sap flow in the aerial parts of the tree. For the procedure, it is important to choose a dry and possibly sunny day. The minus temperature is acceptable, but it is better that the frost is not lower than -5ºС. After trimming, all sections should be treated with iron or copper sulphate to avoid infection in them, and large cuts, in addition, should be “sealed” with garden var.

We advise you to read how to prune an old apricot correctly.

Fertilizer

Large-fruited apricot Polessky can be fed several times during the season, however, it should be remembered that overdoing it in this matter is much more dangerous than ignoring the procedure.

If, during planting, the soil mixture was prepared correctly, the nutrients in the seedling will last for two years. Further fertilizer application is carried out according to the standard scheme:

  • in the spring - nitrogen fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, chicken droppings, manure);
  • in summer - foliar top dressing with microelements (boron, magnesium, zinc, etc.), in August organic matter is also added;
  • in the fall - potash and phosphate fertilizers, if necessary, calcium is also added.

During the first 4–5 years after planting an apricot, the area of ​​fertilizing by the root method covers only the trunk circle. Then, as the root system of the tree develops, this area is gradually beginning to increase, adding about one square meter every 2 years.

Estimated amount of top dressing per 1 sq. m "useful" area is:

  • humus - 4 kg;
  • nitrogen - 6 g;
  • potassium - 5 g;
  • phosphorus - 8 g.

Did you know? The Latin name for the apricot is praecoqua. Initially, it consisted of the addition of the prefix “prae-” (before) to the verb “coquere” (to become ready, to keep up) —in this way, the Roman writer Pliny emphasized the difference between apricot and the later ripened peach.

Watering Methods

Apricot is a drought-tolerant tree, and in Polesye large-fruited this quality is even better than in many other varieties, therefore, the plant does not need abundant and regular watering, and the abundance of moisture can do more harm to the tree than its lack. In addition, waterlogging negatively affects the taste characteristics of fruits - they become less sweet and worse stored.

On dry days, watering the apricot is necessary, especially for young seedlings, as well as the period of formation of the ovaries. At the same time, watering the tree is rare, but plentiful, using 2-3 buckets of water per adult apricot and 1-2 buckets per seedling at a time.

Вода должна иметь температуру окружающей среды, иначе переохлаждение корневой системы может снизить её иммунитет перед грибковыми инфекциями.

Pest protection

Абрикос Полесский крупноплодный обладает неплохим иммунитетом, однако в защите от болезней и вредителей дерево всё же нуждается.

Среди возможных проблем, возникающих при выращивании абрикоса, следует, в частности, назвать:

Основные болезни абрикоса:Вредители, паразитирующие на абрикосе:
  • дырчатая пятнистость (клястероспориоз)
  • цитоспороз
  • бактериальный некроз
  • монилиальный ожог
  • бурая пятнистость (филлостикоз)
  • тля
  • плодожорка
  • листовёртка
  • долгоносик
  • пилильщик

Для профилактики заражения дважды в весенний период и один раз осенью дерево следует обработать препаратами, обладающими системным фунгицидным и инсектицидным действием. Очень неплохие результаты даёт украинский инсектофунгицид «Брунька», имеющий в своём составе три действующих вещества, причём все они обладают низкой токсичностью и разрешены в большинстве европейских стран.

Менее экологичный, но, как считают некоторые садоводы, более надёжный вариант — использование таких «тяжёлых» ядохимикатов, как «Чистый сад», «Чистый ствол», «ХОМ», «Хорус», «Скор», и т. п. Они же применяются в случае, если болезнь уже поразила дерево.

Узнайте подробнее о болезнях абрикосовых деревьев и их лечении.

What you need to know about winter care

При соблюдении рекомендаций, касающихся зоны выращивания сорта, Полесский крупноплодный не нуждается в укрытии на зиму. Более того, даже такие обычные для ухода за садом мероприятия, как обильный предзимний полив и тщательное мульчирование приствольного круга, в отношении абрикоса проводить нужно с большой осторожностью.

