Farrowing sows at home
Farrow (birth in a pig) is an important moment in the life of the animal. Naturally, this process raises a lot of questions among farmers and makes them worry. For everything to go smoothly, you need to know how to properly care for the female during pregnancy and childbirth and how to help her if necessary. This will be discussed in the article.
Farrowing sows for the first time
Pigs reach puberty at the age of 6 months. At this moment, the first hunt usually happens in them (increased sexual excitability, the female’s body is maximally tuned to procreate).
Important! It is advisable to plan the mating so that the delivery coincides with the most favorable season for growing young animals. But their body has not yet fully formed to carry offspring, so the first mating can only be carried out under such circumstances: the pig has reached the age of 10 months, its weight is 100-130 kg. The presence of these conditions will allow the sow to tolerate and produce healthy, strong offspring.
About the onset of estrus, such moments will speak:
- refusal of food;
- hopping on neighbors;
- vulvar edema;
- increased vaginal discharge.
Generally, excitability lasts 24–48 hours. In this period of time you need to have time to carry out at least two mating. The first attempt is carried out after 12-18 hours from the moment of the appearance of the first signs, the boar is re-launched to the female after 12-15 hours. If after 21 days sexual excitability is not repeated, then everything went well - the female is pregnant, and soon you can wait for the replenishment of the family.
Read more about pig mating.
Signs of pregnancy
When pregnancy occurs in a pig, not only does hunting disappear, but behavior also changes. She becomes much calmer. This is one of the main signals that fertilization was successful. The following symptoms will be noticeable in the second half of the term. Appetite will begin to increase, and activity will decrease significantly. Active weight gain will be observed.
The female has no desire to walk, move. Almost all the time it lies and rises only in order to eat, drink water or empty. Although the latter is often done while lying down. In addition, the stomach begins to grow over time, and the nipples increase in size.
Pig gestation duration
The pig breed can affect the duration of pregnancy, but on average it lasts 115–120 days, that is, 3.5–4 months after mating, the pig will give birth. It is difficult to say exactly how long the pregnancy will last, but 114 days is considered the norm.
A delay of 3-5 days is also normal. Typically, young females, especially first-born, produce offspring with a delay, experienced sows with a large weight are more likely to give birth to a week and a half ahead of schedule. In order not to get lost in the calculations, it is best to create a farrowing calendar.
Here is a table example of it:
|Date of coverage||Farrowing Date|
A calculator for counting is not needed here, everything is very simple. If the insemination process was carried out on the first of January (01.01), then you need to expect birth on April 21 (21.04), that is, after 110 days.
Important! The calendar shows the earliest delivery date, so there is no need to panic if the farrow is delayed.
How many pigs does a pig give birth at a time
How many pigs can be expected, it is impossible to say unequivocally, since such factors influence this:
- number of births;
Regardless of how many piglets are born, a sow can have no more than two farrows per year. A greater number of births severely exhausts the pig, and offspring may appear weak or dead.
Females can give birth to no more than eight piglets. After, until the age of three, they usually bring ten goals, sometimes 15. On average, one offspring consists of 10-12 piglets.
Preparation for childbirth
It is quite possible to farrow pigs yourself at home, but for this you need to know how to prepare for it.
Weeks and a half before the upcoming birth, you need to start preparing an individual room for the sow, since it should go into it 6-7 days before the birth. The place should be dry and clean, with good lighting (natural or artificial). There should be no drafts in it, since they are harmful to mom and her cubs. In the colder months in this room you need to equip a warmed corner nursery.
Learn also how to artificially impregnate a pig at home.
The selected room is subject to mandatory disinfection. The walls and floors are cleaned of organic litter, the remains of which should be washed with a jet of water. Before farrowing, the pig must be vaccinated.
Here's what you want to pierce it with
- 40–45 days from salmonellosis (1 ml intramuscularly for the first time);
- 30–35 days from salmonellosis repeatedly, as well as from erysipelas (intramuscularly 1 ml);
- for 30 days Ivermek (antiparasitic agent, intramuscularly 1 ml / 33 kg);
- for 20-25 days "Sedimin" to increase the viability of the fetus (intramuscularly 4-5 ml);
- 15 days “Trivit” (vitamin complex, subcutaneously or intramuscularly, 1.5 ml), repeat 8 days before delivery;
- for 1-2 days PDE (denatured emulsified placenta for the prevention of postpartum diseases, subcutaneous 3 ml);
- 2 hours after the onset of the labor process "Oxytocin" 3 ml;
- three days after birth PDE in the same dosage.