Дело в том, что этот вид плодовых деревьев гораздо сильнее, чем от мороза, страдает от подпревания и отслоения древесины, причём происходит это именно зимой или ранней весной. Причина этого явления кроется в присутствии влаги в нижней части ствола.

В некоторых случаях возможно даже загнивание древесины по кольцу, в результате чего может погибнуть и надземная часть, оставшись «без связи» с корнями. Именно чрезмерное укрытие, особенно если при этом используются материалы тёмного цвета, наряду с застоем талой воды в приствольном круге, приводят к повреждению коры.

Important! Тщательно укутав молодой абрикос осенью и столкнувшись с тем, что весной дерево погибло, многие неопытные садоводы решают, что дерево погубили морозы, после чего с удвоенной силой начинают защищать саженцы, усугубляя тем самым проблему.

Для того чтобы подготовить абрикос к зиме, достаточно лишь тщательно убрать палую листву и остатки плодов с участка вокруг дерева, поскольку в такой органике зимуют разносчики инфекций и вредители. Если приствольный круг засеян газонной травой (что очень приветствуется), она станет лучшей защитой для корневой системы от морозов, если её нет, в качестве мульчи можно использовать порубленные куски дёрна или другой неплотный материал. После выпадения снега вокруг ствола целесообразно соорудить утепляющий сугроб, но с приходом весны снег обязательно нужно разгрести до того, как он начнёт таять.

В остальном готовность саженца или взрослого дерева успешно пережить зиму напрямую зависит от того, насколько грамотно осуществлялся уход за деревом в течение всего сезона.

Harvesting and storage of crops

К достоинствам сорта Полесский крупноплодный часто относят хорошую лёжкость плодов и даже отмечают их способность сохранять товарный вид и вкусовые качества на протяжении семи дней после сбора, однако к этой информации всё же стоит относиться с долей скепсиса.

Important! Абрикосы, независимо от сорта, являются скоропортящимися фруктами, причём, в отличие от слив, собирать их до достижения полной биологической зрелости не рекомендуется, поскольку в этом случае они, хотя и становятся мягкими спустя несколько дней, но при этом значительно теряют во вкусе и аромате.

Употреблять или использовать для переработки урожай Полесского крупноплодного желательно как можно быстрее, в идеале — в день сбора или в крайнем случае на протяжении суток после этого.

Для того чтобы продлить срок хранения абрикосов на несколько дней, очень важно отбирать для этих целей только те экземпляры, которые были сняты с дерева, а не подняты с земли, а также являются абсолютно целыми и плотными по всей площади. Укладывать урожай лучше не в вёдра или корзины, а в ящики, прокладывая между слоями фруктов бумажные полотенца либо другой подобный материал, исключающий прямой контакт между плодами.

Что касается направлений использования урожая, то плоды Полесского крупноплодного одинаково хорошо подходят для употребления в свежем виде, приготовления пирогов, компотов, варений («высший пилотаж» — в виде цельных плодов, фаршированных ядрышками, извлеченными из косточек), джемов, мармеладов и желе. Из тех фруктов, которые начали терять форму, но ещё сохраняют свежесть, можно отжать сок, а истинные ценители используют это сырьё для приготовления домашних вин и дистиллятов.

Did you know? В Араратской долине по технологии, аналогичной производству бренди, изготавливается аутентичный алкогольный напиток Абрикон крепостью 44%. Тщательно отобранные абрикосы местных сортов отжимают до получения сока, который сбраживают особыми дрожжевыми культурами, перегоняют в спирт, выдерживают в дубовых бочках и затем купажируют.

Для украинцев и жителей других регионов с относительно мягким климатом абрикос Полесский крупноплодный является настоящей находкой. Раннее, регулярное и очень обильное плодоношение, прекрасные товарные и вкусовые характеристики плодов, дополненные неприхотливостью дерева и отсутствием особых сложностей в его выращивании делают этот сорт заслуженно популярным и любимым как среди профессиональных фермеров, так и у владельцев личных приусадебных хозяйств. При использовании зимостойкого подвоя Полесский крупноплодный можно выращивать и в средней полосе России, но в этом случае сохраняется риск повреждения древесины и плодовых почек в результате сильных морозов.

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