It is advisable that vaccination be carried out before insemination:
- for 10-14 days Ivermek (antiparasitic, intramuscularly 1 ml / 33 kg);
- for 8-12 days "Sedimin" to increase the viability of the fetus (intramuscularly 4-5 ml).
In addition to vaccination and preparation of the premises, you need to take care of the pregnant woman’s diet and other points:
- 3-4 days before the expected farrowing, you need to reduce the amount of feed by half. The incomplete intestines will put less pressure on the fetus. In addition, overfeeding can cause complications of the birth process.
- Before giving birth, create suitable conditions for the young. The nest is covered with a thick layer of good straw, and an infrared lamp is installed above it.
- Make sure that before starting the birth you have at hand all the necessary tools and accessories, as well as sterile clothing and a protective hat. Hands should be washed thoroughly and nails trimmed. All jewelry removed from the hands.
Signs of childbirth
An experienced farmer for certain symptoms is able to determine the approximation of the survey:
- 4 days before it, the vulva swells, so the sow must be isolated so that it cannot harm either itself or the offspring.
- In two days, the udder becomes loose.
- An increased anxiety of the animal can be noted per day. The female will begin to build a place for future offspring, the so-called "nest".
- For six hours, when you click on the nipples, you can notice the appearance of colostrum. Mucus will be released from the genitals.
- About half an hour before farrowing, the female will fall on its side in a quiet corner. From her genital tract, fluid will begin to stand out and the first contractions of the uterus will be noticeable.
- When the birth begins, the animal will wag its tail, and the uterus will begin to contract more intensively.
You can also determine the beginning of farrowing by the behavior of the pig in front of him:
- the animal becomes cautious, tries to make fewer sudden movements;
- carries a litter in his teeth to equip a place for piglets;
- before the birth itself it becomes more worried: it rises, then lies down, breathing becomes quickened.
How farrow goes
Pig births can begin at any time. This process can last a minimum of two hours, a maximum of one day. It all depends on the health status of the sow. If she is strong, young, with a good appetite, then she can be born in 2-3 hours. If the female ate poorly or abnormally, moved little, then most likely the uterus will contract weakly, and therefore the farrow will be delayed. It may even require outside intervention. Did you know? Piglets that just appeared immediately begin to fight for a place near the nipples. Once the established order of their location at the nipples is repeated constantly: each pig always takes its place, the first time it selected. To understand how a pig gives birth, you need to know about the structural features of its uterus. There are two birth canals, so piglets leave the uterus one by one, along each of the paths. Their afterbirths are connected in pairs. The first two pigs appear almost one by one. Between subsequent intervals is 15-25 minutes.
Having noticed the first piglet in the lumen of the genital fissure, you need to prepare to take it. In the event that the amniotic membrane does not rupture, it must be broken through so that the newborn can breathe.
If the birth is normal, then this is all help from the person. The sow does not need more. If complications arose or these are the first births, then without the outside help the pig is unable to cope.
How can a person help
Usually, a signal that urgently needs to intervene in the birth process is a strong three-hour effort, not accompanied by the birth of a piglet.
Anything can cause this problem, but most often the causes of complex birth are:
- narrow birth canal;
- incorrect presentation of the fetus;
- fetal retention in the birth canal.
The farmer needs to put on high medical gloves (to the elbow), disinfect them and lubricate with petroleum jelly. Then you should carefully enter the vagina with your hand and feel for the piglet. After waiting for the next fight, start gently moving it to the exit. After usually, the birth process ends normally.
If everything repeats again, then you need to repeat the manipulation. In case of intervention in the birth process and its successful completion, it is necessary to inject antibiotics in order to avoid infection, because with foreign objects it is very easy to bring the infection into the vagina.
Piglets wiped and freed from mucus are immediately applied to the nipple for a couple of minutes. This is necessary so that they take a sip of colostrum. The substance will strengthen their immunity and contribute to the future normal development.
Farrowing is not always successful. Often, sows experience various illnesses after birth.
Why when farrowing a pig eats piglets
Often, due to the stress experienced during childbirth, females become aggressive. They may try to bite the piglet or accidentally crush it, so it is very important to control the behavior of the pig after farrowing. Noticing that the female behaves inappropriately in relation to newborns, it is better to isolate them.
Usually this condition disappears on its own a couple of hours after farrowing. If this does not happen, then the kids will have to look for another mother, and regarding this individual make a decision whether it is advisable to keep her for future use. Did you know? Almost half of the world's pig population is in Asian countries, one third in European countries and 10% in the States.
Also, the reason for the inadequate behavior of the female in relation to her cubs can be a frequent covering of the pig or a lack of nutrients, water. Therefore, in addition to the fact that piglets need to be immediately isolated, it is still necessary to change the sow's diet, enriching it with vitamins and minerals, as well as skip a few moments of sexual desire, so that the animal's body can relax and gain strength for a new pregnancy.
- feed pregnant pigs in a balanced way;
- do not give them raw meat and meat waste;
- conduct breast massage;
- monitor for clean fresh water;
- during childbirth in time to pick up the last and stillborn babies.
Pig temperature after farrowing
An increase in temperature in the sow after childbirth may indicate:
- postpartum vulvitis, vestibulitis, vaginitis (they arise due to trauma of the birth canal and are accompanied by anxiety, frequent urination, uncharacteristic vaginal discharge. They are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate (1: 2000), furacilin (1: 5000), furazolidone (1: 10000 ), they irrigate the vulva);
- postpartum septicemia (a type of sepsis that causes severe intoxication of the body: depressed state, loss of appetite, temperature is constantly high, the animal does not move, and mucus is released from the vagina. The animal is transferred to a diet, its genitals are treated with antiseptics, and glucose, chloride, is introduced to support the body). calcium);
- mastitis (occurs due to non-compliance with the conditions of detention and rules for caring for animals, it can also be caused by a delay in the afterbirth, diseases of the genital organs. For treatment, you need to allow piglets to the nipple every 3-4 hours, lubricate the nipples with petroleum jelly or a special ointment, treat the affected areas clay with vinegar (2-3 tbsp. l per 1 liter of water)).
Read more about what temperature is considered normal in pigs.
After farrowing, the female’s temperature can not only rise, but also fall. If at the same time the pig began to walk badly, then, apparently, she has a postpartum paresis. Usually it is observed on the second or fourth day after farrowing. First, the sow becomes depressed, then her limbs are paralyzed, she ceases to feel them, the temperature drops to +37 ... + 37.5 ° С.
They are treated by washing the rectum with a sugar solution (100 g per 700-800 ml of water) with an interval of 2-3 hours. If the swallowing reflex is present, then 1 g of calomel or 100 g of castor oil is injected into the throat. The body is rubbed with a straw tourniquet or cloth, camphor oil is rubbed into the nipples.
The pig does not accept piglets after farrowing
Newborn piglets have a natural instinct for the search for maternal nipples. But it happens that the mother refuses to let the kids in. Aggression often covers her, she lies on her stomach or throws children around the room.
In the case of severe aggression, young animals are removed from the uterus and fed artificially. If the female simply lies on her stomach and does not show any antipathy to children in any other way, then, most likely, she experiences discomfort in the mammary glands. You need to try to massage the nipples and gently attach the piglets to them. During feeding, you need to stay close so that the female inadvertently does not crush the babies, feeling pain.
The pig does not eat after farrowing
Delivery is a rather exhausting process, after which the animal can completely lose its strength. He will have neither the desire to eat nor even move. The norm is to stay the female in this state for several hours.
If it is motionless for several days, then you need to worry, because without food it will begin to lose weight and will not be able to feed offspring, which means that it will die.
If the appetite does not appear 10 hours after farrowing, then this may indicate:
- diseases (the color of the skin behind the ears changes, the temperature rises. The treatment is carried out with antibiotics);
- lack of vitamins (this will be indicated by the pallor of piglets. It is necessary to enrich the female’s diet with vitamins B and D);
- poor feed ;
- improper conditions of detention (a female lying on a concrete floor can easily stiffen her joints, so it will hurt her to get up. She needs help to get up).
Usually, if the listed problems are absent, then the appetite is fully restored in two to three weeks.
Can a pig go farrowing
As was said at the beginning of the article, the duration of gestation depends on the breed of the pig and on the state of its health, so some can give birth on time, after three months, three weeks and three days, and others after 101 days or 126.
We recommend reading how long a pig’s pregnancy lasts.
Experts have found that 25% of sows give birth on time, 30% - a little earlier, and the remaining - a little later. In addition, the duration of pregnancy may depend on the season: in winter, shorter, in summer - longer. So if the sow did not give birth on time, but 126 days have not passed yet, then this is normal.
A sow cannot be born
It often happens that the female has strong contractions, but the pig does not appear in the light.
This may happen due to:
- a large fetus;
- improper presentation of the fetus;
- the female has constipation or before giving birth she has eaten tightly;
- dead fetus.
A stuck baby can die, so you need to urgently take action:
- Remove the born piglets from the uterus so that it does not crush them.
- Wash hands, grease them with petroleum jelly.
- Carefully insert your hand into the vagina and grope the fetus. With the second hand you need to stroke the animal on the stomach to calm. It is better, of course, for the second person to do this.
- Having found the legs of the piglet, grab them and at the next bout, begin to gently pull on yourself.
- If the female has a narrow basin and it is difficult to grab the fetus, then you can throw a loop of rope on his limbs and extend it in the same way.
- If there is no way to either stretch or unfold the fetus, then a cesarean should be done.
To prevent the fetus from suffocating, you need to resort to the following actions:
- Приложить ранее родившихся поросят к соскам. Это должно усилить сокращения матки.
- Если не действует, то свинье делают укол Окситоцина, предварительно убедившись, что в родовых путях нет плода. Можно его сделать перед опоросом, если заметили, что потуги начались давно, но сила их так и не увеличилась. Дозировку препарата должен подобрать ветврач, поэтому какой бы ни была ситуация, лучше, чтобы рядом находился специалист.
Уход за опоросившейся свиноматкой
В послеродовой период свиноматка нуждается в особом уходе. Во время опороса она теряет много жидкости, поэтому возле неё в свободном доступе должна находиться ёмкость с водой. Чтобы силы быстрее вернулись к животному, а молоко начало вырабатываться, его нужно правильно кормить.
Кормление свиноматки после опороса
Часто в течение первых 12 часов после опороса свиноматка нуждается только в питье. Постепенно к ней приходит аппетит. В первое кормление ей нужно дать жидкую болтушку. Она подпитает организм, не перегрузив его.
Спустя сутки после появления поросят матку можно переводить на обычное питание. Только здесь нужно учесть, что если животное худое или поросят появилось много, то следует давать больше комбикормов и жиросодержащей пищи.
Рацион вьетнамских свиноматок ничем не отличается от меню обычных свиней. Их можно кормить тем же, чем и остальных, главное, чтобы пища была сбалансированной, качественной, содержала много витаминов, минералов.
Вам наверняка будет интересно узнать об особенностях разведения свиней на продажу мяса.
Случка после опороса
Многие фермеры отмечают, что через 3–5 суток после родов у самки вновь наступает половое желание. Но если провести оплодотворение, то оно редко бывает успешным, так как овуляция в это время редко возникает. Чаще всего, если возникло желание без овуляции, оно не повторится больше, пока не закончится подсосный период у поросят.
Чтобы подготовить свиноматку к новому спариванию, от неё нужно отнять детёнышей, дать пару дней на отдых, а уже потом проводить спаривание. Обычно влечение появляется на 3–10-й день после отъёма поросят.
Опорос — сложный процесс, требующий внимания и помощи со стороны человека. Задача фермера — не только обеспечить комфортные условия для родов и дальнейшего пребывания поросят рядом с мамой, но и своевременная помощь при осложнении родов, а также дальнейший уход за молодняком. Только в этом случае можно ожидать, что из приплода вырастет хорошее потомство.